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Ai^jvETED Bri!rryEER.iyus astsonomioal osssaj^uqxs 

» I I/I I i. » I »»' • *•' ' I 












Author of '* An Account ofAndaA Babylon.** 


Two Volumes. — ^Vol. I. 



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Stamford Street 

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Notice respecting the Maps • f •••••• "C 

Preface . • • • " 

Brief NotiMof the Life of Mr. Bieh sv 


Departvit fffim the Besideney-— Manner of tia?ellipy— P e e etipt ion of 
ourParty— Thundep-storms— Kifri—Sassanian RuiBB-<-Beial OhieTs 
Hospit^ty— Naphtha Springs at Teoskhoonnattee. . • • 1 


Pefiarhiie from Toozkhoonnatf ee— X^e Valley of Leil^i— TusnCAgik'f 
camp— His hospitality — Entrance into Koordistan— Cultivation and 
appearance of the country— rPiesent of provisions from the Pasha of 
SuUmania — ^Arrival at our camp before Sulimania — Visit of the 
Pashas— Of KoQidish gentlemen. •••••• 9S 


Osmaa BeyT-^nirance mto SulimaBia^-Visit to the Pash»— Beseiip* 
tion of our Houae^Attachment of the Koords to their Chiei^— 
Aneodotes — Partridge Fighting «- Afghans in Shehiiaooi'— XeB#- 
phoB and the Ten Thousand. •76 


Conversation with the Pasha— Kai Khosroo* Bey— Koordish Tribe of 
the Jafs— CUmate of aulimania— Bveak&st with the Pashar^Bopn- 
latioA of Sulimania— Firing at a Mark— Tahhti Suhflsaa— Ancient 
Excavationfr^Musical Party-rThe 8or Khaneh, or Oynnashrai— 
Dinner at Osm^n Bey's— Oriental praycN-r-Snlimaa Bey— Feats 
of Swordsmanship-- Agriculture— The Kamasau. • • .111 

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Brave Russian Soldier— Cruelty of the Prince of Kermanshah — Great 
Mahometan Siaint — Natural Prodnctiona of Koordistan — ^Piety of 
Mahmood Pasha— Anecdote — Abdullah Pasha arrested — ^The Bai- 
ram— Koordish Tribes-— Anecdote — The Bulbassi Tribes— The 
reigning Families in Koordutan — Arrival of Delli Samaan with 
Antiques. •«.•••••••• 139 


Departure from Si^1imai)ia for .the Mountains— The Pass of Giozheh— ' 
Tents pitched at Gherradeh — Beauty of the situation — Noise and 
bustle of loading — High Mountains — ^Vineyards — Corn — Beautiful 
Country— Officer of the Chief of the District of Kizseljee— Laugh- 
abl6 Equivoque — Steep Ascent — Sons of Khaled Bey — Cantonment 
at Ahmed Kulwan — ^Reapers singing the Tale of Ferhad and Shireen 
— Locustsr—Temperature of Springs — Green Frogs — Curious Game 
—Leave Ahmed Kulwan — Journey to Beestan — ^Artificial Mounts — 
Unhealthiness of Beestan — Our People all taken ill — Leave Beestan 
— Penjween — Jaf encampments — Moving parties — Lady and her 
servants — Jews« • • « • • • » • • 159 


Entrance into Pei;3ia — Lake of Zeribar-^Kai Khosroo Bey — ^Jaf en- 
campment — Djereeding match-— Cross Mount Zagros — ^Garran pea- 
santry— 'Inclement winter — Jaf quarrel — Sinna — Magnificent colla- 
tion — ^The palace — Tyranny of the Vali of Sinna — General mourning 
— Rebellion — Ikiath of the Vali^s son — Despair and cruelty of the 
Vali'— Terror of his subjects — ^Change in our plans^Constemation of 
the Vali's ministers — Entreaties of the council — Are successful— 
Their joy ^and gratitude — Departure from Sinna for the camp of the 
Vali 185 


Leave Sinna— Appearance of the Country— Tents of Gulaneh— The 
Koords great politicians— The Kizzel Ozan River — Encampments— > 
A Peasant's remark — ^Lawless conduct of the Jafs — Precipitous Road 
—Refreshments of Honey and Butter— Arrival at the Village of 

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Meek— Mrs. Rich taken on to another Village— Bee-hive^R«join 
Mra. Rich— Present of Fruit from the Vali— Arrival at Bana— The 
Vali's Son— Fine Fruit. •••••c»» ^1 


Visit to the Vali of Sinna— The Castle of Banna— Conversation of the 
Vali— Marriage of his Son— The Vali returns my visit— His cruelty 
at Banna— Preparations for our departtire — Unexpected "hindrances 
— Difficulty of obtaining Cattle — Vali's Apologies— The Sultan of 
Banna — Begin our march — Village Chief— Refuses to allow us to 
proceed on our journey — Disagreeable situation — Determine to fight 
our way — ^The Chief alarmed-^Allows us to proceed— Mountains^ 
Enter the B«bbeh Territory — Omar Aga*s retainers — Ruins of 
Karatcholan— Fine Fruit— Precipitous Hills— Arrival at SuUmania 242 


Failure of Vaccination — Death of Osman Bey's Son — ^Sorrow of the 
Pasha — Antiquities of Shehrizoor — ^Alexander the Great and the 
Indian Princess — Names of districts — Omar Aga — His persecutions 

• and' imprisonment — ^Attachment of his Followers*-His disinterested- 
ness — His dislike of Osman Bey— Rahmet ullah Tartar — His jour- 
ney through the wild and inaccessible Mountains inhabited by the 
Chaldean Christian Tribes— Amadia — ^The Pasha's advice, to the 
Tartar — His difficulties and dangers — Chaldean Cantonment — Rice- 
bread — Astonishment of the Chaldeans at the sight of Rahmet 
ullah— Their contempt for Mahommed— Yezids — Van— Names of 
Koordish Clans— Wedding feast — Ladies dancing — Condition of 
the Koordish Women — A Koordish Marfisa — Dress of the Men — 
Tale of Darishmana— A Bebbeh Patriarch • • » • 268 


The Pasha melancholy and depressed — His eldest Son sent a hostage 
to Kermanshah — Sickness of the youngest— Dissensions in his 
family— Ahmed Bey of Darislynana— Tribes of Rewandiz— Koordish 
funeral — Bebbeh family — ^Series of Bebbeh Princes — Death of 
Pasha's child by Small-pox — Affliction of the Pashar— Sulimaa 

Bey Commerce of Sulimania — Conversation with Osman Bey— 

The Pasha's desire to abdicate— Omar Aga— His intelligence and 

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^i contents; 


acetmey — Comparison between the Koords, the Tnrki, and the Pei- 
siait8-=^Lokman-^FareweU visit to the Pkisha-^-Religlous conversff- 
- tiotf— Osifian Bey ordered to hii^ Gov^nmeAt-^Refuses to obey— ' 
Traits of Koordish character — Flight of the great Dervish Sheikh 
Khaled— Pasha's last visit to Mr. Rich^Iuteresting conversation — 
Pasha's grief for the loss of his Son — His character — ^Preparations 
for leaving Koordistan — Sorrow at bidding adieu to its interesting 
People 298 


I. Fragment of a Journal from Bagdad to Sulimania, by Mrs. Rich 331 
II« Information, collected from Natives, concerning Jezira and the 

adjacent Country •••••••• 375 

III. A Series of the Princes of the Bebbeh Family . • • 381 

Dates and Facts connected with the History of Koordistan • 385 

IV. Routes procured at diKbtent placet « • • « * 38^ 

V. Particulars relating to the Topography of Koordistan « • 390 

VI. Specimens of the Km^dish Language, in various Dialecti • 394 


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Route from Bagdad to Sulimania, &c. 
An Officer of the Pasha of Sulimania 
A Man of the Jaf Tribe 
Koordish Soldiers of Avroman 
Koordish Marriage • • . 


. to face Title 


. 112 

. 202 

. 282 


Map of the Country between Sinna in Persian Koordistan, 

Arbil, and Mousul • • . .to face Title 

TheCityof Arbela . . . . . 14 

Plan of Nineveh opposite Mousul • • • • 29 

Nineveh ••#.«*«»34 
A Yezid Man and Woman • • «^ • 85 

Convent of Rabban Hormuzd . • • • 99 

Nestorian Family • • • • • •111 

Bricks from Nimrod • • • • T • • 13J 

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With respect to the Maps which accompany this Work, 
it has been considered necessary to give a brief description 
of their construction. 

In the Map of Koordistan and the adjacent countries* 
the line of routes and all the detail were protracted^ in the 
first instance, by Mr. Rich, from his bearings and distances ; 
after which a considerable number of observations for lati- 
tude and longitude were put into our hands ; having com- 
pared the differences of latitude that were determined by 
observation, with those which were protracted by Mr. Rich, 
they coincided with remarkable accuracy; and therefore 
required very little correction to adjust the positions by the 
observed latitudes. With respect to the longitudes, we have 
placed Sulimania in 45° 27' 45", by mean of a great num- 
ber of eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. We have selected this 
position in preference, because Mr. Rich made a great many 
more observations at Sulimania than at any other place in 
Koordistan ; it was likewise the connecting point from which 
his routes either began or terminated. The differences of 
latitude by Mr. Rich's survey, having agreed so nearly with 
his observed latitudes, we have not hesitated to adopt his 
differences of longitude by his survey, in preference to those 
by celestial observation which he made in the course of his 
journey, because, in short distances, it is almost impossible 
to determine the difference of longitude with any degree of 
accuracy, by one or two observations. 

In the small general Map, the position of Mousul and 
Sulimania are taken from that of Koordistan. The longi- 

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tade of Bagdad has been determined by the mean of several 
sets of lunar distances, taken by Mr. Rich, and which have 
been calculated and worked by Mr. Coleman, and also by 
a great number of eclipses of Jupiter's satellites ; the mean 
of the whole makes Bagdad in 44° 25' 21". The latitude 
has been settled by the mean of a great number of observa- 
tions. The river Tigris has been laid down from a minute 
survey by bearing and distance on a large scale by Mr. 
Rich, and adjusted by several observed latitudes between 
Mousul and Bagdad. In any map which could be brought 
within the compass of a book, it would not have been pos- 
sible to give it on a scale sufficiently large to show the 
detail with which this Survey has been executed ; we have 
therefore contented ourselves with merely giving a general 
outline of it."** The routes between Bagdad and Sulimania 
have been laid down by bearing and distance, from Mr. 
Rich's Journal, and adjusted by several observations for 
latitude, in the course of his journeys. 

J. Walker. 

* Mrs. Rich has allowed a copy of this Sui\cy of the Tigris, on 
a large scale, to be made for the use of the East India Company. 

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The account of the Author which is contained in 
the following Introduction supersedes the necessity 
of any biographical notice in this Preface. For that 
account the editor is indebted to the kindness of a 
friend, who does not wish his name to be mentioned, 
and of whom, therefore, she will say no more, than 
that his personal knowledge of the subject, and his 
intimate interest in it, well qualified him for the 
office which at her request he undertook. 

The volumes now submitted to the reader are all 
which exist of a work begun by Mr. Rich on a 
Very extensive scale. He therefore applied himself 
diligently to the study of various scientific subjects, 
by the knowledge of which he hoped to accomplish 
his design. He felt that a very different book of 
travels in the East would be expected from one who 
had enjoyed so many advantages as himself, than 
could be claimed from the generality of travellers ; 
lor he had spent many years in Asia; he spoke 

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several Asiatic languages fluently ; and he was inti« 
mately acquainted with the character and manners 
of the people. It will be found, accordingly, that 
he is evidently at home in the countries which he 
describes; that his observations, being in his own 
mind the result of long experience, are not given as 
new discoveries, but as well ascertained facts ; and 
many allusions are made which indicate his intimacy 
with the feelings and habits of the country, but 
which will perhaps either appear obscure, or pass 
unheeded by those who may not be equally well 
acquainted with the subject. If he had been spared, 
and had himself published his materials, he would 
have added alike to their interest as to their bulk, by 
introducing very full details of his personal narrative, 
and of his daily intercourse with the people. 

As it is, his papers now published record chiefly 
those particulars which he noted down at once, lest 
they should escape his memory, and the whole value 
of which depended upon their accuracy. These he 
would probably have compressed, after finishing his 
map, for the purpose of constructing which, he was 
thus minute in his observations on the face of the 
country, and other points connected with geography. 

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• •• 


However, though these volumes are less filled up 
with the incidents which occurred in the journey, 
than would have been the case if they had passed from 
the author to the press, the Editor hopes that they will 
not be without their use. They in great part de- 
scribe a country little visited by Europeans, and never, 
it is believed, described by any Englishman ; and, in 
that view, if in nothing else, they will, it is hoped, 
repay the reader. 

If it be asked why this work was not published 
sooner, the Editor can only answer that the delay 
arose from many circumstances, with the recital of 
which she need not trouble the world. 

Under a deep consciousness of her own inability 
for such an undertaking, she long shrunk from at- 
tempting it, but she has been encouraged and cheered 
in her task by the sympathy and assistance of many 
kind friends, among whom she cannot forbear nam- 
ing Sir R. H. Inglis, who, in the midst of his 
numerous avocations, spared no pains to make her 
work easy to her, and was always ready to afford her 
help and counsel. 

Clapham, 5th March, 1836. 

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CiAUDius James Rich, the writer of the follow- 
ing Journal, was born on the 28th of March, 1787, 
near Dijon in Burgundy : and while yet an infant, 
was carried to Bristol, where he spent the first years 
of his life under the eye of his parents. 

At an early age he discovered a very extraordi- 
nary capacity. Even while passing through the 
usual course of instruction, the elements of the Latin 
and Greek tongues being taught him by a relation 
of his own, his active and successful curiosity led 
him to acquire several modern languages, without 
a teacher, and assisted only by books. When but 
eight or nine years old, having seen some Arabic 
manuscripts in the library of a gentleman at Bristol, 
he was seized with a strong desire to make himself 
aequainted with that language ; and this accident, 
which gave a particular impulse and direction to a 
passion that was already working in his mind^ 
probably decided, more than any thing else, the bent 
of his studies towards oriental learning, and had a 
powerful influence on the whole current of his future 
life. By the help of a grammar and dictionary, 
and of some manuscripts lent him by Mr. Fox of 

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Bristol, he not only learned to read and write that 
very difficult language, but to speak it with consider- 
able ease and fluency. By the time he had attained 
his fifteenth year, guided by this decided bias which 
his mind had taken, and aided by unwearied appli- 
cation, he had made no mean progress in several 
oriental languages, and among others, the Hebrew, 
Syriac, Persian, and Turkish. 

Abont this time, as he was taking an evening's 
walk on Kingsdown, near Bristol, he happened to 
meet a Turk, and being desirous of ascertaining 
whether his pronunciation of the Turkish were suffi- 
ciently correct to be understood by a native, he 
addressed him in that language. The Turk, after 
expressing his plej-sure and surprise at being so 
unexpectedly accosted in his own tongue, informed 
him that he was a merchant, but was then in distress, 
having been recently shipwrecked on the coast of 
Ireland. Besides the satisfaction arising from his 
successful experiment, Mr. Rich had the still higher 
gratification of contributing to the stranger's relief. 

His uncommon proficiency in a line of study so 
remote from the beaten road, excited the attention 
of those immediately around him. Mr. (afterwards 
Dr.) Marshman introduced him to Dr. Rylaiid, at 
that time a divine of eminence in the place : and he 
was enabled to cultivate the society of several other 
men of letters in Bristol, particularly of Mr. Fox, 
of whom he always spoke with peculiar aflfection 
and gratitude, and who, by his advice and the use of 

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Departare from Sulimania — Description of the Country — ^Village 
of Derghezeen — Omar Aga — His Son — ^The Pass of Derbend — 
Leave Koordistan— >New8 from Sulimania — Omar Aga's dis- 
appointment — Fine Plain — ^Villages — Artificial Mount — The 
River Caprus, or liCsser Zab — Altoon Kiupri — Camp of Paris 
Aga — His inhospitality — First Sight of Arbil — Description of 
the City — ^The Plain of Arbela — Gaugamela — Mount Makloube 
— ^Yezid Village of Kellek — ^The River Zab or Lycus — Face of 
the Country— The Ghazir Soo or Bumadus — ^HajeeJuijees Aga 
— ^Town of Kermelis — ^Ruins of Nineveh — ^Arrival at Mousul. 

October 21 . — We bade farewell with unfeigned sor- 
row to many friends, and mounting our horses at 
about half-past six in the morning, we quitted the 
garden of our estimable and kind friend the Pasha, 
and proceeded over an undulating countiy across the 
plain of Sulimania, passing on our left hand the large 
village of Ak Boolak. The whole plain is higher on 
this than on the western side, and slopes down 
more than half way to the opposite hills. At about 
a mile and a half from Sulimania we reached the 
Tanjeroo or Sertchinar river, which we had passed 
on our journey from Bagdad, and which was now 
a mere brook, though its bed is not less than a 
hundred yards over. On its right bank was the 
Vol. IL B 

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village of Eliaseh. After passing the large village 
of Bavun Mirdeh, or Father-is-dead^ at twenty- 
five minutes past nine we came to that of Kelespee 
or Teperesli, which is situated a little below the 
mount near which we encamped on our road to 
Sulimania from Bagdad. Here we halted for the 
day, notwithstanding the village is but an indiflFerent 
one. The peasants were all busy getting in the 
cotton harvest, which contributed to enliven the 
scene. The lands hereabouts are watered by a little 
stream, which, running south and a little east, falls 
into the Tanjeroo river. Goodroon was at this spot, 
just opposite to us, forming a wall of rock, and 
inclining about, north-west and south-east. The 
western range of hills was visible about a mile or 
a mile and a half oflF, crowned generally by a crest or 
line of rock, which grows higher as it proceeds 
southward. The rock shows itself also from the 
sides of the hills in some craggy fragments, as if the 
hills were in a state of decay. Northward, at the 
distance of two or three miles, these hills send forth 
a low range which joins Goodroon, and seems to 
close the vale of Sulimania in that direction. On 
this low range is the mount and remains of Ker- 
wanan *. Farther on behind Goodroon appear the 
huge bare rocks of Koorkoor. 

Thermometer— 2 p.m. 85^; 10 p.m. 59°. 

* One of the roads from Sulimania to Keuy Sanjiak passes by 
Kerwanan, and keeps through Soordash along Goodroon. Distance 
fourteen hours. 

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CH. XII] .pjjg COUNTRY. 3 

October ^2. — We mounted at twenty minutes past 
six this mornitig, and were obliged to go a good 
deal to the north-west, in order to avoid a morals. 
The aif about sunrise was very sharp. Soon after 
-seven We came to the Mount of Taslujee, the place 
where the line of hills is broadest and lowest, and 
has not the stony crest which appears at intervals 
^long the summit of the rest of the range, whose in- 
crease in height above the plain to the south-east is 
probably from the sinking of the plain in that 
direction towards the river Diala. The same is the 
case with the plain of Bazian, into which wd de- 
scended after a very gentle ascent about eight 
o'clock. This plain is divided in the centre by a 
line of lower hills than Karadagh, which appeared to 
terminate a little to the south of our road, and the 
composition of which was sandstone, the layers rising 
to the east and inclining down to the west. We 
met hereabouts some men leading a colt for sale 
to Sulimania from Kerkook. I took a fancy to it, 
and struck a bargain and purchased it for one hun- 
dred and fifty Eyn piastres *. This transaction did 
not detain us, as the men turned back and bargained 
with us as we jogged on f . 

* The value of the Eyn piastre was at that time from S^* to 
2«. M.—Ed. 

t The perpendicular rock, of which I observed the azimuth at 
Sulimania, and which is put down in my astronomical journal as 
Ardalan, was on our right in a north-west direction. It is a crest^ 


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At twenty-five minutes past ten we turaed south- 
west to the village of Derghezeen, the hills which 
divided the plain making a similar bend, and eoon 
gradually tenninating. Derghezeen lies under a 
little range of hills which come from near Derbend 
and runs towards those which divide the plain; 
though it terminates before it reaches them, leaving 
an opening in the western division of the plain of 
Bazian. We arrived at the village at ten minutes 
before eleven, and occupied our old encamping 
ground. • 

Tlie inhabitants of all the villages we passed were 
out gathering cotton, which was a very pleasant, 
cheerful, and even novel sight, as, except on occa- 
sions like the present, the roads are very still and 
solitary throughout the East. The people of Derg- 
hezeen are of Turcoman origin, and still retain their 
language, and their appearance is suflSciently distin^ 
guishable from that of the Koordish peasantry. Our 
excellent friend Omar Aga, I am happy to say, is 
^till our mehmandar. I applied to the government 
at Sulimania to restore to him some villages, of 
which he had been deprived in a most shameful 
way. They have promised to oblige me, and he has 
remained behind to secure them, but he has sent 
most of his men with me. Nearly two hundred per- 
sons depend on him and look to him for support. 

on the top of the hills which form the west boundary of the plain 
or vale of Sulimania. 

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The family of a person like him in Koordistan soon 
becomes quite a tribe. Two of his men, Faki Kader 
mid Awraman, have taken a great liking to me : 
they stick to me wherever I go, and follow all my 
motions. If I stop, they are both by me in an in- 
stant ; if I look at any thing, they prick up their 
ears, look in my face, and then in the direction I am 
looking at. They are quite my shadows. 

Avla, Omar Aga's youngest son, a boy of seven 
years old, arrived at our camp to-night from Suli- 
mania, with only a lad about his own age. He had 
just got his father to say he might go with us, when 
in a moment he took him at his word, and while he 
was engaged at breakfast very quietly packed up his 
little baggage, saddled his horse and made a journey 
at one ride which we had been two in performing. 

Thermometer— 6 A.M. 56°; 2 p.m. 84°; 10 p.m. 

October 23. — We were off by half past six this 
morning, and proceeded up the valley formed by 
a small line of hills just behind Derghezeen, and 
another similar one opposite, also coming north-west 
from Derbend and running to Bazian. At twenty 
minutes past seven we passed through Derbend. The 
layers of the mountain are bent down on each side as 
if on purpose to form the pass. Just outside the 
pass rises a layer of rock parallel with the mountain 
as if it were part of its ruin ; and outside of all, at 
the foot of the mountain, which is a prolongation of 

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the Kftradagh ♦, the strata are very curiously bent 
and undulating. In the mouth of the pass is a little 
square ruin like a fort, and in it a well lined with 
very large stones has lately been discovered. 

From the Pass of Derbend we proceeded in a 
south-west direction. Before us rose the little fur- 
rowed line of hills of Gheshee Khan and Kara 
Hassan, running north-west and south-east. On 
our right hand the level of the country sunk at once 
in an abrupt and ruinous manner, as if it had 
fallen in to the depth of more than a hundred feetj 
and was curiously marked by parallel ribs of sand- 
stone at equal intervals, all running from north-west 
to south-east, and like all the strata we have just 
passed, rising to the east and falling to the west, 
with a very considerable dip. The bottom of this 
Cauldron was again furrowed and cut up by water- 
courses, in many of which nitre was discoverable^ 
The soil was generally of a very dark red colour. 
We descended into it at half past seven, and kept 
through it for the remainder of our day's journey. 

• The Karadagh runs up to Derbend i Bazian, and thence^ 
after running a little way straight like a wall, it runs a little west 
and fyrtOB the hill of Tchennala ; thence it turns more west and 
forms that of Khalkhalan. The Karadagh diminishes in height 
all the way from the Seghirmeh, which is very high, and towers 
above all the other mountains in the distance. Tchermala and 
Khalkhalan are inconsiderable. They seem of earth, and their 
sides are much furrowed. Soon after this line of hills terminates 
or loses itself. Aghjalar is a district beyond Tchermala, reaching 
to the Keuy Sanjiak river, aud contains ten villages. 

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Gfi. Xli.] THE ](6RK00K HILL6. 7 

We spon ^fter pame to tl^e little village of Sheikh 
Wfsisi in the district of Shuan, and here we found 
we had come ^ little out of our way, and we turned 
S. 45 W. in ordpr to regain our right road. 

W^ observed great quantities of oleander growing 
by the sides pf the little streams. We reached 
our true road at a quarter to nine. The country 
round us had a most strange appearance^ and looked 
as if it hp.d been ruled off into parallel oblique lines 
by layers of crumbliiig sandstone just rising above 
the soil. 

At half past ten we came to the large village of 
Ghezalan, where we saw some Jews. The people of 
this part of the country seem to be TcheragU Sonde- 
rans^ or light-extinguishers*. Soon after leaving 
this village, the level began to rise again, and our 
road was very brokei^ and hilly. We arrived at oi|r 
resting-plaae fpr the day ^t the village of Ghulum" 
kowa, in the district of Shuan» at ten minutes pas|; 
twelve ; haying been five houis and foii;y minutes oqi 
our march, and having had ^ very unpleasant day'§ 
journey over very troublesome roads, and through ft 
hideous country. The Kerkook hills appeared fropi 
hence like a flat plateau, descending by a step 
brpkefl and furrowed, into the tract of country be- 
tween them and Derbend, 

Thermometer— 6 a.m. 62° ; 2 p.m. 84° j 10 p.m. 64^ 

October 24, — Mounted as usual about a quarter 

* See note, Vol.!., p. 26. 

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after bIx, and ascended out of the narrow ravine in 
which the village of Gbulumkowa is situated. The 
soil of the country was now all of earth and pebbles, 
which seemingly cover the ribs of sandstone, seen in 
the very hollow part we came through yesterday, and 
the colour of the earth was not so red. 

The whole tract, however, is still thrown up into 
little hills, as I believe all such gravelly tracts are, 
and scooped out into deep, abrupt ravines, sometimes 
cut down by water-courses to the depth of sixty feet, 
and in such places the soil alone was apparent ; that 
is, even at that depth, no sandstone was to be seen. 
The pebbles that I chiefly recognized were sand«- 
stone, marble, or gypsum, and limestone. We passed 
two very deep and somewhat diflGicult ravines^ the 
ascents of which were more considerable than the 
descents, and soon after reached the village of Ghiul- 
kowa. We were still in the district of Shuan, which 
is regulated by a kind of territorial canon which I 
do not thoroughly comprehend : the soil belongs to 
Kerkook, but the peasantry to Koordistan. This 
district sometimes depends on Sulimania, and some- 
times on Keuy Sanjiak. 

From Ghiulkowa our road wound along the tops 
of this furrowed and hillocky country, which re*^ 
sembles and is indeed a continuation of Kara 
Hassan; but it is now of a very burnt and bare 
appearance, and except a few fniit-trees seen here 
and there in the hollows, nothing green is visible ia 

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any direction. We often thought of the pleasant 
vales of Koordistan, beautiful even in their autumnal 
decay. Old Goodroon still reared his head in the 

All the waters, yesterday and to-day, ran to our 
left hand. At half past seven, a road branched off a 
little to the south of ours to Kerkook. Soon after 
^ight we were obliged to halt, to replace isi sho6 
which my horse had cast. Khalkhalan and Keuy 
Sanjiak were hence due north of us. We mounted 
Isigain at half past eight. The country now was 
rather less cut up, or at least not to that great depth ; 
and at ten minutes before ten we arrived at the 
Village of Kafar, our place of rest for to-day. The 
peasants are mostly in tents about the village. Here 
both lands and people belong to Kerkook, and we 
have fairly bid adieu to. Koordistan. We were three 
hours and thirty-five minutes performing our journey 
of to-day- 
Omar Aga joined us last night from Sulimania^ 
He tells us thut Osman Bey has at length consented 
to go to Keuy Sanjiak. Poor Omar Aga has failed 
in his application for the restoration of his villages, 
and has brought with him all his men and familyi 
except the women* I will yet do what I can for him. 

Thermometer— 6 a,m. 50° ; 2 p.m. 88^ 
; October 25. — ^We were off by six this morning; 
oup rofi^d N. 30 W* We descended into a valleyi 

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watered by a stream, which supplies many villages^ 
and a great number of mills with little square towers, 
each in a cluster of trees, looking at a distance like 
village churches. The valley gradually widened 
down into the plain, I believe of Gieuk Dereh. The 
stream runs into the Kiupri Soq, We passed many 
villages, and, among the rest, one large one of the 
, name of Omar Bey JCeuy. We had now entered s^ 
fine wide plain, still covered with pebbles, but much 
cultivated. It was all corn land. Large villq.g&9 
were seen scattered about in every direction. Thera 
was one at the entrance of the valley into the plain^ 
with a small artificial mount close to it, the name of 
which I could not learp. The Kizbeer hills were 
before us, stretching from our left, and the plain 
extended to the foot of theip ; and on our right WM 
a continuation of the broken, hilly country we have 
just left. 

At half past ten we passed Gieuk Tepeh, a village, 
and a very large artificial mount, on our left. It was 
due west and less than a mile from the road. The 
mouut was like a truncated pyramid, and had a lower 
one projecting from it on the north-west, the whole 
looking very Babylonian. About half an hour after- 
wards, we passed another lesser mount, close to our 
road ; and at mid-day arrived at Altoon Kiupri. The 
day was extremely hot, and the stage much longer 
than I had expected. We occupied si^ hours and a 
half in performing it. 

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We descended to the river* over immense beds of 
pebbles, the bed and rocks of the river being con* 
cietions of pebbles also. The town is not seen till 
you descend upon it. On th0 south bank a large 
party of horse-artillery and bombardiers were en* 
camped, who were just arrived from Constantinople 
for the Pasha of Bagdad's service. There were four 
troops ; one company of bombardiers, fifteen pieaes 
of artillery, five hundred camel-loads of stores. We 
passed over the very sharp high bridge which has 
been lately repaired, and then through the town aiid 
over the other bridge, and encamped on the flat 
space near the north-west or right quarter. 

The Tigris is eighteen hours' travelling from 
Altoon Kiupri, and when the river is very full a 
kellek or raft will go in a day, but at this season of 
the year it takes three days. The artillery above- 
mentioned forded it^ and found not more than three 
or four feet water along a bank which sloped across 
the stream t- Keuy Sanjiq^k, which lies N. 35 E., 
is twelve hours' fast walk of a horse from hence, and 
eighteen caravan hours. There are two roads, one 
of which lies along the right bank of the river, 
which it quits about six hours from Keuy Sanjiak. 
It is broken and hilly all the way, but there is no 
mountain to pass. 

* The Altoon Soo, or the Caprus of aatiquity ; called the 
Lesser Zab by Abulfeda. 
t They also forded the Zab. 

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A little below Kiupri, on the riglit bank, are 
some wharfs and store-houses for grain, &c. Here 
the kelleks or rafts from Keuy Sanjiak unload, and 
those for Bagdad are made up. The river h floatable 
for kelleks from Keuy Sanjiak to the Tigris. The 
river just above the town is about a mile broad, but 
runs oflF into two arms, which join below, both 
equally considerable, and leaving the town on an 
island* Many houses are commonly carried away in 
the spring. The town then is completely washed by 
the river, both arms joining round it. On the side 
of the great bridge the river is confined by a strong 
bank of concrete pebbles till about the height of the 
bridge, where the high bank retreats about a quarter 
of a mile and slopes up gently. On the north side 
16 a low plain, sandy and pebbly, confined by broken 
hills at about the distance of a mile. This space has 
evidently at times been filled by the river up to the 
hiUs. The Kybeer hills, with flat tops and broken 
sides, run round our left, and are said to terminate 
in the Koordish province of Shemamik ; and behind 
these hills, in the direction, where the river passes 
through them, is Karatchuk. 

Thermometer— 6 a.m. 59°; 2 p.m. 90° ; 10 p.m. 62^ 
^ October 26. — We marched at six in a north-west 
direction, through the area left between the river 
and the broken hills, or higher country, which begins 
above Kiupri, and running off from the hilly country 
we have left, comes round again at Kybeer. At 

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twenty minutes past six the road to Shemamik broke 
off on our left, and soon after we came to the termi- 
nation of the area. We then passed over detached 
sand-hills ; after which the level of the country rose 
considerably, and on our left was furrowed and 
sloping up to the Kybeer hills. On our right, at a 
greater distance, was a continuation of the broken 
hilly country we had left, and which is here called 
Hallejo Bistana, being a province of Keuy Sanjiak. 
Behind this again was the prolongation of the 
Azmir mountain, higher mountains peeping out still 
fai*ther back. 

We passed the village of Makhsuma on our left, 
and a little river running into the Altoon Soo*. 

The road along which we were travelling appears 
at some former period to have been marked by 
little artificial mounts, at the distance of an hour or 
an hour and a half from each other, several of which 
we have observed- The country, although a little 
pebbly, was a very fine plain, extending to Kybeer 
and Hallejo Bistana. Several villages were observ- 
able on our right and left, and the country was well 
cultivated. The peasants were ploughing. 

At ten we reached the camp of Faris Aga, the 
Bizzei chief, at the village of Koosh Tepeh, which 
takes its name from one of the little mounts before- 

* I believe it is wrong to call the river Altoon, an epithet only 
belonging to the bridge, from what it cost— Altoon meaning gold 
or money. 

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mentioned. The Dizzei are a tribe of Koords, for- 
merly belonging to Keuy Sanjiak ; but the Pasha of 
Bagdad has lately takeathem from under the com- 
mand both of Keuy Sanjiak and Arbil, and keeps 
them under his own authority. In consequence of 
this, they care for no one. Paris Aga dismissed our 
quarter-master, saying that he was the servant nei- 
ther of the Vizir of Bagdad, the Pasha of Koor- 
distan, nor the King of Persia ; that he was his own 
master, lived in his own country, and would receive 
no visitors ; that therefore the best thing we could 
do would be to go on to Arbil. There Was no help, 
and indeed I was rather better satisfied to go on, 
and thus gain a day : so we marched again after a 
few minutes' halt. At half past eleven we alighted 
at a little water-course, to take a cup of coffee, and 
to allow the baggage to get well on before Us. We 
mounted again at twelve, and travelling in a north 
direction, at half past one came in sight of Arbil, 
bearing N. 10 E. ; soon after which I took a sketch 
of it*, the view of the high flat mount, probably 
the burial-place of the Arsacidae, crowned by a 
castle, and backed by the Carduchian mountains, 
being really very impressive. Near the town we 
were met by the lieutenant-governor, at the head 
of about thirty or forty Turkish horsemen, with 
tchaoushes and kettle-drums. I could well have dis- 

* See Plate. 

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' 'iii't'iil)Elr¥oi[E 


TiiDEN ^6yiioi4i 

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Ctt. XII.] OMAR AGA. 15 

pensed with this honoui-, as we were ahnost suffo- 
cated with dust before we came to our ground, where 
we arrived at half past three. .The time of our 
march had been eight hours and forty minutes. 

We encamped near a kahreez, or water-course, be- 
longing to Hajee Cossim Bey, a little south-west of 
the town. Near us was encamped a small party of 
Arabs of the Harb tribe. The Arabs, now I have 
not seen them for a long time, look a squalid, yellow- 
skinned, ill-favoured people. The people of Arbil 
are Koords and Turks. '. v^* • 

On the road to-day we niet a carayalii going to 
Bagdad, loaded with onions and onion-seed. 

I found awaiting me at Arbil my old mehmandar 
Hussein Aga, sent by the Pasha of Mousul to escort 
me on ; but I intend halting here for a day or two, 
in order to rest the people, to procure fresh mules, 
and to take leave of Omar Aga*. 

Thermometer — 5 a.m. 58° ; half past 2, 94° ; 
10, 59^ 

Oetoher 27. — I was up by peep of day, and begian 
my operations immediately t. I first went to the old 
minaret, which is the most conspicuous object in this 
neighbourhood. The mosque to which it belonged 
is quite in ruins, and bricks are dug up on its site all 

* There is no further mention of this noble character. He arid 
Mr. Rich parted at Arbela, and it was too affecting a scene to 
say much about. This accounts for its being passed over in 
silence in the Journal. 

t See Appendix, 

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around. The minaret is by measurement one hun- 
dred and twenty-one feet high. The circumference 
of the shaft is fifty-one feet. It stands on an octa- 
gonal base, each face of which is nine feet eleven 
inches^ and the height of the base is between thirty 
and forty feet. Two stairs wind, without commu- 
nicating, up to the gallery, which is destroyed, as 
well as all above it, except two small fragments of 
brick-work, the remains of the shaft which once i-ose 
above the gallery. It is in the style of the minaret 
at Taouk, and is apparently of the age of the Caliphs, 
or rather perhaps of the Sahibs of Arbil. * All around 
are ruins, or rather heaps of rubbish, like those in 
the ruins of Old Bagdad. Remains of the wall and 
ditch are also traceable, especially on the side where 
our camp is situated, which is pitched close to it. 
The town was once evidently very large, probably 
about the size of modern Bagdad. Arbil is situated at 
the foot of the artificial mount, principally on the south 
side, and contains a bath, caravanserais, and bazaars. 
Some portion of the town is situated on the mount, 
or what is called the Castle. On the east, or a little 
north of the town, is a hollow, called the Valley of 
Tchekunem, where it is said Tamerlane's tent was 
pitched when he besieged Arbil. A holy Sheikh of 
Arbil struck a panic into his army, which began to 
disperse; and Tamerlane is reported to have cried 
out in Persian, "Tchekunem?" that is, "What shall 
I do ?'' and this gave name to the valley or hollow. 

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Thermometer— 5 a.m. WP \ half p3t 2, 90'; 

10, 64^ 

Octoher^^. — I continued my observations at in- 
tervals during the day, among a crowd of Arbil 
people, who squatted down in a semicircle at a rer 
spectful distance, and speculated among themselves, 
over their pipes, about the nature of my operations. 
None offered the least molestation ; and I could not 
help smiling when I reflected on the different treat- 
ment Delambre («i licet parvis) experienced in the 
neighbourhood of Paris, from that which I met with 
in this savage out-of-the-way place* I had no guard 
or attendants with me. 

The artificial mount on which the castle of Arbil 
stands is, I conjecture, about one hundred and fifty 
feet high, and three or four hundred yards, in dia- 
meter. It was once doubtless much higher, and it 
is probable the summit of it was ruined by Caracalla. 
Some time ago, when Hajee Abdulla Bey was build- 
ing on this mount, he dug up a sepulchre, in which 
was a body laid in state, quite perfect, the features 
fully recognizable ; but it fell to dust shortly after it 
had been exposed to the air. If, as I believe, this 
was the burial-place of the Arsacidse, may not this 
have been the body of a Parthian king ? Hajee 
Cossim Bey infoimed me that the interior of the 
mount is divided into compartments by brick-work, 
composed of large bricks, with no inscriptions on 
them, as he ascertained by digging into it from a 

Vol. II. C. 

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slrdaub or cellar in his house which standa in the 
castle. The perpendicular height of the mount he 
estimates at forty large cubits. 

There is a local tradition, peculiar to the place, 
that Arbil was built by Darius *, which is the more 
dCurious, as there is no connexion in any oriental tale 
or history between Darius and Arbela; and the 
easterns are totally ignorant of the battle of Arbela 
or Gaugamela. 

Hares and antelopes abound in this plain, and the 
ground is covered with immense flights of kattas, or 
desert partridges. Hawks of the Balaban species 
are also caught in this plain, and exported chiefly to 

Thermometer — 6 a.m. 67°; half past 2 p.m. 84°; 
10 P.M. 74° ; wind S.E. ; cloudy. 

October 29. — ^We had a most disagreeable day 
yesterday— ^true Gherara weather t— the wind blow- 
ing in squalls from the east and south-east, and the 
air charged with dust, which defiled every thing, 
and filled our eyes, noses, and mouths. We marched 

* Darius, or Darah, was, like Pharaoh and Caesar, rather a title 
than a name ; and the tradition therefore may perhaps mean no 
more than that the city was founded by one of the kings of that 

t Gherara was the name of a reach of the river Tigris, a few 
miles south of Bagdad, where Mr. Rich and his family were in the 
habit of encamping, after the great heat of the summer was over, 
in October until the beginning of January, during which period 
the south-east wind often prevailed which is here referred to, and 
the effects of which were peculiarly disagreeable in tents.- — Ed, 

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at half past five this morning in a north-^aat di- 
rection, and about an hour after we parsed the vil- 
lage of Reshki, on the left hand of the road. Here 
another road branches off to the left, and joins the 
main one again at the village of Girdasheer. The 
whole of the country seems very well cultivated, and 
is rather more undulating than that to the south of 
Arbil. The peasants were all ploughing. They 
did but just scratch the ground. In one plough we 
saw a small bullock and an ass yoked together* 
The mountains seem here to retire and form a bay 
eastward ; they then advance again about the Zab to 
the Westward. I now C£^n distinguish several chains ; 
1st, the broken country, which is a continuation of 
Shuan ; 2d, hills, a little higher ; then one or two 
other higher and more rocky chains before Zagrps, 
which peeped over all, and seemed higher and more 
broken into points, than any part of it we had yet 
seen. The lines of hills seem, I think, rather closer 
* together than they are in Koordistan. Before us 
Mount Makloube ; still farther to the left of it, Ka- 
ratchuk, a mountain which is. said to extend to Jezira 
and Mardin. To the right of Makloube are two wall- 
like ranges of hills, which run through Akra, and 
which, together with Makloube, form the district of 
Naokor *, a very rich pi-ovince of Amadia. 

* Kaokor is dcBCriptive of the situation of the province — a plain 
between two ranges of hills. The hills, or chain, on the east of 
Naokor is a prolongation of Azmir, and is called the Akra moun- 

C 2 

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The country still continued increasing in undula* 
tions as we advanced, but was not very considerably 
indented, and was without any particular feature. At 
some intei-vals we perceived one or two little mounts, 
as if the road had been traced in the same manner 
as I remarked on the other side of Arbil. About 
half-past eight we passed Girdasheer, a little fort 
on a mount, with a village at the foot of it : this 
is called half-way to the Zab. Soon after we passed 
Little Girdasheer on the right of our road. The 
level of the country now began to descend : the Zab 
was on our right, with the village of Elbesheer on 
its banks. At eleven o'clock we reached the village 
of Kellek on the pebbly banks of the Zab*. The 
bank opposite to us retires ; below it advances, and 
the bank on our side retires, leaving a plain of about 
one mile to one and a half mile's extent, in which 
the Zab divides itself into two or three streams. We 
descended into this plain, and passing two branches 
not above a few inches deep, at half-past eleven we 
arrived at the main stream under the right bank, 
which is a pebbly cliiff. We went over on a kellek 
or raft, and our horses and attendants forded a little 

tain, then Naokor, Zaaferania, Zakho. This, consequently, vras 
the first mountain Xenophon and the Ten Thousand ascended. 
The Koordish, like the languages of all mountains, is very fertile 
in terms descriptive of natural objects and situations. 

* All the Koords and people of these parts call the Zab, Zerb. 
The Zab seems the Arabic name taken from the Chaldean. 
Bochart's etymology is ingenious and plausible. 

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below, where the water was scarcely above four 
fiset deep, the river in that place spreading itself 
over a wide surface. At the place where we crossed 
it, the stream was, at its narrowest, not above four 
hundred feet over, but about two or three fathoms 
and a half deep. The current was very rapid, run- 
ning at the rate of about two or three knots ; the 
water beautifully transparent, and of a sky-blue 
colour. In spring it often spreads itself over the 
^hole plain. On the cliiOf at the passage is the 
Yezid village of Eski Kellek, where we halted for 
the night, and where I recognised many old acquaiut- 
ances among the Yezidis*, who had escorted us to 
Mousul on om' former journey. . 

Our travelling to-day was slow for the first hour, 
then very excellent going for the rest of the way* 
The stage is called seven hours for a caravan, but we 
did it in five hours and fifiby-five minutes. 

There are many fords in the river between this 
village and the mouth of the Zab at Kushaff, on the 
"^ris, which is about five hours ofi^f. The junction 

* Called by tbeBebbeh Koords, Dassinee. 

t The following are the fords of the Zab :— 1. At Ssitteihh, an 
Arab vfllage above Kushaff; a very bad ford, deep, the bottom 
large slippery stones. 2. At Shumeisat — Arabs — a bad ford; 
above Ssitteibh, nearer Eurdek. 3. A ford above Eurdek, 
4. At Eski Kellek; the best ford of aU. 5. At New Kellek. 
There are three fords above New Kellek, between it and the 
mountain. None of these fords are now passable : they disappear 
at the first rains. 

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of the Ghazir or Bumadus with the Zab takes place 
about three hours below this place. The Bumadus 
rises out of the rock about five hours beyond Akra« 
Both the Zab and the Bumadus wind much. Just 
below their junction^ on the west bank of the ZaK 
is the village of Eurdek, and I have satisfactorily 
ascertained that there is no ravine, tract, or discharge 
rf water whatever in or near the Zab after the junc- 
tion of the Bumadus. 

Thermometer — 6 a.m. 68° ; half-past 2 p.m. 88° ; 
10 P.M. 68^ 

October 30. — We marched at twenty-five minutes 
past six. The country rose by two steps to its general 
level from the river. The first rise was from the 
water to the village on the pebbly cliflF ; then came 
a level space, and then again a second rise about the 
height of the cliffs, that is, about fifteen feet, looking 
as if it had been the bank of the river at some very 
ancient period. We marched from the village to 
the second step ; then having ascended to the level 
of the country, we proceeded at seven in a westeiHi^ 
direction. The country between the two rivers, the 
Zab and the Bumadus, is of an undulating surface, 
biit not broken nor abrupt. The peasants were 
ploughing in many places. At ten minutes before 
eight we reached the Bumadus or Ghazir Soo, which 
very much resembles the Zab, and, like it, has 
a high pebbly bank alternately retiring and leaving 
a plain between it and the ordinary bed of the river. 

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We still kq>t west through the plain, (the village of 
Minkoube was above us on the banks,) with the river 
on our rigbt, which we forded at ten minutes after 
eight. The depth was nearly the same all through ; 
that is, about two and a half or three feet, just up to 
my stirrups. The breadth was about three hundred 
feet It is now at its lowest, and is more rapid than 
the Zab. In spring it sometimes swells so as to 
cover the plain up to the banks, and is then unford^* 
able ; but it never remains at that extreme height 
above a couple of days. It is said to rise a short 
distance from Akra, The west bank, which we 
came to after fording, is not so high as the east, and 
the country gradually subsides^ — if I may be allowed 
the expression — 'into an immense plain, level as far 
as we could fee, and for the most part under cultiva^ 
tion* The village of Zara Khatoon is at a little 
distance below the ford *. From the river we pro- 
ceeded in a north-west direction, and at half'-past 
eight (N. 68 W.) we brought Karatchuk in one 
with Makloube, which it covered. Before we lost 
sight of Makloube, we saw on its steep side, about 
half'*way up, the convent of Mar Mattel, or St. Mat* 
thew, a very celebrated place among the Christians 
of these parts. We observed likewise, on the top of 
Karatchuk, the remains of a church. From the 
Bumadus we advanced even more rapidly than before. 

* The Ghazir joins the Zab three caravans or two horsemen's 
hours below Old Kellek. Just before its junction, on its west 
bank, is the village of Eurdek. 

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Hajee Jirjees Aga*, my old friend and mehmandar, 
now Kaftan Agassi, met me beyond the ford of the 
Buniadus, with a party of Kaouklees f , sent by the 
Pasha of Mousul to escort me and welcome me into 
his dominions; and we marched together to Keimalis, 
a miserable Chaldean village, where we arrived at 
twenty minutes to ten, after travelling at a very 
good rate all day. The march is called two hours 
and a half to the Bumadus, and the same from 
thence to Kermalis, for a caravan. Kermalis was 
once a considerable town, which was ruined by 
Nadir Shah, and is now a very poor village, ex- 
tremely dirty, like all Christian villages in the 
East. There is a large and very ancient church 
here, which from a date appears to have been repaired 
one hundred and thirty years ago, but it is now in a 
very ruinous condition. There is also a smaller 
church, built not long ago, and a very wretched- 
looking building it is. Behind the village, about half 
a mile (N. 80 W.) from our tents, is a high artificial 
mount of ancient date. I ascended it to take some 
sights with, the compass of some of the surround- 
ing objects. I succeeded but indiflferently, as the 
evening was dusky and squally, and distant objects 
were but imperfectly visible and the needle not very 
steady* Villages were visible in every direction in 
the plain, level, like the sea, all around us. 

* An officer of the Pasha of Mousul. 

t Or government officers ; so called from the peculiar turban 
they wear. 

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CH- XII. ] GA U6 AMELA. 25 

Major Rennell suppfoses Kennalis to be Gauga- 
mela*; but Gaugamela appears, both from Arrian 
tind Quintus Curtius, to have been on the Bumadus, 
which Kermalis can in no respect be said to be. 
Indeed it is not possible, among the great number 
of villages scattered over this plain and all along the 
Bumadus, to decide which is Gaugamela. We know 
well that Gaugamela was, even in Alexander's day, 
a village of no consequence, which was the reason 
why the Greeks called the victory by the name 
of Arbela, the nearest remai'kable place to the field 
of battle* Gaugamela was sought after merely to 
establish the locality of the battle ; but we have 
now no occasion for this, and, in fact, if we want to 
find Gaugamela, we must seek it from our know- 
ledge of the field ; but this would be useless, if not 
impossible. There can be no reason for selecting 
Kermalis for Gaugamela, more than any other of 
the villages by which it is surrounded. Ignorance 
of its situation, or a fancied analogy in the name, 
may possibly have led to its selection. It is about 
the centre of the plain, and not very remarkable for 
its situation f. 

* See " Major RennelPs Illustrations of the History of the 
Expedition of Cyrus,'* pp. 153, 154. 

t A little stream rises at Terjilla, and passing by Shah Kouli^ 
comes to Kennalis, at which village it is used for cultivating 
cotton ; and when it is not entirely drawn off at Kermalis by the 
cultivation, it runs by Karakoosh, where there is a little bridge of 
one arch over it, and finds its way to the Tigris, 

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Thermometer—e a.m. 58'' ; half-past 2 p.m. 80^ ; 
10 P.M, 64°. 

October 31.— We mounted at a quarter past six ; 
the road from hence to Mousul was N. 75 W. We 
rode over the level plain till eight, when the country 
became again pebbly and unequal, the level country 
still continuing at a distance on our right. At half- 
past eight we came to still higher ground, and lost 
sight of the plain in every direction. We soon after 
descended into a ravine called Shor Dereh, or the 
nitrous valley, which was dry, but which, in winter 
and spring, is sometimes impassable for two or three 
days together from the water and deep mire. We 
met here a large caravan of camels going to Bagdad, 
laden with gall-nuts and copper. 

At twenty minutes to ten we came to a large 
rampart, then to a hollow like a ditch, and then to 
another rampart, which my Mousul Turks called the 
beginning of Nineveh ; and shortly after we reached 
another ditch and wall, which seemed to indicate 
that Nineveh had a double wall. Under or in this 
second wall is a spring or well covered over with. 
an arch of very ancient masonry, composed of large 
stones. The well is called Danilamajeh, and the in- 
habitants believe its water is efficacious in many com- 
plaints, not from its medical qualities, but from some 
superstition connected with it. They all believe it 
to be haunted by genii, and nobody durst approach 
it after nightfall. Hussein Aga told me that one 

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CH. xil] arrival at mousul. 27 

nighti as he was passing by the spot after dark, he 
heard a tremendous drumming and turmoil in the 
well, and that he put out his horse at Rill speed to 
escape, as the man that, however involuntarily, be* 
comes a spectator of their rites, either dies soon after 
or loses his senses. I tasted the water, and found it 
good, and it was remarkably clear and pure. 

I remained ten minutes at the well, and then rode 
on, passing through the area of Nineveh, under the 
village of Nebbi Yunus on our. left hand. The walls 
of Nineveh on the east have become quite a concre* 
tion of pebbles, like the natural hills. At twenty- 
five minutes past ten we arrived on the banks of the 
Tigris, where we were ferried over to our place of 
residence during our stay at Mousul, at Naaman 
Pasha's garden, south of the town, which my kind 
friend the Pasha had prepared for us, as likely to be 
more agreeable than living in the city. 

The stage from Kermalis to Mousul is reckoned 
four hours. We occupied four hours and a quarter 
in performing it, and our rate of going was good, 
though not first-rate. 

Thermometer— 6 a.m. 58° ; 2 p.m. 78°. 

[Mr. Rich's daily Journal stops here. There is 
little more personal narrative. He was so fully 
occupied in examining the country and its antiqui- 
ties ; in making observations connected with its 

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28 MousuL. [cH. xn. 

geography and history; in visiting and receiving 
visits from the chiefs and principal people of the 
tovtrn and neighbourhood^ during his residence of 
four months in Mousul, that he had little leisure for 
writing; and therefore he committed to paper such 
particulars only as might be likely to escape his 
memory, or required mathematical exactness, leav- 
ing the history of his personal intercourse with the 
people to be narrated :at a future period. 

This was Mr. Ricli^^ fourtji visit to Mousul. He 
was most kindly received by his old friend Ahmed 
Pasha ; a fuller account of whom, and of the town 
and its neighbourhood, is contained in a journal kept 
by Mr. Rich during a former journey to and from 
Bagdad and Constantinople, which it is purposed 
soon to publish.] 

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CH. XIII.] 29 


The Ruins of Nineveh — ^Village of Nebbi Yunus — Stones covered 
with Cuneiform Writing — Inscription in the Wall of a House 
— The Mosque of Nebbi Yunus — formerly a Church — ^The 
Area of Nineveh— The Walls— The Mount of Koyunjuk— The 
River Khausser — Another high Mount — Large hewn stones- 
Bitumen adhering to them — Thisbe's Well — East boundary 
Wall — Nadir Shah — His Encampment — Story of the dispersion 
of his Army — Bridge of Boats over the Tigris* 

November 8. — ^We have had stormy weather since 
our arrival at Mousul ; easterly winds, and some rain. 
This morning the weather cleared up, and the moun- 
tains to the north, called the Gara mountains, show 
snow on some of their summits. That snow lies 
all along this chain from one year to another, in 
clefts and sheltered situations, I have no doubt ; but 
I am informed that some of these mountains have 
snow on their open, exposed summits, all the year 
round ; and I have so often heard this where it was 
not the case, that I am now rather hard of belief. 
They say here also that snow, if it lies a thousand 
years on the ground, becomes the mineral called 
Dehneh or Dehlij *, of which they make great use in 
diseases of the eye. 

* When I was formerly at Mousul, the Pasha of that place put 
into my hands the substance called dehlij, which name is not to 
be found in any dictionary, not even the Kamoos. It is produced 
in a gold mine in the mountains of Hakkaie in Koordistan, which 
are a prolongation of the chain of Taurus, in various parts of 

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The day being fine, we sallied forth to take a 
general inspection of the remains of Nineveh ; and 
we crossed the river in the boat at our garden. The 
current of the river, which is now at its lowest, is at 
present not more than a knot ; nor had the late day's 
rain made any difference in it. The breadth where 
we crossed was about four hundred feet ; the depth 
not above two fathoms. At the bridge* it is deeper 
and narrower ; below the ferry it is wide and shallow, 
and leaves an island in the centre, which is covered 
over at the first rising of the river. 

We first went to the village, or rather little town 
of Nebbi Yunus, which contains about three hun- 
dred houses, and is built on an ancient artificial 
mount, the whole of which it does not cover. Its 
antiquity is well ascertained by the remains found 
on digging into it very deep ; when fragments of 
bricks, whole bricks, and pieces of gypsum, covered 
with inscriptions in the cuneiform character, are 
found. I have many of these, one in particular 

which both gold and copper mines exist. The dehlij is tiBed by the 
people of Mousul as a remedy for the eyes, when reduced to an im- 
palpable powder, and mixed with twice as much loaf sugar. It is 
in very small nubs, some a light blue, or turquoise colour, some of 
a green colour, and more or less mixed with earthy matter. On 
being split, the nubs have a shiny appearance in the inside like 
spar. It appears to correspond exactly with what Hauy calls 
granuliform carbonate of copper— blue and green. Iteflfervesces 
in nitric acid. 

* Near this bridge a battle was fought in the year 521, between 
the Emperor Heraclius and the troops of Chosroes the king of 
Persia.— See Gibbon, vol. viii. p. 248. 

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which measures one foot four inches in thickness, 
covered with writing, that was dug up in this mound '*' ; 
and to*day we were shown some fragments built up 
in the foundations of houses. One of these, a broken 
piece of gypsum with cuneiform characters, was in 
the kitchen of a wretched house, and appeared to be 
part of the wall of a small passage %vhich is said to 
reach far into the mount. Some people dug into it 
last year ; but as it went under the houses, and they 
were afraid of undermining them, they closed it up 
again with rubbish, and only that portion of it which 
had been laid open, and forms part of a kitchen, is 
now visible. A little farther on, in a small room 
occupied by the women of an inhabitant of the town, 
who very politely went out to allow us to inspect it 
at our leisure, was another inscription, in very large 
cuneiform letters, on a piece of gypsum. It faces 
south, and runs east and west. Only about three 
feet of it are now open, though it is said to extend 
several yards west ; but it has since been plastered 
over with mud. This inscription is the more curious, 
as it seems to occupy its original position. It is not 
much above the floor of the room, is about two feet 
high, and below the level of the surface of the mound. 
The cuneiform characters are in their proper posi- 
tion. The insoription is said to have been discovered 
in building the room, and was left just where it was 
found, only plastered over with mud like the rest of 

* Now in the British Muaeum. — Ed» 

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the room. It is exactly parallel witb, and very near 
the passage noticed before ; which appears to hwe 
been continued into, and even beyond, this spot^ 
from some lines or traces seen in the ground, but is 
now broken down and laid open here. I doubt not 
but many other antiquities might be found in this 
mound ; but the greater part of it is thickly covered 
with a labyrinth of small houses, and it is only on 
the repairing or falling down of these that such 
tilings are discovered. 

From this we went to the mosque which covers the 
tomb of Jonah *. It is on the north and higher end 
of the mound, and is rather a considerable building* 
The principal dome is ribbed and of a conical shape ; 
it stands on an octagonal base, eight feet each face, 
which is again placed on a square pediment, standing 
on the terrace that covers the building. The dome 
is of small circumference, whitened, and crowned 
with a spike. The terrace, or flat roof, is about 
fifteen feet above the level of the mound on the south 
side, but on the noii:h it rises forty feet by measure- 
ment above the mound, about thirty feet perpen- 
dicular height of which remains between the foot of 

* There was formerly a Christian monastery where the pre- 
tended tomb of Jonah now stands, the Mahometan building^ 
being erected over the church, which is preserved entire ; but no 
Christian on any account would be suffered to go near it. The 
Christians named their church after the tradition that Jonah 
preached in that place ; but they deny his having been buried 
there. They believe, on the contrary, that, after his mission wa» 
accomplished, he returned to Palestine. 

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the wall, and level of the plain or area of Nineveh ; 
so that the perpendicular height of the highest part 
of the mound, above the level of the plain is about 
fifty feet. There, are; several other domes^ but they 
are semicircular, and rise very little above the 
terrace- . On the east side of the court of the mosque 
we were shown three very narrow, ancient passages, 
one within the other, with several doors or apertures, 
opening one into the other, which reminded me of 
the interior plan of the Zendan at Dastagerda.* The 
passages are quite dark, narrow, and vaulted, and 
appear much as if designed for the reception of dead 
bodies. They are said to be very ancient, but of 
what age none of our conductors could specify; 
and they extended much farther, but they have been 
stopped up. 

From the terrace of the mosque is. an admirable 
view of Mousul. The whole population of the town 
assembled to gaze at us, but none oflFered the least 
molestation, though some of them were heard opining 
that I was ascertaining if great guns would bear 
upon Mousul from that position. 

We afterwards rode through the area of Nineveh 
to the j&rst wall of the enclosure. It is a line of 
earth and gravel, out of which large hewn stones are 
dug, as out of all the walls of the area. Beyond 
this is a ditch, still . very regular, and easily trace- 

* See Journal of an Excursion to the Frontiers of S. Kogr- 

Vol. II. D 

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able, on the other side of which is another wall. 
Under this wall is the well of Damlamajeh, noticed 
before; and bey6nd it, leaving only a narrow 
ravine or ditch, there is still another, and, I believe, 
the largest wall. 

We went no farther than the well to-day. It is a 
few feet distant from the wall, in the ravine, and has 
the remains of a little dome over it, in the inside of 
which is an archway over the water, of massy stone 
work. In the interstices over the entrance are the 
remains of a great many nails, probably driven in to 
hold shreds of cloth, — the signs of a person having 
made a vow or promise, if he recover from any dis- 
order by the intercession of a saint, or the virtue of a 
spring. The water appears to come out of a conglo- 
meration of pebbles and soil, of which also the base 
of the wall seems to be composed, as may be seen 
where it has been broken into at the foot. We saw 
also some river shells among the pebbles. 

From the well we rode north in the ravine, till it 
opens a little at the river Khausser, which passes 
through it. On the edge of the river, which in spring 
sometimes swells so as to be unfordable for a short 
time, is a piece of ancient stone-work, as if there had 
been a bridge over it. From the Khausser we re- 
turned home, leaving Koyunjuk Tepeh on our right 
and passing close under the tomb of Jonah. 

The area of Nineveh, on a rough guess, is about 
one and a half to two miles broad, and four miles 

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Orv.siowg/inf WWaZbarv. 

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f^^^ -• ' ■^'^m^ 



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long, extending a little Way south of Nebbi YunUs. 
On the river, or west side, there are only remains of 
one wall, and I observed the same at the liorth and 
south extremities ; but on the east side there are the 
remains of three walls. The west wall appears to 
have run a little inTront of Nebbi Yunus. Between 
it and the river the ground is subject to frequent in-» 
undations and changes; but it has not interfered 
with the area* 

In this pla(;e 1 calinot help remarking a passage 
in Jonah ; that Prophet suffered grievously from the 
easterly wind. This is the sherki so much dreaded 
in all these countries, which is hot, stormy, and sin- 
gularly relaxing and dispiriting *. 

November 10. — I was obliged to call on the Pasha 
yesterday, and therefore could not go over to Nineveh; 
but we set off this morning at ten o'clock, although 
the day was not quite so favourable for observation 

* Amoiig the many recollections suggested by a fiutvey of tlie 
ruins of Nineveh, the beautiful tale of Pyramus and Thisbt^ is cer- 
tainly not the least interesting. It is most likely derived from an 
Oriental story ; and if this be the case, Pyramus will be Bahram,. 
which is commonly rendered in Latin Varatnus. I am not well 
enough acquainted with ancient female n^mes to say what Thisbi^ 
may be ; but the whole story has a local air % which makes me 
think it was not wholly the invention of the Roman bard. 

* The only ancient writers •who tell this story are Ovid, Met iv.. 
55, and Hyginusj and both make Babylon the scene of it. Mr. 
Rich has been led, doubtless by the " busta Nini" of Ovid, the 
" Ninus^s Tomb " (Mids. Night's Dream), to suppose the true 
locality to be where j as he believed, that tomb was really to be fotmr^, 
viz., at Nineveh. See his Second Memoir on Babylon, pp. 58. 
192. — Communicated by ajriend to the Ed, 


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as yesterday, it being rather hot %vhen we first went 
out, but in the afternoon it got cool and pleasant. 

We first went to Koyunjuk, crossing the Khausser, 
which runs at its south foot, and is twenty or thirty 
feet over, and about two feet deep in the deepest place. 

I was enabled, from the Mount of Koyunjuk, to 
form a general idea of the enceinte of Nineveh. 
Koyunjuk is rather nearer the north than the south 
extremity of the western wall, which adjoins it, or 
rather did adjoin it, on both sides ; the western face 
of Koyunjuk being aligned with the wall. The 
same thing may be said of the mount on which the 
village of Nebbi Yunus is built, which extends 
inwards, or easterly, about as much, though its sur- 
face is not so extensive as that of Koyunjuk. The 
wall, after a little break at the foot of Koyunjuk, 
where it is ruined, proceeds north in a straight line 
up to its north-west angle or extremity. It is to be 
observed, the angles are not marked by any tower, 
bastion, or work of any kind. 

At the southern foot of Koyunjuk runs the little 
brook of Khausser, on the south bank of which the 
wall re-commences. It is here broken abruptly, 
and shows an interior construction of unburnt. brick, 
but no reeds. The wall runs again in a straight line 
to the north-west angle of Nebbi Yunus, where it is 
again broken by the Kermelis road close by the 
village. Beyond Nebbi Yunus it waves or bends a 
little outwards to its south-west extremity. The 

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height of the wall is from ten to fifteen feet in the 
highest part ; and it comes to a ridge or point in the 
place where it is best preserved. Very large hewn 
atones are dug out of every, part of its extent, I 
believe generally near the bottom. . We remarked 
one enormous hewn stone lying on the top of it. 

The Mount of Koyunjuk is, except at its west and 
part of its eastern face, of rather an irregidar form. 
Its sides are very steep, its top nearly flat ; its angles 
are not marked by any lantern or turret. . The per- 
pendicular height is forty-three feet ; the total cir- 
cumference 7691 feet. . While I was taking the 
angles, :Captain Kefala* employed himself with four 
sepoys in taking the measurement of the mount. 

The top of the mount does not w^ar the appear- 
ance of ever having been greatly higher than it is at 
present ; , but it evidently has had building on it, 
at least round its edges. Stones and bricks are dug 
or ploughed up every where. There were also other 
buildings farther in the mount ; and at a place where 
they had been digging into it, . we saw the same 
coarse stone and. mortar. masonry, and a piece of 
coarse grey stone, shaped like the capital of a colunm, 
such as at this day surmounts the wooden pillars 
or posts of Turkish or rather Persian verandahs ; 
but there was no carving on it. We also saw, in 
many parts, a flooring, or pavement, on the surface 

* Captain Kefala was a Greek, who had been to- India on pri- 
vate business, and who, on his return, joined Mr. Rich, and 
accompanied liim during part of this journey. 

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38 STONE CQAIR, [c», Xl\h 

of the mount, of small stones rammed down with 
earth. Pottery we also found, and other Babylonian 
fra^ents ; also bits of brick, with bitumen adhering 
to them ; and I am informed that many brieks with 
bitumen are found in these ruins. A pi^ce of fine 
brick or pottery, covered with exceedingly small and 
beautiful cuneiform writing, was found while we were 
looking about the mount. It is of the finest kind, yeU 
lowish, with a polished or hard sur&ce^ and apparently 
belonged to one of the large cylinders. On the north- 
east angle of the mound is the little village of Koy* 
unjuk. Some part of the surface of the mound, pro* 
bably where the buildings were either less solid or 
perhaps entirely wanting, is ploughed over. 

The greatest part of the curiosities from Nineveh 
are found in the mount on which Nebbi Yunus is 
situated. The curious little stone chair brought tq 
ipe at Bulimania by my curio8ity*<hunter Delli Sa-* 
maan, was &und here, with several written bricks 
and cylinders. After having observed the mount 
sufficiently, I proceeded to finish what I had to. do 
north of the Khajaaser, reserving the southern divi- 
sion for to-moiTow- 

3ut I must first remark that the river Tigris 
runs i)Si into a semicircle above the ruins and returns 
below theiQ^ leaviqg a flat cultivated semicircle of 
1§q4i At the north*«west angle of Koyunjuk is au 
interval of two hundred and ten paces between it and 
the recommencement of the wall, and here the Wall 

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iOH. xiil] ancient bas-relief. 39 

jseems to have decayed more. The interval has been 
dug into for stones. 

We now went along the wall in a north-west 
direction on horseback* till we came to a part of it 
higher and broader externally than the rest. Here, 
some years ago, an immense bas*relief, representing 
men and animals, covering a grey stone of the height 
of two men, was dug up from a spot a little above 
the surface of the ground. All the town of Mousul 
went out to see it, and in a few days it was cut up or 
brokea to pieces. I picked up at this place a piece 
of a cornice of gypsum, or what is called Mousul 

Hence we went along the wall to another high 
mount on the wall, like the one we had last observed. 
Here were some ruins, or inequalities of the ground, 
stretched north-west into the area of the city ; but I 
am inclined to believe they are only inequalities* All 
the area from the* commencement of this inequisdity 
up to the east wall is higher and not ^o smooth as the 
western part of it. We continued riding along the 
wall, which here was high and steep, to the place 
where the Khausser runs through it, and where is a 
mount on which I fixed as one of my stations for 
observations. It does not seem to have been broken ; 
and on the banks of the Khausser here, and also 
a little higher up, is some stone- work, which may 
have been part of a pier or bridge 

On the outside of the wall, as far round as the 

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last mount but on6, the country is hilly, or perhaps 
it would be more correct to say, unequal ; and ti^m^ 
abouts it runs off to form the high bank of the river 
on which the Sheikh* is situated. 

November II. — ^There was some rain in the night, 
but not enough to spoil my day's work. I therefore 
went out at the usual time, and set Captain KefiUa, 
with a working party of sepoys, to measure the base^ 
while I went round the southern part of Nineveh, 
sketched the country, and took the remaining angles: 
The wall up to Nebbi Yunus bends inwards a little, 
and, except near the south-Avest angle, it is small, 
low, and broken. The road from Karakoosh to 
Mousul runs along it. Near the angle it becomes 
high again, and continues, high and regular round 
tlie south-west angle up to the south-east angle, and 
then round to the double-headed mount, which I call 
Station 8. The sides, though very steep, are ploughed. 

On the south side or face of *the inclosure are 
three openings, the centre one of which at least 
seems to have been part of the original plan. A few 
yards from it on the outride of the wall near the 
Karakoosh road my attention was called to a very 
curious object, seemingly of the remotest antiquity. 
Some pebple had been digging for stones, and had 
dug a hole in the ground, from which they had 
turned up many large hewn stones with bitumeti 

* The tomb of a Mahometan saint, but whose name I cannot 
learn. — Ed. 

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OH. XIII.] WELL OF damlamajeh; 41 

ftdherifig to ihem. I examined the excavation, 
which was about ten feet deep, and found, it con- 
sisted of huge stones, laid' in layers of bitumen and 
lime-mortar. I brought away some specimens of 
them sticking together. I also saw some layers of 
red clay i which were very thicks and had become as 
indurated as burnt brick^, but there was not ihe 
least appearance of reeds or straw ever having been 
used. This mass appeared to have been a founda- 
tion or substructure. -We found among the rubbish 
some pieces of coarse unglazed pottery. It would not 
have been possible to tell, from the appearance of 
the surface of the ground, that there bad been build- 
ing beneath — a water-course full of pebbles 'had 
even passed over it. It is therefore very difficult to 
say to what extent vestiges of building may exist 
outside the inclosures, the area of which may have 
been the royal quarter, but certainly was never suffi- 
cient for the city of Nineveh. 

We now went to Damlamajeh, which we had 
agreed to call Thisbfe-s Well, to > refresh ourselves 
for a little while; and I todk the ^ opportunity of 
ascertaining the temperature of the spring, which 
X found to be 66^ that of the air in the little 
building which contains it being 65^. The spring 
issues out of a concretion of pebbles. It is covered 
by a little dome, which is evidently of Mahometan 

* Red clay is still used by many as a coating for walls, instead 
of plaster. 

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workiuanship. The archway which forms the descent 
to the spring inside the ante-chamber may be more 
ancient, possibly old Christian arcbitectm*e. It 
seems to be built with large fragments of stone 
taken from the ruins of T^ineveh; and on each 
side of the door*way is a pedestal or capital of 
a column, exactly similar to the one we found at 

Once a year the peasants assemble and sacrifice a 
sheep at the well, with music and other festivities; 
This is a superstition far anterior to the religion 
they now profess. This veneration for certain springs 
is common both to Christians and Mahometans* 
Captain Kefala, himself a Greek, remarked that thi$ 
well had every appearance of having been a spot 
consecrated by the Christians. The Greeks are inr 
deed much attached to grottoes and wells. There is 
scarcely one in all Greece and the islands which i$ 
not consecrated to the Virgin, who seems to have 
succeeded the nymphs in their guardianship of these 
pAtces ; and where once on a rude basso relievo wa^ 
seen NYM^^AIS, we now find an equally rude 
figure with a dedication to the Panagia. There i$ 
something very poetic in the worship of the Virgin.. 

As I proposed to devote a day entirely to the inr 
spection of Nineveh beyond the wall, m^ was 
besides anxious to take the angles at the base whil^ 
there was good light to see my distant signals, I re- 
turned to the inclosure to take my last station. 

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«?• Xin.] WALJiS OF NINEVEH, 43 

r(^inarking on my way several stones which had been 
dug out of the wall or elevation under which the 
well is situated, between it and the inelosure wall,. 
Most of these atones seem to be of the same kiud, 
that is, a (soarser kind pf Mousul marble or gypsum, 
of a grey colour*. I also observed sandstone cut 
into blocks. Moat of the stones dug up were of 
enormous dimensions. 

Between the two walls the ground is ploughed 
in many places, and I wondered to see how they 
ploughed ground which se^mQ to consist almost, 
entirely of loose pebbles; but I believe such ground 
is the b^t for all plants of the melon kind. 

We arrived at the east boundary wall by the 
Kermelis road, which passes close by the well. The 
wall on the north side of the road rises into two high 
mounts, the southernmost of which is the. one which 
I set with the compass from several stations. A little 
way up it I saw an immense stone, or rather slab,^ 
with bitumen adhering to the underside of it> which 
had just been dug up out of the mount. 

While I was employed in taking angles, the 
Seyd, with Hussein Agg^v went into the village of 
Nebbi Yunus, where they discovered a^g^uarQ stone: 
or slab* covered with a cuneiform inscription which, 
was extremely perfect* This was in the wall of 

* The natives distingui^li between this and the gypsum, caUing 
the gypsum heilan^ or hhallariy and the other from Mousul, mer- 

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a house, but the Seyd managed so cleverly, that he 
succeeded in purchasing and bringing it away ; and 
it is now safely lodged among my other curiosities. 

After I had concluded my measurements I care- 
fully observed the village and mount of Nebbi Yunus. 
The village and the tomb are principally built on the 
east boundary wall, and amountof parallelogrammic 
form juts out from it easterly, on which is a burying- 

The mound which projects out is not above ten or 
twelve feet high. The tomb is on the highest part of 
the whole, and on what appears to have been the 
west wall, a few yards of which adjoins the village a 
little in front of the tomb, and on it are some graves 
and a very deep well; then comes the x)pening 
formed by the road from Kermelis to Mousul ; after 
which the wall is continued again up to the Kausser 
under Koyunjuk. I fear there will be no means of 
taking the dimensions of the mound of Nebbi Yunus 
otherwise than by distant sights, on account of the 
village being on and connected with it. 

One thing is sufficiently obvious to the most care- 
less observer, which is, the equality of age of all 
these vestiges. Whether they belonged to Nineveh 
or some other city is another question, and one not so 
easily determined, but that they are all of the same 
age and character does not admit of a doubt. 

The vestiges or traces of building within the area 
are, with the exception of Nebbi Yunus and Koyun- 

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CH. XIII.] EXTENT OF NINEVEH. 45,, extremely slight; and I am now confirmed in 
tile opinion I formed in viewing the ruins many 
years ago, that the inclosure formed only a part of a 
great city, probably either the citadel or royal pre- 
cincts, or perhaps both, as the practice of fortifying 
the residence of the sovereign is of very ancient 
origin. In the East, to this day the dwelling of the 
prince, and indeed of many governors, consists of a 
number of buildings inclosed in quite , a separate 
quarter; and. from what we are told of the Baby- 
lonian palaces, and see of that. of the Seffiyiyahs and 
of the Sultan of Constantinople, this extent would 
not. be too much to assign for the residence of the 
Assyrian kings *. 

* Most readers are acquainted with the extent assigned to this 
city in the Scriptures, but it may not be so generally known that the 
heathen authors agree likewise in giving the same account of its 
vastness. " Strabon (says the Abb^ Sevin, Recherches : sur 
PHistoire d^Assyrie) assure que cette ville occupoit I'espace qui est 
entre le Tigre et le Lycus ; et cet espace, au rapport de Ptol6m6e, 
n'a pas moins de 50,000 pas, si on le preud de Pendroit oil le Lycus 
va se jetter dans le Tigre. II est aise de juger par-la quelle, deyoit 
^tre la grandeur de Nin^ve. Je ne vois rien de plus magnifique que 
la description qui nous a ^te laiss(^e par Diodore. Si on en croit cet 
historien, elle avoit 150 stades de long sur 90 de large; etle circuit 
(Stoit de 480 stades, qui font environ 60,000 pas. Une si prodigieuse 
^tendue paroitroit sans doute incroyable, si on ne trouvoit express^- 
ment dans I'Ecriture, que Jonas n'employa pas moins de trois jours 
k faire le tour de cette fameuse ville. Apr^s tout, les murs n'en 
fetoient pas moins dignes d'admiration. Leur hauteur tftoit de 1 00 
pieds, et on rapporte que trois chariots y pouvoient aisement 
marcher de front. II y avoit outre cela 1500 tours, dont chacune 
fctoit de 200 pieds de haut. A juger par cette description, il n'.y. a 

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Nadir Shah when he besieged Mousul encamped 
within this inclosure, and his own tents were pitched 
on the Koyunjuk mount. He did not entrench 
himself, indeed he found a kind of defence ready 
made in the ancient walls of Nineveh ; and had he 
chosen a less guarded position, he would have had 
no occasion to throw up any works, as he was in no 
danger of a sally from the garrison. There was no 
army in the field, and the brave garrison of Mousul 
were few in number and obliged to keep strictly on 
the defensive within the walls on the other side of the 
river, the bridge being of course broken down. The 
inhabitants still talk much of the skill of Kazukjee 
Mustafa Pasha, an engineer who had arrived from 
Constantinople, in finding out and defeating Nadir 
Shah's plans for mining and getting possession of the 
city ; once in particular when he was working a 
tunnel under the Tigris. 

They also have a story about the dispersion of 
Nadir Shah's army by the miraculous interposition 
of St. George, St. Matthew *, and Jonah, who ap- 
peared among them armed and mounted. 

personne qui ne s*imagm&t, qu'a. peine un si^cle atiroit pu suffire 
pour porter k sa perfection un ouvrage qui est si fort au-dessus des 
plus beaux monumens de I'antiquitt?. Si l*on s'eii rapporte si 
Eustathe, il fut enti^rement acheve dans Pespace de huit annexes; 
et la cliose semblera d'autant plus vraisemblable, que 140,000 
homines y travaillferent sans interruption.** — Academie des In- 
scriptions, vol. iv. p. 500, duodecimo. 

* Called by the people of Mousul, Sheikh Muttee, not the 
Evmngelist. There is. a very ancient and celebrated convent (Deir 

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November 12. — ^Tlje bridge of boats at the city is 
three hundred and five feet in length, and consists of 
twenty-one boats ; then comes a space of one hun- 
dred and forty feet to the end of a stone bridge of 
sixtieen arches five hundred and twelve feet, in all 
nine hundred and fifty-seven feet, the whole of which 
space is occupied by the river in the spring and 
early summer. ^ I have seen it in this state twice on 
two former visits to this place ; at present a small 
stream of one foot deep only passes through it ; the 
bridge forms an obtuse angle at its centre. The 
bridge of boats is extended to the stone bridge, when 
the river rises and covers the pebbly bed, which 
is now a vacant space of one hundred and forty feet 
between the two "bridges. The river is narrowest at 
the bridge of boats, and deepest just below it, where it 
is fifty feet in mid-channel ; it then widens and shal-« 
lows to 38, 30,21, 18, 10, 11, 11, 12, 10, 9,10, 12, 
10, 8, 7, 5, to the place below our garden, where it 
throws out two branches eastwards, and forms the 
two low islands now planted with melons ; this is 
about two miles below the bridge, but these islands 
and others above the town all disappear when the 
river rises, and it then becomes one fine stream *. 

Mar Mattel) dedicated to him half way up Mount Makloube. 
The veneration of the Mahometans for him probably is inherited 
from ante- Islam times. 

* I may here observe that the measurements and soundings of 
the river were taken by Captam Kefala. 

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48 [cH. XIV. 


Continuation of the Examination of the Ruins of Nineveh — 
Measurements— Hollow Way— Remains of Piers, Buttresses and 
Pillars — Separation Mound— Stones with Bitumen — ^Vestiges 
of another Mound— Great Mound called Eski Bari— The Ditch 
— Conical Mound — Arrival of Delli Samaan — Antiques- 
Country North of the Ruins — Large Stone-masonry — ^Thc 
Wall— Tomb of Sheikh Ahmed— Convent of St. George- 
Mounds of Ruins — Country South of Nineveh — ^Measurements 

' — High Bank of Yaremjee — Mousul Winter — Cultivation — 
Mode of Building practised — same as in Ancient Times. 

November 13. — ^Went out as usual to Nineveh. My 
object to-day was to inspect the eastern part of 
the ruin^. I first went to the two mounts^ which are 
about twenty-five feet high, and here I sketched a 
view of Mousul*; this being a good point, as it takes 
in Nebbi Yunus in the fore-ground. In the mean- 
time I sent the Seyd to Nebbi Yunus to take the 
dimensions of the mount which juts out from it ; he 
found them as follows : 

Length east and west ... .431 ^ feet. 

Breadth north to south. . . .355 do. 
He effected this without being observed ; whereas 
had I gone I should have attracted a crowd round 
me. He also saw in the village a very large stone 
with one line of writing in the cuneiform character 
on it ; but as this was all, he did not attempt to bring 
it away, being very ponderous. 

* See accompanying plate. 

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I also looked again at the western boundary from 
Nebbi Yunus up to the Khausser. There are three 
passages through this wall. The largest, which may 
have been originally an opening, is the one nearest 
to the Khausser. 

While I was sketching, I detached the captain 
with a working-party to measure on to the eastward 
boundary. The measurement is as follows : — 

1295— To the edge of the ravine, in which is Thisb^^s well. 
145 — Breadth of the ravine to its eastern mound. 
395 — Breadth of the mound. 
. 112— Breadth of the second ravine. After this comes the last 

regular or considerable mound. 
200*7 — Outside of the boundary to the inside of the last con- 
siderable mound. 

About half way between the boundary, and the 
ravine is a hollow way about one hundred and fifty feet 
broad, sunk a little below the level, and as straight 
as if it had been drawn ^vith a line. It runs N. 7 W. 
by S. 7 E. I at first was inclined to consider this as 
a ditch, but a little way in it, on the left of a road, 
I perceived some vestiges, which induced me to ride 
through the hollow way as far as it went. I found 
in it, about two hundred yards from the Kermelis 
road, and near the middle of the ravine, some ves- 
tiges composed of concretion or conglomeration rock; 
which, had the forms been at all equivocal, might 
have passed for natural objects on a slight inspec- 
tion ; but though there was not enough left to make 
out any regular plan, there was certainly quite suffi- 

VoL. II. E 

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cient to show that it was building, all the forms being 
strictly and unequivocally artificial, consisting of 
right angles, and stumps of piers, buttresses, or 
pillars. These remains covered several square yards, 
but are only a couple of feet above the ground. It i6 
quite clear too that they are not cut out, but built. 
They are no doubt formed by the common rubbish 
of the country, that is to say, of pebbles and soil, 
well rammed down, with perhaps what is called a 
wash of lime poured upon it, which in a short time 
would bind the whole together, and convert it into a 
solid mass, exaetly like a natural rock : for in some 
of these conglomerations, ^i^here they had crumbled 
away, I found pieces of lime-mortar, and in others 
some layers of indurated mud, as if it had been dis- 
tilled, when wet, through the mass, and had filled up 
the hollows which it had found near the bottom. I 
still rode on in this sunken way, remarking, as I 
went along, some other vestiges of building on the 
sides. The bottom of it is ploughed. It appears as 
if it had been closed up by building, possibly a gate<- 
way*. A semicircular hollow way leaves it at 
this end, and returns to it again a little south of the 
Kermelis road ; and it is in this semicircle, or more 
correctly arc, that Thisbfe's well is situated at four 
hundred and ninety feet north of the Kermelis road. 
1 rode all through the arc to its rej unction with the 

* The level of this curious hollow way is much above the bed 
formed by the inundations of the Khausser; 

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straight ravine, atld examined the ravine itself to its 
south termination, which isnorth of the south-east angle 
of the inclosure. Here also the sides exhibit a great 
quantitjr of solid conglomeration. The spot is called 
by the natives Abdal Kaiasi, or the Abdal or Der- 
vish Rock. 

We now returned to rest at Thisb^'s well; and the 
captain amused himself with cutting our names on 
its walls. Some traveller in after times, when oui* 
remembrance has long been swept away by the 
torrent of time, and the meanest of mati's works 
only remain^ may wonder, on reading the name of 
Mary Rich, who the adventurous female was who 
had visited the ruins of Ninfeveh. He will not be 
aware that, had her name been inscribed at every 
spot she had visited in the course of her weary pil- 
grimage, it would be found in places compared with 
which Mousul is the centre of civilization. 

I next went to examine the ravine east df the arc> 
from which it is separated by a mound or elevation 
three hundred and ninety-five feet broad in front of 
the well, and of no great height. The Kermelis 
road passes over, and almost obliterates it. Farther 
north the separation mound is much higher, probably 
twenty-five feet high, and growing narrower at the 
top. The ditch, or ravine itself, is ofle hundred and 
seventy-two feet broad, and is bounded on the east by 
another mound, the highest of all, and much higher 
towards the ditch ; the level of the country being 


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higher than the bottom of the ditch. The upper 
part of this mound comes to a ridge. The lower 
part is broad, and seemingly rests on a bank or bed 
of concretion, of which it is difficult to determine 
whether it be artificial or natural, but I am rather 
inclined to think the latter. The west side of the 
ditch is lower, that is, between eight and ten feet 
high; and from the road in a southerly direction, 
'exhibits almost a regular wall of concretion up to its 
termination, nearly on a line with the south-east 
angle of the inclosure. The bottom of the ditch is 
full of loose pebbles, possibly the decomposition of 
the conglomeration. A few solid fragments are seen 
near the middle ; but their forms are not such as to 
enable me to say positively that they were buildings. 

I must not forget to repeat, that from all these 
mounds, large stones, frequently with bitumen ad- 
hering to them, are dug out. In general, I think 
there were but very few bricks used in the building 
of Nineveh. 

But to return to my survey. The ditch and mound 
run S. 3 W. from the Kermelis road to its south ter- 
mination, and N. 1| E. to the Khausser ; but it is 
not quite so ruled a line as the first hollow way. I 
went up the Kermelis road to the outer, or east side 
of the eastern mound, and then traced it down along 
the outside. Two ravines, or roads, descend through 
it to the ditch, between the Kermelis road and its 
termination. It decreases in height as you advance ; 

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and the nature of the country outside/ which is not 
flat, and over which the plough has passed for ages, 
renders it almost impossible to ascertain to what 
extent eastwards vestiges of the former habitations 
of men might be found ; but I am inclined to think 
that Nineveh extended still farther in this direction. 
This uneven country is about four miles in breadth, 
commencing from the eastern part of the inclosure 
on the Kermelis road, and extends north up to the 
first rising of the country to join the Koordish moun* 
tains on the road from the village of Reshideh to 
Vana. It then comes to the river's edge — how far 
south it extends I am unacquainted with. What 
part of this space was coveriefd by ancient Nineveh 
it is, as I said before, nearly impossible now to 

As I was riding along the outside of this mound, 
towards the Kiausser, and where it becomes much 
lower, I came to some vestiges of another mound, 
about fifty feet still east of the former. This mound 
winds a little, and is of no great length. Before it, 
the great mound becomes very low and flat, and is 
ploughed over. This second mound rises in one 
place to the height of nearly thirty feet, and is 
divided by a road. On the highest part of this 
mound where I took my stand, in order to take an 
observation, I had a good view of the country round 
me. The mound on which I was standing runs 
about N. 15 W. to S. 15 E., beginning near the 

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Khausser. The village of Hashamia lay on this 
side of the river^ not far from its banks ; and on a 
high spot opposite was the termination of this mound. 
The Khausser, on quitting the inclosure, turns and 
runs about N. 20 W., then about N. 40 W., up 
from this mound. The great mound, which is called 
Eski Bari, winds and follows the river up its eastern 
bank. The other bank, after the elbow N. 40 W., 
is also high, and seemingly artificial likewise. The 
country about the village of Hashamia is high and 
uneven. The mound on which I was standing 
grows less again, and soon terminates at a water- 
course or ravine made by the rain forcing itself a 
channel into the Khausser. 

I now returned along the west face of the great 
mound, which soon becomes higher again. I noticed 
on its western boundary, which separates it from the 
arc, or semicircular hollow way in which Thisb^'s 
well is situated, a mount like an inverted bowl, with 
a circle, or rather vestiges of building in a circle^ 
about half way up. I traced this ditch and mound 
all along to its southern extremity, nearly on a line 
with the south-west angle of the inclosure. Here it 
opens into a lower country, and a small ravine or 
water-course now dry passes by it, runs parallel 
with the south face of the inclosure at a few yards' 
distance, and discharges the waters that pour through 
the ditch on very heavy rains ; but this water-course 
does not commence with the ditch — it comes from the 

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east. Close on its edge, and indeed,, even in its bed, 
is the recent excavation before mentioned, in which 
were discovered large stqneei and bitumen ; and this 
evening, as we were riding along it on our return 
home, we saw some immense stones with bitumen in 
several other places . 

But I have a little outstripped my progress in the 
.survey. In riding along in the ditch, when I came 
to the place where the mound grows higher, I 
ascended it and tool$: some sights with my compass. 

My next station was at the southern termination 
of the great mound. It here falls at once, without 
being broken, into the common l^vel. A little conical 
artificial mount, called Zembil Tepessi, was visible 
fr^Hn hence, in the country outside the ruins, and 
distant about half a mile in a south-east direction ; 
and to the east I perceived another mound, on the 
outside of Eski Bari, near its north end, on the 
Khausser, but it was not considerable. The straight 
hollow way I have already described terminates 
abruptly in Abdal Kaiasi, a little before Eski Bari. 

We returned home a little af);er sunset. 
. November 16. — Belli Samaan, my curiosity- 
hunter^ brought me to-day some fragments of cunei- 
form inscriptions on stone, and a seal of agate with 
the priest worshipping the sun, and other symbols, 
similar in every respect to some I got at Babylon. 
These he found in the mound of Koyunjuk, which 
the natives call the Kalaa, or Castle of Ninewe. 

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November 17. — ^This morning I sallied forth to 
visit the country north of the ruins of Nineveh. We 
first went up to Koyunjuk, along the banks of the 
Khausser, which skirts the greater part of it close at 
the base. At the level of the water where the rains 
had washed away some of the soil from off the mound, 
we saw several layers of large stone-masonry, like a 
solid foundation. This was near the village of Koy- 
unjuk, where we crossed the Khausser ; it is about 
a foot deep. As the passage is generally bad on the 
Mousul road where it falls into the Tigris, people 
are often forced after rain to come up thus far, even 
when they are going to the village of Reshideh, as 
there is no bridge. Here it widens, and has a bard 
gravelly bottom. In the spring it is sometimes un- 
fordable for a short time. 

The Khausser is generally drawn off for irrigating 
the cotton-plantations in the alluvial ground of the 
river, and, when not used for irrigation, its super- 
fluous waters run through a channel east of the 
Tigris to the islands below the garden. There is a 
small bridge of three arches over this channel, very 
near the bridge of Mousul ; but when it is much 
overflowed, it discharges itself into the Tigris above 
the bridge. The lesser channel is properly the vent 
of the irrigation canals. . 

Leaving the Khausser we passed through the area 
of the inclosure to station No. 3 ; remarking on our 
left, that the higher country passes through the 

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walls, which are built on it, at the mount between 
stations 3 and 4, and runs all along that side of the 
area, exhibiting in some places the strata of concre- 
tion, which may not be building. It is not so 
unequivocal as the specimens in the hollow way. 

We passed through the wall and then rode over 
alluvial soil covered with pebbles washed down 
from the higher grounds, the banks of which were 
from about fifteen to twenty and thirty feet high. 
They advanced outwards from the mount above station 
3, in a northerly direction, sometimes descending 
very gradually into the lower ground, and sometimes 
more abrupt and broken, where it shows a table or 
stratum of concretion, about five feet thick, and ten 
or fifteen above the alluvial soil^ which is horizontal, 
and seems to run through the whole of the country. 
The country is likewise much furrowed by rain, run- 
ning ofi* the higher and harder ground down towards 
the river ; and on the edge or step, especially, is worn 
into hills, by the yielding and crumbling down of 
the gravel. In such a country it is not easy to say 
precisely what are ruins and what are not; what is 
art converted by the lapse of ages into a semblance 
of nature, and what is merely nature broken by the 
hand of time into ruins, approaching in their appear- 
ance those of art. 

We went to the tomb of Sheikh Ahmed, which I 
had set with my compass from many points. It is 

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situated on a high promontory of this bank or gtep of 
the higher country, overlooking the village of Kadi 
Keuy. This gave me a good line of country, and I 
took a set of angles with my pocket-sextant care- 
fully rectified, each angle being taken several times. 
I next took up the detail of the river down to 
Nineveh; and when I had finished, we mounted, 
and descending the cliff or bank again into the 
alluvial ground, proceeded to the convent of St. 
George. Shortly after we passed the promontory, 
which is a cliff of concretion, out of which we re- 
marked a fig-tree growing. 

From this the bank retires into a semicircle fi>rm- 
ing a bay. It advances again close behind the eon- 
vent, and then runs westerly to the river beyond the 
village of Shira Khan ; the area is alluvial. In the 
bank, which is much furrowed and worn into hil- 
locks, I observed some stones, lime, and other frag- 
ments which seemed to indicate building. Some 
mounds near the convent, and a line or mound about 
a hundred yards long just before it, were quite 
unequivocally artificial. The convent itself is situated 
on a mound, and in this solitary bay it looked like a 
hermitage on Sinai. It belongs to the Chaldeans. 
The church is small and ancient. At the end oppo- 
site the sanctuary or altar is a high place, on which 
are two pulpits for readers, a sure mark that this was 
an oriental church anterior to Romanism ; and pro- 

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bably it belonged to the Nestorians. There are many 
old strangheh* inscriptions ; but the kind of half- 
priest, half-servant who showed it to us could not in- 
form me the age of it. A Dominican missionary. Padre 
Gaetano, is buried thez-e a.d. 1753. The convent is 
more recent than the church. The terrace of the 
church ivas clean and agreeable. In the spring it is 
a favourite resort of the principal Turks of Mousul, 
who probably come here to indulge themselves in the 
unlimited use of wine, to which the people of Mousul 
of all religions are much addicted. 

On our return we kept easterly through the high 
country^ which is, as I said before, furrowed by the 
water making its way to the lower banks of the 
river. Its surface is completely covered with pebbles, 
among which I noticed many flints. We did not 
observe anything hereabouts which could positively 
be pronounced to be a ruin. The river throws out 
several branches in the low country. 

We entered the inclosure at station No. 3, and pro- 
ceeded, as befpre, to the Khausser unfier Koyuqjuk. 

* The different sects of Syrian Christians do not use the same 
character in writing their ancient language. That employed by the 
Maronites and son^e others is nearly the Syriac letter of European 
printed books. It is said to have been introduced by the celebrated 
divine and historian Abul Faraj, or Abulfaragius, Bishop of Seleu- 
cia, in the thirteenth century. The truth is, however, that it was 
formed by gradual changes ifrom the old Syriac alphabet, called 
Siranghelo or Estrangheht which is of considerable antiquity, and 
in which, of course, the most valuable MSS. are written. — 
Communicated by a Friend to the Ed, 

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We examined the break of the western boundary wall 
on the Khausser, and another break or opening in it 
a little farther south, the earth of which it is formed 
lying in layers like unburnt brick ; but I cannot posi- 
tively affirm that it was unburnt brick. No reeds were 
visible, even where the fractures which showed the 
interior were recent. I saw again several large 
stones, dug out of the lower part of this wall. 

We returned home just at sunset, the distance 
from the convent being an hour and a half. 

November 18. — ^This day I devoted to the exami- 
nation of the country to the south of Nineveh. I 
first went to the southern face of the inclosure, 
which I measured, or rather the Captain measured 
for me, with the chain, while I took the bearings 
again, in order to serve as a verification. The di- 
mensions are as follows : — 


1. The part of the western wall (from Nebbi Yunus 
down) where it is highest, and turns round the 
south-west angle without interruption, to south- 
west angle - - - - - - - 320 

2. From south-west angle to first break in the south wall 520 

3. From first break to the second or principal break 

or entrance ------.. 1130 

4. From the second break to the third - - - 510 

5. From the third break to the south-west anele - 460 
Total, from the south-west to the south-east angle - 2620 

Or 873 yards, 1 foot. 

The direction N. 84 W. The anglfe then rounds off 
into the new direction, and the new alignment is 
N, T 56' W. Hence the termination of the straight 

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hollow way is N. 24 E. The hollow way has a 
fragment of concrete building just in the centre 
of the mound at its termination. It is quite plain 
that this hollow way is not a mere ditch or canal 
dug or cut out ; for here especially its configuration 
is quite clear. It rises from the foot of the eastern 
boundary to the edge of the hollow way in an in- 
clined plane. 

From the south-east angle of the inclosure the 
westernmost point of the high abrupt bank of 
Yaremjee bore N. 18 W. I was determined to in- 
spect this bank myself, although I was told it was 
quite natural ; yet the level of the country rose so 
much at one spot, that this alone was enough to 
excite my curiosity. I was indeed very glad I went 
there, for I found a high abioipt bank, which was evi- 
dently artificial, broken down by some former over- 
flowing of the Tigris. It was forty-two feet perpendi- 
cular height, and one thousand one hundred and fifty 
feet long from N. 85 W. to S. 85 E. At its western 
extremity it turns a little south, and has there also 
been eaten away by the water. It is on the prolon- 
gation of the step from the river-bed to the higher 
ground. On its south side it rises gently from the 
ground ; and here is situated the village of Yaremjee, 
the inhabitants of which are of the Turcoman race. 
We observed likewise a few tents of the Beni Harith 
Arabs. The north face of the mound is, as I said 
before, a prolongation of the step which rises from the 
low alluvial ground to the higher country. Here the 

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country has been cut down to a precipice by the waters, 
and exhibits remains of building — such as layers of 
large stones — some with bitumen on them^ and a few 
burnt bricks and tiles* The interior looks like the 
interior of the west boundary wall of the inclosure. 
The layers of stone-work were to be seen likewise. 
The breadth of the mound is inconsiderable ; but it is 
difficult to say what it may have been before the 
encroachment of the river. The river has not come 
up to this bank within the memory of man. The 
Turcomans of Yaremjee told me that there is a tradi- 
tion among them that thid was the Pottery of Nine- 
veh : that it seems to have been a part of Nineveh is 
certain. I did not meet vrith atiy antiques deserving 
of notice, except a Cufic coin or two, and a few 
Agnus Dei belonging to Christian rosaries. None 
of the stones that we observed here had any inscrip- 
tions on them. The whole appearance of the face of 
the mound is exactly similar to that of Koyunjuk 
where it is broken down. Beyond or south of the 
mound there are no appearances of ruins. 

I also observed all the detail of the river, both 
from here and the south-west angle, with the com- 
pass, and sketched it on the spot. 

We then returned home along the river. The 
low ground, where it is uncultivated, is covered with 
bushes of tamarisk ; but in every direction we went 
the cultivation was very extensive, and there seemed 
little ground wasted. The people were getting in the 
cotton harvest, which was almost over. 

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November 25. — We have had abundant rain yes* 
terday and to-day. The first rain that falls, when it 
is sufficient to soak the ground, is called '' pella" by 
the people of these parts, and is always much needed 
by the cultivation at that season. The Mousul winter 
begins generally about the end of this mouth. The in- 
crease of grain here is from eight to twenty on seed. 
Liast year, which was a very good one, the crops yielded 
twenty ; but this is not common. The lands in the 
territory of Mousul are obliged to lie fallow every 
other year. The farmers when they cultivate a spot 
of ground with wheat dr barley one year, plough it 
the next, and let it remain without seed till the 
year after ; but the islands in the river are cultivated 
fevery yeai*, without interniission. Some hemp is 
grown about Mousul, but, I believe, no flax. A 
great quantity of the castol'-oil plant is cultivated. 
The oil is used for burning, and is said to be effica- 
cious in bruises ; but they are not acquainted W^ith its 
purgative qualities ; indeed I have never met with 
any Orientals who were. 

November 30. — ^We have had raiii for several days 
past. At no season of the year is there ever so 
much rain at Bagdad as has just fallen here. This 
Mousul owes to the vicinity of the mountains. All 
the grain of these parts is cultivated without artififcial 
irrigation, which is applied to cotton only. On this 
account cotton is cultivated along the banks of 4;he 
river. Sometimes, by a sudden flood, the river 

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inundates the cotton-grounds ; but this happens 
generally at a season — that is, in the spring — ^when 
no great damage is occasioned. 

December 1. — ^We have had incessant rain. Last 
night a violent thunder-storm, with very heavy 
tropical rain, and one of the loudest claps, or rather 
crashes, of thunder I ever heard. Such a quantity 
of rain as this does not fall in Bagdad from one 
year's end to the other. The Khausser now dis- 
charges itself direct into the Tigris, and brings ait 
immense body of water. 

December 5.— -The rain still continues. This 
afternoon it seemed inclined to clear up. The river 
is now quite full, aiid has overflowed the melon- 
grounds. The water-wheels are removed, and the 
bridge of boats opened. So great a flood is not 
common at this time of the year. 

Bekir Aga, at whose expense the stone bridge 
over the Tigris here was built, also built one over 
the Khausser, on the Constantinople road; but it 
was carried away one night by the violence of the 
Khausser on a sudden inundation. The bridge over 
the Tigris is built wholly of stones dug out of the 
walls of Nineveh, which, as Jirjees Aga remarked, 
is an inexhaustible resource. 

I have learnt from Hajee Jirjees Aga a mode of 
building which is still practised, and which throws 
great light on some of the ruins seen at Nineveh. 
Pebbles, lime, and red earth or clay are mixed to- 

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gether. This in a very short time, especially after 
exposure to water, becomes, as Hajee Jirjees Aga 
said, like a solid rock. The lime for this purpose 
must be slaked with water, and not merely burnt. 
It was in this manner that he himself, by command 
of the Pasha, lately caused the passage at the bridge 
gate, and a part of the bank which had been carried 
away by the river to be repaired. It is to be re- 
marked that I learnt this, not by any inquiry about 
Nineveh, but by accident, in the course of a conver- 
sation on other topics. 

Vol, II. F 

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half past three. The olive woods before the village 
were extensive and the trees were fine ones, though 
seemingly of a great age. A similar wood lies 
before the neighbouring village of Baazani, and 
much of the olive-oil used in Mousul is the produce 
of these two villages. It is principally consumed in 
the manufacture of soap, not being of a sufficiently 
good quality for eating, probably from negligence in 
the preparation. It has a singular taste, but all the 
Christians of this country prefer kunjut or sesamine 
oil, which to a stranger is extremely offensive. 

The inhabitants of Baasheka are composed of 
Yezids, or, as they call themselves here, Dassini *, 
and Jacobites, who have a neat-looking church. 
There are also ten families of Mahometans. The 
neighbouring village of Baazani is similarly com- 
posed with respect to Dassinis, but the Christians 
there are I belief mostly Syrian Catholics. The 
houses are built of stone, and we had very tolerable 
quarters in what is called the palace, or house of the 
proprietor of the village, Emin Bey, a gentleman of 
Mousul, who sometimes visits it, as the people said, 
" to make his keif, or enjoy himself;" that is, taste 

* Dasin is another name for Sinjaar, and all the Yezids called 
Dassinis seem to have been originally from Sinjaar. The others, 
though professing the same faith, are never called Dassinis. Dasin 
is likewise the name of a large village in the province of Hakkaria, 
two or three days' journey on the other side of Amadia. There are 
the ruins there of a convent dedicated to St. John. The village 
too 1 hear is now ruined and abandoned. 

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the liquor of his peasantry, who all make bad wine 
and strong arrack, the Yezids being even greater 
drinkers than the Christians. 

Baasheka is situated just in front of a defile, 
where there is a spring which seems to be an object 
of veneration to the Yezids, as is also Ain u Sufra. 
They repair to them in spring to the number of two 
or three thousand, men, women and children ; they 
offer sacrifices, play at various martial games, and 
end by getting drunk. In these parties they are not 
unfrequently joined by Turks and Christians. At 
this season, the feast of Kliidder Elias, they have a 
fast of three days, which they had just finished on 
the night of our arrival. There is a very neat tomb 
of some Yezid saint in the olive-grounds, covered 
with a white stuccoed dome. 

The Yezids seemingly have Christianity, or some 
barbarous remains of it, amon^^em. They admit 
both baptism and circumcision; believe in the 
metempsychosis ; never say " such a one is dead," 
but " he is changed ;" never enter a Christian church 
without kissing the threshold and putting off their 
shoes. Their principal burial-place is at Bozan, a 
village at the foot of the mountain of Rabban 
Hormuz, and bodies are carried there from all parts. 
It was formerly a Christian village with a monastery. 

Tlie Khan of Sheikh Khan or Baadli is the Pope 
of the Yezids. He is descended from the family of 
the Ommiades, and is esteemed the Emir Hadje of 

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in some places^ looking like a small Koyunjuk^ was 
visible about one mile distant in S. 7 W. This 
mount is called by the peasants Tel Billa, and is veiy 
ancient. On a pinnacle or broken part of the face 
of the line of hills, just below or south-east of the 
village, are the remains of a building called by the 
easants Kalaa u Safra ; and they say Safra, of 
whom they make a personage, resided there in very 
ancient times. 

The hill on which Mar Daniel*, another old 
Christian church, is situated, and of which it occu- 
pies the highest and central point, is abrupt on its 
western and sloping on its eastern side, where it 
descends to broken ground that runs along to the 
southern extremity of the line of hills that screen 
Makloube. These again are abrupt on their western 
faces, and all broken into glens or ravines. On the 
east they decline gently into a vale much higher 
than the country (• their west. They (more cor- 
rectly it, for it is one continued line) do not extend 
very far north; and on the south they terminate 
before they reach the extremity of Makloube. The 
course seems east and west. 

December 14. — ^There is a road by the spring Ain 
u Safra through a defile in the hills into the vale of 
Makloube, but as it is stony and troublesome we pre- 
ferred going round by the southern extremity. We 

* The only mention I can find of Mar Daniel is in Asseman, 
torn. ii. p. 247. 

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mounted at twenty minutes past ten and kept S. 84 
E. along the foot of the hills. Soon after we came 
to the little Yezid village of Hajee Jo ; and a little 
after eleven, at the foot of the hills, we passed the 
Yezid village of Kofan, where a great Peer or 
Yezid saint resides. At a quarter before twelve 
our course turned N. 20 W. over the hills, near 
their termination into the broken valley which sepa- 
rates them from Makloube. The convent from hence 
lad a formidable and inaccessible appearance. At 
noon we reached a little spring fringed wifli some 
dwarf oleanders. The bare and broken hills of sand- 
stone and limestone had put me much in mind 
of some of the islands of the Archipelago, and the 
oleanders strengthened the resemblance. 

Soon after we passed the little Yezid village of 
Meerik, shortly after which we began the steep ascent 
of the mountain up to the convent, through the project- 
ing wings of the rock. The road? not a bad one for 
such a situation, wound in short sharp turns up the 
face of the precipice. Mrs. Rich rode the whole way 
up, but the example was not followed by many of us. 
At a quarter to one we reached the gate of the con- 
vent, the ascent having occupied just thirty minutes. 
The convent has much the appearance of a strong- 
hold, being composed of two large towers, or build- 
ings resembling towers, at each extremity, united 
indeed by a common wall. Had this curtain been 
embattled, and the wall a little thicker, it would pass 

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for a very tolerable baron's castle of the foitr^enth 
century. It; is situated on the very pdge of the pre- 
cipice, apd the bare rock rises immediately behind 
it, in which indeed are ensconced many chambers, 
and parts of the structure. It is, in short, built in 
the abrupt face of the mountain, like a martin's nest, 
and the general plan is not very easy to describe. 
It consists principally of the aforesaid towers and two 
courts between them, with an infinity of little de- 
tached holes, nooks, and chambers in the rock ; but 
from a great many of them being now in ruins, it is 
evident that the whole establishment must at one 
time have been much n^ore considerable. Indeed it 
formerly seems to have been a place of strength, for 
Tamerlane took it by storm. He assaulted it from 
the eastern side of the mountain, and entered just 
above its south-east angle. There were then works 
built on the rqck, which is now unprotected, and 
commands it. The present habitable part, and the 
church, which is in the south-east angle, have been 
recently fitted up, under the protection of the Pasha 
of Mousul's brother, Hajee Osman Bey, but the 
skeleton of this part of the design seems to have 
been preserved. In the highest part of the inclosure 
up the hill are seen some lines of large stones, part 
of the original building. This (convent belongs to 
the Jacobites, and the abbot is always a Matran or 
bishop. The present incumbent is an old man, and 
besides himself he has only one monk, and a lad who 

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Cp. xy.] ABULFARAJ. 75 

is educ£|,tipg for the priesthood. According to the 
abbot ]\|q.trau lyiousa, the conyeqt was founded in 
334 A.D. by Mar ]\|£^ttei, a saint, and companion of 
St. George, who fled from the persecution of Diocle- 
tian, and took refuge here. Having by his prayers 
healed the daughter named Havla, of the King of 
the Assyrians, he obtained perinission to build this 
convent. But this, to the best of my recollection, is 
recorded in Assemanni, in a ini^ch piore authentic 

The famous (Gregory Bar Hebrgpus, or A|)ulfi*raj, 
is Ijuried here*. 

* The following is taken from Assemanni : — 

In the time of Shapour, King of Persia, two convents were 
founded in Assyria, at or near Nineveh. First, St. Matthew, on 
mount Elphaphius, also called Chuchta; the other, St. Jonah. 
The first was occupied hy the Jacobites, the otjier by the Nesto- 
rians. The ponyent of Mar Mattei is also mentioned, under Bar- 
ebraeus the bishop of Seleucia, who was put to death by Firouz, in 
^9,% of the Greeks, or a.d. 486*. It is also called Chuchta, in 
Mount Elpheph. Isa^c of Nineveh was 9 monk in Mar lyfattei, 
about the year 590 a.d. In the year 1171, when Noureddin 
Zenghi, Lord pf Damascus, was at Mo^sul, the Koords broke into 

' The era called Alexandrian is that of the Seleucidse, com- 
mencing with tne entrance 0^ Seleucus Nicator into Babylon, 
three hundred and eleven years and four months before the com- 
mencement of our era. It was once much used, especially by the 
eastern Greeks, and by the Jews, who call it the era of contracts, 
from having bepi^ compelled hj the Macedonian kings to adopt it 
in civil processes, jt is still used by some of the Arabs. The 
Arabic name for it, Taarick-dheil-Karnain, the era of the two- 
horned, seems to have given rise to the supposition that it began 
with Alexander, whose well-known claims to descent from Jupiter 
Ammon occasioned his being represented with horns, as was 
Seleucus also, from some cause not so fully ascertained. — By a 

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From the terrace of the south tower where we are 
lodged, we have a noble and extended view, com- 
prising the whole of Alexander's operations from the 
passage of the Tigris, to the arrival at Arbela, after 
the battle of Gaugamela. The Bumadus meanders 
at the foot or southern extremity of this mountain, 
and I am now told it rises just below Amadia. I 
can trace the Zab plainly. 

December 15. — The morning was rather thick and 
cloudy, so that I could not get any altitude for the 
time. Nevertheless the distance was clear enough 
to enable me to go on with my observations upon 
the country, and this is indeed a noble station for 
the purpose. 

. I had a hard day's work, and to relieve myself a 
little from the fatigue of the observations, I went 
again to see the church. As I thought before, the 
skeleton of the building is old. In a room or recess 
adjoining the sanctuary, we were shown the tomb of 

the convent of Mar Mattel, and slew Matthew the Archimandrite ; 
and it was again ruined by the Koords in a.d. 1369. 

The following is extracted from among other notes in Mr. Rich's 
Journal, but without any reference. It is probably taken from 

Mar Mattel came from Nice to this place. Mar Behnan, son 
of the King Sennacherib of Nineveh^ was martyred by his father 
for having embraced Christianity from Mar Mattei. Sennacherib 
afterwards repented, and becoming a Christian, from the persuasion 
of Mar Mattei, founded the convent. Mar Behnan's sister Sarah 
was also a saint. Sennacherib was a Mellik or Provincial Governor 
under the Romans, as the Bey of Jezira, or Pasha of Amadia, 
are now under the Turks. 

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the founder. Mar Mattel, with that of his successor 
Zaccheus, and several of his disciples. On the tomb- 
stones, which project out of the wall like desks, are 
inscriptions in stranghelo, or, as it is called here, 
seringheli. On that of Mar Mattel was the date 
of 1530, that is, of Alexander, or 1230 of Christ*, 
at least this is what the priest told me, for I cannot 
yet read stranghelo, though I hope soon to be able. 
The name of the King of the Assyrians is said to be 
Sem Hhareebs, and he was the father of Mar Behnan, 
or St. Ellas, or Khidder Ellas. This is a jfine gali- 
matias ! I hope to be able however to clear it up, 
by reference to Assemanni. 

On the terrace above is a smaller church dedicated 
to the Virgin, but service is seldom or never per- 
formed in it. We weiit into a cleft or hole in the 
rock on the north end, where the water comes from 
that supplies the convent. It is raln-Water collected 
in the mountain, and it is conducted down to this 
spot and let out by a brass cock as required. The 
water is good, and though it be rain-water, the pas- 
sage through the rock gives it the qualities of water 
from a spring. 

We next went to see the old bishop in his room, 
in the northern tower. The room was good in itself, 
but filthy and wretched in all its accompaniments. 

* This date probably refers to a period whjen the tomb of Mar 
Mattel was repaired, or when a new one was erected. The con- 
vent was founded by Mar Mattel in 334, according to the present 
bishop, and somewhere about that time, according to Assemanni. 

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Hie showed me a part of th^ Bible on vfellum in 
stranghelo characters, which I was fortunate enough 
to procure from him. It vrA^ indeed of v6ry little 
use to him, and from the state it was in when it was 
brought to me, I may flatter myself With having saved 
it from total destruction. 

After our visit to the bishop was over, we went 
out of the convent to sfee a caVe and a spring, much 
celebrated in thfes^ parts by all keifmdkers, or seekers 
of pleasure. Turning a corner a little way north of 
the convent, on the face of the rock, we canlfe to 
a feces^, or platform^ planted with olives ; behind 
which the rock forms a seihicircular recess^ hung 
with weeds and femall bushefe, in a jiictur^sque man- 
ner, the wd,ter droppirig down flrom the arch of a 
rock above. TWo little doors cut in the rock admit 
you ; one into a cave in tvhich is a few feet of water 
collected by dfbppings from the roof, and discharg- 
ing itself into a little relservoir in front ; and the 
other, into a larger Cave, communicating with the 
former, the air of which I felt quite tvarm. The 
roofs of both are covered with stranghelo ivritiiig, 
not of a very remarkable description. The tempera- 
ture of the larger cave was 05° ; the water in the 
smaller one 66°. Thefee caves may possibly have 
been originally natural, but they have certainly been 
improved by art ; and the entrances and communi- 
cations, which are small and low, are no doubt arti- 
ficial. This would form no contemptible summer- 

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I perceive that these people do not like to be called 
Jacobites. The bishop corrected me frequentlyj and 
said they were Syriaiis. The Roman Catholic Sy- 
rians call themselves by that name, arid the others 
they call Jacobites, as sectaries of Jacobus Baradeus. 
These latter, again, will not allow they are sectaries, 
and insist on being called by their national appel- 

I must do the old bishop the justice to record a 
fact, though it tells rather against myself. In affirm- 
ing something, I made use of the common Maho- 
metan form of " Wallah," by God. He stopped me 
immediately. " Cannot you affirm simply," said he, 
*' without taking God's name in vain ? If you believe 
in the Gospel, do not swear." But unfortunately, 
having learned all my oriental languages from Mfel- 
homedd-ns, their profane modes of expression are so 
very familiar to me, that I fear I must often uncon- 
sciously have offended him in the course of conver- 

December 16. — I was hard at work tiU near three 
o'clock in the afternoon, sketching the country and 
finishing my observations, and the day was delight- 
fully clear and favourable for my purpose. I then 
went to the top, and over to the other side of the 
mountain, the ascent to which was extremely steep. 

South-east of the convent in a cleft in the moun- 
tain is a small olive-plantation, with a fine spring of 

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water belonging to the convent. The mountain is 
cut down in every part by deep and steep ravines, 
which indent it^ and make it appear as if the centre 
was supported by buttresses. Some small dwarf oak 
bushes, which are found all over it, reminded me of 
Koordistan. From a stand, not on the highest part, 
but on one of the eastern buttresses, east a little' 
south of the convent, I had a fine view over the 
plain of Naokor, and the whole course of the Buma- 
dus; from its issue out of the mountains to its junc- 
tion with the Zab. Naokor, which is under Amadia, 
begins on the east bank of the Ghazir or Bumadus. 
Just at the foot of the buttress on which we stood, it 
is joined by a smaller river called the Gomel *. The 
plain of Naokor is quite flat, and alluvial-like, except 
along the Ghazir, and where it is crossed by some 
lines, of low broken hills slightly elevated above the 
level of the plain. The most remarkable of these is 
a straight line of furrowed and broken ground, run- 
ning due south-east from the foot of Makloube and 
junction of the Gomel and Ghazir up to the moun- 
tain, to the place whence the Zab issues, or there- 
abouts. The basin of the Zab is deep. Between 
the Zab and the Bumadus a stream issues from the 

* The Gomel comes from the first range of mountains. It is 
now rather less than the Khausser, hut it is often swollen to a 
much greater size than that river ever attains, that is, fiilly as 
large as the Ghazir, and is then frequently impassable for days 

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mountains, and falls into the Zab. Over a low range 
of hills I observed a line of snowy mountains, among 
which is Akra, a pointed summit covered with 
snow; and some still higher mountains, which I 
think must be Zagros, peeped behind them, espe- 
cially to the north-east. The vale, or rather plain, 
of Naokor is, at a rough guess, about ten miles 
over *. 

The line of broken hills, or rather furrowed groundi 
I have already mentioned, rises, on its north face, as 
if it had been struck with a ruler. On its south 
side it is furrowed down gently towards the Buma* 
duB. Arbil woula no doubt have been clearly visible, 
had not a small line of furrowed hills on the other 
side of the Zab interposed. 

We observed on the sides of the mountain an im- 
mense quantity of squills, seemingly growing in a 
Yery luxuriant manner. There were many other 
plants, with which I am unacquainted. 

We returned over the mountain by a more direct 
but more precipitous road. On a sudden, without 
any previous menaces, my old giddiness in the head 
attacked me, and I fell in a Yery bad place. I soon, 
however, recovered, and I reached the convent in 
safety. We started three red-legged partridges on 
our way home. Wild boars are said to be found here. 

* Resin, or Ras ul Ain, or head of the waters, is an old place 
and convent under the mountain at the farthest extremity of 
Naokor, on the Akra road. 

Vol. II. G 

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The ruiuB of the convent extend a great way on 
the right and left, and above the preaent buildingi 
and some remains of towers indicate its former 
strength. Up in the rock above is a chamber cut 
out of the rock, with an inscription in it, said to 
have been a place of retirement of the founder^ St» 
Matthew^ where he lived before he obtained permis- 
sion to build the convent. It was in too precipitous 
a situation to admit of my attempting to visit it, so 
soon after my attack of giddiness in the head* 

The monk, who was our companion in our after- 
noon's walk, told us that some time ago a few rob* 
bers from Amadia got over the back wall of the 
convent from the rock behind, and attempted to 
plunder the church. One monk was killed, and 
himself very desperately wounded. The Yezids of 
the neighbouring village of Meirik heard some shots 
fired, and immediately came to the relief of the poor 

My accident had detained me beyond the time I 
had fixed for my return, in order to have an observa- 
tion of the azimuth. As soon as I came back, how- 
ever, I ran up to the terrace, and took a few sights; 
though I was still feeling very low. 

Ihce$9^er 17. — My work in this neighbourhood 
being finished^ I took leave of the monks, and left 
the convent, descending by the road we came, which 
indeed is the only practicable one ; but we all went 
down on foot. At half past ten we mounted at the 

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foot of the rock, and proceeded on in the direction of 
the Yezid village of Moghara,. slanting over the 
Cohy and towards the other side of the Vale. At 
twelve we reached the little Yezid village of Sherab 
Airan, on a ravine descending from the line towards 
the Gomel. We travelled but slowly to-day^ con-- 
stantly going up and down over stony ground. 

After a short halt we mounted again, a little 
before one, and proceeded in a north-west direction^ 
still going up and down, the ravines running down 
perpendicular to our road. We passed the Maho- 
metan village of Ahmed Bey, and then, following the 
course of a ravine, we arrived about two at the little 
Koordish village of Shorjee, in the hollow which 
receives all the waters that come down, on this side. 
In the bottom of the ravine is a stream *• All about 
the country is very much cut up, and is something 
like that about the neighbourhood of Derbend. 

After leaving Shorjee we travelled faster, as the 
country was less furrowed, and the descent to the 
hollow more gentle. • The crest, or ridge of hills 
parallel with us, was on our left ; and at three we 
passed a large village under them, called Kani^ 
Maran. This village is inhabited by the Rozhbian, 
or Rozhvian, and Bajilan Koords. Just before this- 
is the high land that separates the waters of the 
Khausser from those of the Gomel. It is rather 

* The Gomel. 


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curved on the north-west^ and descends from near 
the top of the ridge. 

From Kani Maran we descended over the ridge, 
which soon terminates on the right, or rather is pro- 
longed into broken ground. Soon after we came in 
sight of the village of Seidkhan just before us ; and 
close on the right of our road, a little stream called 
the Naoran bursts from a place called Ras ul Ain, 
and, passing through Seid Khan, after turning many 
mills, it joins the Khausser. We now turned S. 25 E., 
keeping the ridge on our left, and going along the 
foot of it In the plain on our right we remarked 
there were many tumuli, or mounts, not far from 
each other, some with villages at the foot of them, 
some without. There was a large one, with an ex- 
tensive flat top, like Tel Billa, and about the same 
size and shape. At ten minutes before four we 
arrived at the village of Imam Fadhla, inhabited by 
Rozhvian and Bajilan Koords. It was a very large 
pleasant-looking village, with good gardens about it, 
and here we halted for the day. 

We were obliged to wind mucb during this day*s 
march, as the surface of the ridge of hills, among 
which we were travelling, being an abrupt sandstone 
cliff, the direct road over them would have been very 
difficult, if not impossible, for loaded animals. 

December 18.— We mounted at half past nine, and 
retraced our steps to the road of yesterday, as far as 
the mill on the Naoran, just above the village of 

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« *- J 

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,^e^..^, .1-- ^^*^-^" 

^YE ailD MAK & WOJSyiLAJ?^ IpmCDM SliPfJAM. 

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Seidkhan/ where we halted for a little while. The 
country was quite open and gently declining down 
from the foot of the ridge to the Naoran in the plain* 

At half past twelve we crossed the Khausser, and 
passed Kelata, an Arab village, near which was a 
mount on the west bank of the river; and at 
twenty-five minutes past one we arrived at our 
quarters for the night, at. the considerable Dassini 
village of Sirej Khan. The famous Yezid capital 
Baadli, the residence of Mir Sheikh Khan, is N. 40 
E., three hours off, just under the first line of mdun« 

We remarked here, as in all the villages about 
Mousuli that the straw or forage is kept in little 
heaps, generally circular, with a mud and straw 
roofing over it. They look like graves at a dis^ 

All the women in the villages through which we 
have passed wear the Tcharokia, but in the Turko- 
man, not the Koordish way ; that is, knotted over 
one shoulder and falling down before aqd behind, 
leaving one side open. It had not a bad effect. It 
is made of a checked woollen stuff, commonly rf 
light blue and red, or dark brown and red colours, 
sometimes resembling tartan. 

The Yezid women's head dress* is something 
like that of the Bebbeh Koordish ladies, but swellB 
* See accompanyiug plate. 

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out more in front, and is not so regularly con-» 
structed ; and, being covered with white linen^ looks 
like a pillow on the head. 

The principal article of food in the territory of 
Mousul, especially among the peasantry, is pilaw, 
made of burgool, which is a preparation of wheat, 
heavy and not agreeable to those unaccustomed to it. 
Rice is scarce and dear. I believe that none is 
grown in the territory, and that all that is used 
is brought from Koordistan. 

At night we had a musician of some celebrity 
among the Yezids to entertain us. He played the 
Tamboureh very fairly, and sang us some songs 
of his own nation. The first was a Sinjar song, 
about the carrying oflF of a very celebrated beauty 
named Gazhala, from among the Yezids of Sinjar, 
by Hassan Pasha, father of the celebrated Ahmed 
Pasha of Bagdad. She was betrothed to a Sinjar 
chief, and was within three days of her marriage. 
Her beauty is still much celebrated in song by the 
Siajaris *. He next gave us the lament for Hassan 
Bey, the late chief of Sheikhkhan, who was treache- 
rously murdered by Zebir Pasha, the late Prince of 
Amadia. The present cliief of Sheikhkhan is named 
Saleh Bey. Like the Druzes, the Yezids com- 
monly choose Mahometan names. The family at 
Baadli, called Mir Sheikhkhan, is of very great 
♦ Sinjar is always caUed by the Koords Zingharra, 

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antiquity, and is recognized as the chief of all the 
Yezids, whether Dassinis, Muvessins, or Dinnadis. 
They call the family Pesmeer or Begzadehs. 

He gave us many other songs, some traditional, 
some amatory, but all in the same style; that is, 
a kind of wild howl. Ouq of the Amadia i^irs 
which he gave was more like the Persian or Turkish 
melodies, and quite of a different character from 
those of his own country^ He also improvvi^ed some- 
thing in a kind of chaunt which was not at all 
disagreeable. He ran over the words with great 
rapidity and rhymed them* The Koordish language 
affords great facilities for this exploit, but I could 
only understand a word here and there : his dialect 
differed so considerably from the one to which 
I have been accustomed, as completely to puzzle 
a stranger. Our musician, who was a merry fellow, 
was named Liasso: he is blind, and has a brother 
who is also blind, and likewise a musician. Much 
curious traditional history might be learned from 
such people at a favourable opportunity ; that is to 
say, by passing a little time among them privately 
without any Mahometans being present. From 
what I have seen and heard of the Yezids, they seem 
lively, brave, hospitable, and good-humoured. They 
were delighted at this village to see us, and enter- 
tained our people most hospitably. Under the 
British government much might be made of them. 

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Appearance of the Country — Cultivation — Yezid Villages — 
Boundary of the Pashalik of Mousul — Chaldean Town of Al 
Kosh — Convent of Rabban Hormuzd — Its situation — ^Rocky 
Road — Caves and Grottoes — The Church — Vespers — ^Thc 
Monks — ^Their Appearance — ^Manner of Life — ^The Abbot— 
The Monastery founded by the Son of a King of Persia — 
liibrary destroyed-^Manuscripta fast perishing in the East — 
Departure from the Convent — ^Description of the Scene — 
Chaldean Village of Tel Iskof— Crowds assemble to stare at 
the Party — Valuable Chaldean MSS.— Ancient Sepulchre — 
Tclkeif — Chaldeans — Ruined Churches — Description of the 
Country — Return to the Garden-house at Mousul — ^Visit the 
Pasha — ^Bones and Skulls found at Rabban Hormuzd — ^Yezid 
from Sinjar — ^Yezid Woman gifted with a Spirit. 

J>eeember 19. — We mounted at nine this morning. 
The weather looked threatening. We entered imme-* 
^lately on the line or ridge we had skirted on our 
right, during the latter part of our yesterday's 
marchi which proved to be very confused broken 
ground, consisting of ravines, bai'e ridges, and 
crumbling sandstone ; yet here and there patches of 
cultivation were visible. Indeed, but little of the 
Mousul territory seems lost, every part of it being 
cultivated that is at all capable of it. After passing 
some Yezid villages we at length emerged from this 
very broken ground, and began a long and gentle 
descent, which only terminated at about a mile from 
Al Kosh* On our right was a very fine, extensive. 

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and perfectly level plain, very well cultivated and 
studded with villages. Baadli> the Yezid capital 
of Mir Sheikhkhan^ was on our right, close under 
the bare stony mountainSi, and at the distance of 
about nine miles, near the defile whence the Gomel 
issues. The Pashalik of Mousul extends as far as 
the Gomel, but Sheikhkhan is in the territory of 
Amadia. Just at the defile of the Gomel a ridge or 
line of hills, exactly like the line which fronts ]\iak* 
loube commences and runs east, or rather east a 
little south. This subordinate line is, I observe, 
continued at intervals along the front line of the 
Koordish mountains, which are, I think, higher and 
more rocky than Giozheh. This face of them was 
quite precipitous. On our left they rise again into a 
hill, behind which is the territory of Doban belong- 
ing to Amadia, and the Chaldean town of Dohok. 
As we descended we noticed close on our left a large 
and ancient artificial mount called Girghiaour, or the 
Infidel's Mount. Most of the villages in the plain 
had smaller mounts near them, and at a great dis* 
tance on the east was a very large and remarkable 
one, the name of which I could not learn. A little 
farther on our left than Girghiour was the Yezid 
village of Sherabi. This road was formerly much 
infested by marauding parties of Yezids^ but, thanks 
to the vigilance of Ahmed Pasha of Mousul, it is 
now quite safe. 
The town of Al Kosh, which is entirely inhabited 

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by Chaldeans, was before us, a little way up the foot 
of the mountain ; and on the right of it, about a mik 
higher up, in a rocky defile or opening in the nioun# 
tains, was the Chaldean convent of Rabban Hormuzd, 
whither we were journeying, and which from this 
spot wore a most imposing appearance* Nothing was 
clearly distinguishable but a heavy square building of 
a dusky red colour, hanging quite over a precipice, 
like some Lama pagoda. The dark clouds rolled 
over the summit of the mountain almost down to the 
convent, and greatly increased the gloominess of its 
aspect and its apparent height. We seemed to be 
retreating from the world and entering on smne 
wild and untried state of existence, when we found 
ourselves in the rocky strait by which it is* ap* 
proached. The situation appeared to be well chosen 
for devotion, but devotion of a savage and gloomy 
character. The hills gradually rose very soon after 
the slope had terminated. An immense torrent, 
now dry» had brought down prodigious fragments of 
rock. Keeping along its edge, we reached at eleven 
the entrance of the defile, along a rocky and rough 
road. This defile expands and scoops out the moun^ 
tain into a kind of wild amphitheatre, in which, not 
half way up, the convent is situated. It was only the 
latter part of the road which was very steep. The 
red building we had seen from afar was part of 
a church, or rather churches, there being several 
together. All the amphitheatre, from the top to the 

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bottom^ is full of little caves and grottoes, those near 
the church and extending up the rock far above it, 
being appropriated to the use of the monks, of whom 
there are fifty, only four or five of whom are priests. 
Each monk has a separate cell, and the communica- 
tions between them are by little terraces. The rocks 
are craggy and broken, and of fine harmonious tints, 
being of freestone, of which the church is built. It 
is now undergoing a thorough repair in a very neat 
manner. It stands on a platform elevated from 
the precipice, but very little of the ancient fabrio 

We arrived at half-past eleven : we were accom- 
modated in rather an airy lodging, in a kind of 
sacristy or chapel adjoining the church. Our people 
established themselves as well as they could in the 
surrounding caves, and the horses we sent back 
to the village. 

In the afternoon I went to vespers. The congre- 
gation of rustic dark^looking monks, together with 
the gloominess and simplicity of the church, which 
is merely a narrow arched or vaulted room, with 
no light but what is admitted from the small dome, 
might well remind one of the solitude of St. Saba. 
Indeed the monks were not less Thebaid in their 
appearance, being dusky-looking men, clothed in 
the coarsest manner, like peasants, but more sombre 
in their colours ; their gown being of a dark blue or 
black canvass, with a common Abba or Arab cloak 

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of brown woolleu over it. On their heads they wear 
a small skull-cap of brown felt, with a black hand* 
kerchief tied round it. The priests are rather b^ter 
clothed, in black dresses, with black turbans on their 
heads. The monks are of all trades — weavers, 
tailors, smiths, carpenters, and masons ; so that the 
wants of the convent are entirely supplied by the 
convent itself. Their wants are indeed very few, 
the order being that of St. Anthony, and very 
rigorous in its observances. The monks never eat 
meat, except at Christmas and Easter. Sometimes, 
indeed, if any of their friend& bring them a. little as 
a present, they are not forbidden to eat it ; but no 
meat is provided for the convent. The daily fiood is 
some boiled wheat and bread, and even this in small 
quantities. Wine and spirits are altogether pro- 
hibited, and none but the treasurer is allowed to 
touch money*. 

* The monks live separately and alone in their cells, when not 
employed at their work, and are forbidden to talk to one another. 
A bell summons them to church several times a day, besides 
which they meet in the church at midnight for prayer : again at 
day-break, and at sun-set, when they each retire to their cells with- 
out fire or candle. Some of these cells are far from the others, in 
very lonely situations, high up the mountains in steep places, and 
look difficult to get at by day ; how much more so in dark and 
stormy nights ! They are surrounded by wild plundering tribes of 
Koords, who might come down and murder them in their different 
retreats, without their cries for help being heard ; but their poverty 
preserves them from such attacks. There were several young 
men among them, who had retired here, being, as they told us, 
weary of the world, and hoping to find rest in this solitude, and 

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cm: XVI.] THE ABBOT. 9$ 

- December 20, — ^The abbot, who had been absent, 
returned last night, and came to pay me a visit this 
Biorning. He is a native of Mardin, but studied at 
Diarbekir, under my friend Monsignore Agostino 
the patriarch, and speaks Turkish tolerably. I liked 
him much. When he was appointed Abbot of the 
convent, about twelve years ago, he found it nearly 
in ruins. He is now repairing the churches. The 
principal one is of course dedicated to St. Hormuzd ; 
the one next to it to the four Evangelists ; one 
above stairs to the angels: they are all under the 
(Same roof. The principal part of the new pile is 
reddened with sheep-ruddle, in order to preserve the 
freestone from the action of the weather. The build* 
ing costs but little, the monks being the artificers, 
and the mountain all around supplying tbem with an 
inexhaustible store of fine freestone and beautiful 
greenish gypsum. A master-mason from Mousul, 
of the Chaldean sect, volunteered to direct their 
labours ; and small articles — such as paint, a little 
glass, wood, &c. — are contributed by the charitable 
among their own nation. Little wood, however, is 
required, except for joiners* work. 

TRe monastery was founded by Toraarsa, patri- 
arch of Seleucia *, who, the Abbot said, was the 

acceptance with God, through religious exercises of a painful and 
mortifying nature. They did not look either happy or healthy ; 
and we were told they die young. — Ed. 

• * Tomarsa, or Tamuza, was Archbishop of Ctesiphon, or Pa- 
triarch of the Chaldeans, from a.o. 384 to 392, 

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fourth Chaldean patriarch before they became Nes- 
torians. Hoimuzd lived before the persecution of 
Yezdigerd. He was the son of a king of Persia, 
and was martyred for his faith. His body was 
brought from Persia and deposited here. The 
Abbot confessed he did not know much about him, 
but he is the grand national saint of the Chaldean 
nation, whether Nestorian or Catholic. 

Matran Hanna, the Chaldean Archbishop of 
Mousul^ states that this convent was founded in the 
third century of the Christian era by Hormuzd, a 
native of Sbirauz, and that he first came and dwelt 
in a large monastery called Beraalti, on the Bu« 
maduk, near the village called Hassan Shami, which 
monastery is now in ruins*. 

The quantity of caves and little grottoes all over 
the hollow of the mountain, or rocky ampliitheatre, is 
quite surprising. An earthquake filled a great many 
of them, and the natural ruin and crumbling down 

* The following particulars are from Assexnanni: — ^''Rabban 
Hormuzd, the Bishop, was martyred about the thirty-sixth year 
of the persecution (Qu. of Diocletian ?) and the sixty-sixth of the 
reign of Shapor. About the year 371, John Sulaca was ordained 
Patriarch of the Chaldeans at Rome, In 1552 Marcus^ in a 
letter to Busbequius, says he lived at the monastery of Rabban, 
which seems then to have consisted of fifty monks." — ^Assem., 
vol. i., p. 525. 

Rabban Hormuzd seems afterwards to have been the residence 
of the Nestorian Patriarch; the Catholic Chaldean one residing 
at Diarbekir.-^Leonardus Abel apud Mir»um in Bibliothec. 
Eccles.y p. 58. Assem., vol. i., p. 528. Note^ 

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CH. xvl] grottoes. 93 

of the xnountain has also obliterated multitudes* The 
mouks say they frequently discover grottoes in clear* 
ing away rubbish. It is not likely that this immense 
number of grottoes* dispersed at all heights and dis- 
tances^ should have been purposely constructed by 
the founder of the church ; yet that the greater part 
cannot be natural is quite evident on the slightest 
inspection. Some may possibly have been made in 
cutting stone ; but this cannot be the case with by 
far the greater number, as their form testifies, being 
small, oven-like excavations, with a little aperture, 
and sometimes two, for a door and a window. One 
or two of those which I entered had two stone beds, 
or niches, in the wall, exactly as if they had been 
intended for the reception of dead bodies, like those 
at Kifri. They may all at one time have served for 
this> and this immense amphitheatre have been no 
more than a dakhmeh^ or burying-place of the old 
Persians *. Some of the lost Syriac and Chaldean 
manuscripts would, in all probability, have thrown 
light upon this curious place. There were formerly 
kept in this oonvent about five hundred volumes 
of old Stranghelo manuscripts on vellum ; but they 
were thrown together in an old vault on the side of 
the hill, a part of which was carried away by a toi-- 

* If cutting stone was the original cause of the formation of 
lomeof these grottoes, it has also contrihuted to their destruction; 
for the people now, in repairing the convent, cut down the face of 
crags for stone, and cut out cavesy or open and cut them away* 

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rent; and the books being damaged^ were deemed 
of no further value> and consequently were torn up 
and thrown about. Some scattered leaves were 
shown to me, which were unquestionably of the 
highest antiquity. Manuscripts are fast perishing in 
the East ; and it is almost the duty of a traveller to 
rescue as many as he can from destruction *• I sent 

^ One of Mr. Rich's objects upon this tour to the Cbristiau 
convents and villages in the territory of Mousul was for this very 
purpose. For many years he had spared neither time, money, nor 
labour, in pursuit of this object, and he finally succeeded in rescu* 
ing from destruction a few of the Syriac manuscripts scattered 
over this part of Assyria. They are little valued by their pos- 
sessors, until an offer of purchasing them is made, and then, with 
that avidity for money which is so undisguised in the East, they 
express unwillingness to part with them, in order, too generally, to 
secure a large sura being offered for them. The collection made 
by Mr. Rich during his residence in the East is now in the Bri« 
tish Museum, where it has been carefully examined, and i» * 'ghly 
valued by one whose power of judging of its merits is unques- 
tionable ; from whom the Editor has just received the following 

■ British Museum, Jan. 14, 1836. 
Dear Mrs. Rich, — 
^ In compliance with the wish you expressed when I had the 
pleasure of meeting you at Sir Robert Inglis's, I send you a list; 
of that portion of the Rich MSS. which are in the Syriac lan- 

The greater part of these MSS. are Biblical, and have a claim 
to be considered of much importance ; for though they furnish 
few various readings not previously known, they give strong con- 
firmation to the integrity of the received text of the Peshito version 
of the Scriptures, and several of them carry up this text to a very 
remote antiquity. No. 14 is perhaps the most ancient copy of 
the New Testament in the Syriac language now existing, having 
beea written in the year 168 of our cnu The MSS. of the P^- 

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Aga Minas to-day to hunt for books in the town of 
Alkosh, and he fortunately procured me a very valu- 
able Chaldean manuscript of the New Testament, in 
vellum, of the highest antiquity, and which was fast 

I find my friend Hussein Aga has rather over- 
rated the extent of his master's dominions, which, in 
fact, end at Alkosh ; and we are now really in the 
territory of Amadia, and surrounded by the wild 
tribes of the Muzuri, Dostaki, Baranki, Shinki, and 

tateucli, No. 1, and that of the Prophets, No. 8, are very valuable. 
Copies of the Prophetical Books are extremely rare. The Ono- 
masticon of James of Edessa, No, 39, is a book of considerable 
interest and value in its bearing upon Biblical criticism. I know 
of no other copy except one at Rome. 

The commentaries upon the Scriptures, by Bar Salibt^, and 
Bar Hebrceus, are unpublished, and contain a variety of curious 
matter for the theological student. 

In history, the annals of Elias of Nisibis, of which no other 
copy is known to exist ; and the latter part of the chronicle of 
Bar Hebraeus deserves particular notice. 

The two grammars of Bar Hebraeus, and the dictionary by Bar 
Ali, though not of uncommon occurrence, are books oi great 
intrinsic value. 

The MSS. consist of 800 volumes. Of these, 3 are in Greek, 
59 in Syriac, 8 in Carshunic, 389 in Arabic, 231 in Persian, 108 
in Turkish, 2 in Armenian, and 1 in Hebrew. 

The Syriac and Arabic MSS. are probably the most valuable 
collection ever formed by a European j and if Mr. Rich had 
rendered no other public service, the contribution made to the 
literary and antiquarian treasures of the nation, by means of his 
judicious, patriotic, and munificent expenditure, would silone 
entitle him to the lasting gratitude of his countrymen. 
Believe me with sincere respect, 

Dear Mrs. Rich, 

Your faithM servant, 


The list of the Syriac MSS. which accompanied this letter, will 
be found in the Appendix. 

Vol. II. H 

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Bervari Koords, with Yezids in abundance. On the 
other side of this mountain is a plain higher than 
that of Naokor, about six miles over, to another 
ridge smaller than this, something resembling the 
front line of Makloube. The Tigris is visible west 
from a crag near the convent, and south-west from 
the convent itself. Mrs. Rich, Mr. Bell, and the 
Captain, went up to the top of the mountain ; from 
the summit of which the Tigris was visible in a 
north-west direction, and whence it disappeared 
behind high mountains, I was too busy with more 
important operations to attempt to accompany them, 
even if my head would have allowed my climbing 
over the frightful precipices, • 

I took equal altitudes, circum-meridian observa- 
tions, which were very essential, this place being on 
the meridian of Mousul, some sights and depressions, 
and finally a view of the convent *. 

The temperature of a well at the convent was 52^ ; 
th* air at the same time being 44**. 

They are subject to intermittent fevers here as in 

Koordistan, from the time when the nights begin to 

grow cold, to the setting in of the cold weather. 

* The Alkoeh mountain comes'froih about^Akra, and passing by 
Baadra, Rabban Hormuzd, and Alkosh, is said to terminate about 
Doban. From Alkosh, following the course of the mountain, and 
keeping it on the right hand, you arrive at Doban in four hours, 
horseman's reckoning ; but if you cross over the mountain imme- 
diately at Alkosh, you arrive at once, that is, after half an hour's 
pass of the mountain, at the territory of Doban. The Chaldean 
town of Dohok is in Doban* 

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^ 1 

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\]y ^ -> 

- "^ ^ .;. -.■" .f - ' • - *<?i^4: *,'X'^*"v-vf •.-. y— .VK ■ 


*(X»ftv arv Jbaru^btf WWaJloK. 

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December 21 . — As my essential work was done, I 
resolved on quitting the convent to-day, the weather at 
this season being rather uncertain, and we might be 
overtaken and detained by a sudden storm. '1 could 
otherwise have stayed here some time with great 
pleasure. I shall not soon again enjoy so peaceful a 
retreat ; and I begin to long after peace and quiet, be 
it even tbat of a convent. 

I walked down the hill in order to select a good 
situation for another view *, which I found just at 
the entrance into the defile on th^ convent side. In 
the meantime the rocks resounded with the voices of 
our people, and the neighing of our cattle ; and our 
active, lively party presented a striking contrast to 
the gloomy, dull, and almost lifeless inhabitants of 
these Avild abodes. The different sounds gradually 
died away, as our party, having loaded the animals, 
passed down one by one ; and at last the convent 
seemed restored to its natural tranquillity. Not a 
sound was to be heard, nor a sign of life to be seen, 
but some dusky forms of monks, looking at us from 
their aerial habitations, suspended like eagles' eyries 
on the face of the precipice. I sat some time enjoy- 
ing the scene : at last I mounted ; and at half past 
eleven we began our march from the opening of the 
defile, which the brisk notes of the trumpet made to 
ring with an English march. I now seemed to have 
bid adieu to peace, and to fiave entered again into 

* See accompanying plate. 


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the world, with its business and its cares. A great 
crowd of Chaldean peasants, from the neighbouring 
town of Alkosh, had assembled at the mouth of the 
defile to stare at us. They were not used to see a 
Christian with marks of rank and authority ; and I 
think they seemed rather proud of the sight. The 
people of Alkosh are a very stout, independent set, 
and can muster about four hundred musketeers. 
They half esteem themselves Kermanj, as Hussein 
Aga told me. I find that name of the family of the 
Pasha of Sulimania signifies any Koord hereabouts. 
We steered right for the artificial mount, Gir- 
ghiaour, over a plain, and reached it at a quarter 
after twelve, when we followed the gentle inclination 
of the hills, whose commencement it marks. We 
soon after alighted at the Yezid village of Sherabi, 
in order to let the baggage get on before us, and 
mounted again at one. At a little stream which 
rises at Sherabi, and finds its way through the hills, 
we observed some Yezid women washing ; and one 
of them very unceremoniously divested herself of her 
last garment to perform her ablutions more at ease. 
We followed the little stream through the opening it 
has made ; the inclination of the level being only 
marked by its course. In the latter part of the hills 
I observed gypsum in plenty, the north-east side 
being mere sandstone. Emerging from the hills at 
about two miles from the Chaldean village of Te- 
liskof, we entered on a very level plain ; and at three 

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o'clock reached Teliskof, that is to say, the Bishop's 
Mount *• 

The crowds assembled to see us were prodigious ; 
and the village seemed to pour forth twice as many 
people as I thought it could have contained. They 
are all Chaldean Catholics. I have never been so 
much stared at in a Mahometan town. The Chris- 
tians seemed to take a pride in me, and to look at the 
Turks with me, and before whom they had so often 
been used to cower, as if they might now defy them. 
This made me have some patience with them, though 
their crowding and staring was rather incommodious. 
We were met at a mile from the village by the 
Kiahya ; and an old woman wanted to burn incense 
before me, but my horse would admit of no such 
familiarity. We were lodged of course* in the best 
bouse, close by the old mount which gives name to 
the village. It would be a tolerable place but for 
the extreme dirtiness, which, with the smell of 
liquor, is, I am sorry to say, the characteristic of a 
Christian village in these countries. 

There are nuns at Teliskof, but no monastery. 
They live in their parents or relations' houses ; and 
this is likewise the case at Alkosh. I believe there 
are no monasteries of females any where in the East, 
except in Mount Libanus. 

* This mount is not remarkable. It is indeed rather smaller 
than many of those which are the ordinary accompaniments of 
villages in these parts. 

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I prcM^ured here a very valuable anciept Chaldean 
manuscript, containing a history ; but many leaves 
are, I fear, wanting both at the beginning and the 
end, The priest from whom I got it says, that it 
pientions thfit Hormuzd was martyred by Shapor the 
father of Kosrou: 

Not long ago, in digging a grave here on the 
ancient mount which gives name to the village, they 
discovered stones at a great depth. This led them 
to dig farther ; and they came to an ancient sepul- 
chre, in which they found some glass vases, or lamps, 
two of which they brought out whole ; and they are 
now in my possession *, There is a large pool here for 
presevving rain water, which is the only water used 
in the winter here and at Telkeif. In the summer 
they dyink spring water. They have two churches 

December 22. — ^We mounted at ten minutes before 
ten, and passed the water-course with a small bridge 
over it. The waters of Sirej Khan and the neigh- 
bourhood collect here, and discharge themselves 
through this water-course into the Tigris, The 
Arab village of Bakoofa, with a mount near it, was 
about half a mile on our left. At ten minutes before 
eleven we came to the Chaldean village of Batnaia, 
the Kiahya of which came out to meet us, and 

* Qla&« is likewise found in Sasaanian and in Babylonian ruins, 
•ueh aa Otopiphon and Babylon. 

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invited us to halt for the night *, The country all 
the way was undulating, being marked by water- 
courses making their way to the Tigris, and receiv- 
ing the contributions of secondary or sulx)rdinate 

At twenty minutes past eleven we halted to let the 
baggage pass, and to allow of its getting to our 
station at Telkeif some time before us, imagining 
that we had still an hour's journey to perform. At 
nooji we marched again, and, ascending the undu- 
lation at the bottom of which we had stopped, found, 
to our great surprise, that Telkeif was quite close to 
us, being situated in a hollow on the other side. We 
arrived at a quarter past twelve, having been oq the 
road only two hours and twenty-five minutes. 

Telkeif is a town wholly inhabited by Chaldeans, 
many of whom go to Bagdad to seek work and 
service. The Kiahya, a very decent old man, told 
me it contained a thousand houses, in some of which 
are thirty souls. The number of houses is probably 
overrated, but it is a considerable place and very full 
of people, a dirty ill-favoured set, like all the Chal- 
deans I have seen. The Chaldeans are a dark-com- 
plexioned race, and do not in the least resemble the 
Koords. We observed a great deal of gypsum 
to-day on the way from Teliskof. 

There are two open tanks and some covered reser- 

* A mile from Batnaia is the monastery of Mar Abraham, 
who is supposed to have been a Bebbeh Koord. 

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voirs here. One of the latter is said to hold water 
enough for the whole town for more than two 
months. It is a natural hole of sandstone, which is 
under the town. 

I saw some stones dug out at a distance, and I was 
curious to find out whether they were taken from any 
place indicative of ruins, but I found that it was a 
quarry. They dug about six or eight feet to the bed 
of sandstone, which they broke up with pickaxes. I 
asked the Kiahya, and several other people, if fhey 
ever found cut stones or any fi*agments of antiquity 
in the neighbourhood in diggings or ploughing, but 
they all agreed that no vestiges were ever met with. 

There are seven ruined churches here, and one in 
good repair. For more than twenty-five years there 
have been no Nestorians any nearer than Amadia, 
or rather beyond Amadia. Two thousand Kharaj 
papers* are issued annually for Telkeif, and a 
respectable body of musketeers may be raised. 
Telkeif is a Vakuf of Nebbi Yunus. It is a great 
thoroughfare, and contains a large caravanserai. 

I fortunately procured here a fine copy of the 
Gospels and Epistles in Chaldean, on velhim, of the 
Alexandrian year 601 f, the oldest manuscript I 
have yet seen : also some leaves of an historical work 
of the same character, with some writing in Greek 

* The Kharaj is a tax upon all the subjecta of the Ottoman 
empire who are not Mahometans, 
i t Vide note, p. 15. 

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capitals. The rest of the latter work had been torn 
and lost, and probably but for me the remainder 
would also have soon vanished. 

The air of Telkeif is not reckoned good, owing 
probably to its being situated in a hollow between 
two hills, and very filthy. Teliskof is, on the con- 
trary, accounted very healthy. 

December 23. — ^There was brought to me this 
morning a very old manuscript on vellum, in Chal- 
dean ; and an Arabic book containing chronolo- 
gical tables. They said they would not sell this, as 
it was the hand-writing of a saint. Nevertheless 
they do not seem to have preserved it with any great 
care, as it was in a shocking state of dilapidation. 
They allowed me to take it with me to Mousulj and 
I hope to be ultimately successful in persuading 
them to part with it. 

We mounted at half past nine. An immense 
crowd assembled to see us off. The women begged 
Hussein Aga not to drive them off, but to allow them 
to take their full stare, as they might never see such 
a sight again. 

At half past ten we saw at the distance of two 
miles on our left the village of Baaweiza, inhabited 
by-Bajilan Koords. The country was undulating, 
and grew more and more gravelly as we approached 
the river*. We passed a long string of camels 

* From Baaweiza the view over the plain towards Kennelis is 
pretty extended, but a mist prevented me from ascertaining the 

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beloQging to the Pasha of Mouaul, bringing wooMi 
from the north side of the Alkosh mountains. At 
eleven we turned out of the direct road to the right, 
in order to go to Sheikh Ahmed, where I had some 
observations to take* We arrived at the village of 
Sheikh Ahmed at twenty-five minutes past eleven- 

December 2b. — We returned to our residence at 
the Pasha's garden yesterday from Sheikh Ahmed, 
and this morning I called on the Pasha, He in- 
formed me that, at Rabban Hormuzd, he himself had 
found in a cave some bones, and particularly some 
large skulls. This seems to come in support of my 
opinion that these caverns may have been dakhmehs 
or burying-places. 

I saw at the palace to-day a Yezid from Sinjar. 
He was dressed just like the other Yezids, but wore 
his long black hair in thick locks, and was a fierce- 
looking fellow. There is now a woman in Sinjar 
who is believed, both by Turks and Yezids, to be 
gifted with a spirit which informs her of everything 
that is to happen. The Turks say this is an evil 
spirit, but acknowledge the fact. Her name is 
Bizarra : she is a virgin, and always keeps a veil 
over her face. 

exact point to which you can see. This is however the only spot 
where a view to any distance can be obtained/ From any other 
not above a mile round can be discovered from horseback in any 
direction, on account of the undulations of the country. 

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The Sword of Yezid — Ruins j^f Hatra — Our removal to another 
Garden — Arabian Jessamine — Alkosh the Country of the Pro- 
phet Nahum — Jews to he trusted for local Antiquities — 
Nestorian Convent of Mar Elias — Description of the Church — 
Subterraneous Buildings — ^Matran flanna, the Chaldean Arch- 
bishop — Principal Churches of Mousul — Singular Relic— Hajee 
Jirjees — Yezids — ^Tai Arabs — ^Mount Judi — The Ark — Sepul- 
chral Chamber of Nineveh. 

December 2%, — ^The Pasha to-day sent me a curi- 
osity to look at, which I had long heard talk of, 
namely, the sword of Yezid, the son of Moaviah. It 
is of the proper Damasciis or light-watered steel, 
and prodigiously heavy. When it fell into the 
Pasha's hands it was straight; in short, a proper 
single-edged broadsword, about four feet long, and 
three fingers and a half broad. He had the bad taste 
to cut off about a foot of' it, and to have it curved 
a little in the shape of a paala or sabre ; yet still it 
is much too heavy for use. On the blade are the 
remains of zer-nishan or inlaid-gold writing, the 
traces left by which may still be read, though with 
difficulty. They are — " This belongs to Yezid, the 
son of Moaviah," and a verse from the Koran. The 
mounting was modern *. 

* Yezid, the son of Moayiah, was the second Cahph of the 
Ommiade race. He is held in peculiar horror by the Persians, 
on account of the murder of All's son Hussein at Kerbela, the 

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no pasha's GARDEN AT MOt^SUL. [CH. XVII. 

of it. A caravan of Jirba Arabs has just arrived 
with salt from the vicinity of Al Hadhr *. In former 
times the Mousul people used once a year to send 
a caravan for salt, with a strong escort ; but this has 
been discontinued for a long time, on account of the 
increased danger ; and the Bedouins themselves now 
bring the salt to Mousul, though fonnerly a Bedouin 
was quite an unusual sight here ; and when Biniyya^ 
the nephew of the Jirba Sheikh Faris, first caiije to 
Mousul about twenty years ago, he was so stared at, 
followed, and persecuted by the boys, that he found 
it impossible to show himself in the bazaar, without 
the escort of some officers of the Pasha. 

December 27. — We moved to-day to the Pasha's 
new garden-house, which, for this country, is a splen- 
did place, consisting of haram, and divan khaneh, 
in a very pretty garden. This he has been pleased 
to lend us for our accommodation during the re- 
mainder of our stay here. The gardener brought us. 
a large bunch of nergheez, or narcissus, in full flower, 
on our arrival ; also chrysanthemums and marygolds. 
Razki, or Arabian jessamine, will not grow in Mousul. 
in the open air. The winter kills it^ 

January 2, 1821. — I am ashamed to say a very 

* According to Assemanni, — ** Niaibin, Dara, and Hadhr, were 
ruined by Tcharsouli, a Neatorian, first called Barsuma, t\lio ob- 
tained permission from the Abbassides to ruin them. He ruined 
a great number of places, and was killed by the nuns of Deir al 
Benat, near Dara.'' 

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o£ "die Jda Qan. 

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remarkable circumstance had escaped my^notice*, 
until I was made aware of it to-day by Matran 
Hanna. Alkosli was the birth-place of the Prophet 
Nahum, and also his burial-place. His tomb is still 
shown there, and Jews from all parts come on pil- 
grimage to it. Nahum was of a Jewish family, who 
resided at Alkosh during the captivity of Nineveh* 
On referring indeed to the Book of Nahum, I find 
" Nahum the Elkosh-ite '* in the first verse ; and I 
wonder this never struck me before, especially as I 
read the Book of Nahum but lately, when thinking 
over the subject of Nineveh. I must here remark, 
that the Jews are generally to be trusted for local 
antiquities. Their pilgrimage to a spot is almost h 
sufficient test. The unbroken line of tradition which 
may have been handed down among them, and their 
pertinacious resistance of all innovation, especially 
in matters of religious belief, render their testimony 
very weighty in such matters. 

From Alkosh people go in seven days to Urmiah ; 
namely, two to Amadia, two to Julamerk, three to 
Urmiah, From Julamerk to Kotchannes is one 
day's journey. The Urmiah road does not necessarily 
pass through Alkosh, but runs very near it. The ter- 
ritory of Amadia is full of Nestorians, Kotchannes 

* Marius, in a letter to Busbequius quoted in ABaemanni, speaks 
of Alcus (Alkosh) as the country of Nahum the Prophet, and 
celebrated both by Jews and Christians for containing his tomb. 
Assem. vol. i. p. 525. 

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being the place of residence of their patriarch*. 
There are many Nestorian villages on this side of 
Amadia, whose inhabitants I was told wear felt 
coverings on their heads, just like the European hat. 
They are called Gheranmoosi. 

* According to Assemanni, Nestorius was condemned by the 
synod of Ephesus in 431, and banished by order of Theodosius, 
first to Petra in Arabia, then brought to a convent at Antioch, 
after four years' residence in which he was finally banished to the 
Libyan oasis, whence he betook himself to the Thebaid, where he 
died. There is some doubt as to who propagated the opinions of 
Nestorius in the East. Assemanni decides as follows : First, there 
was a school of Persians from time immemorial at Edessa, in 
which the Christian youths of the Persian empire were taught 
theology, and a Nestorian became president of it. Secondly, the 
Oriental bishop who took the part of John of Antioch against St. 
Cyril and the Council of Ephesus, favoured Nestorius, and com- 
mended his doctrine about the incarnate word. These were the 
two sources of Nestor ianism among the Persians. The Chaldean 
writers affirm the principal cause of the propagation of Nestorian- 
ism among the Easterns to have been Barsuma, who was with his 
comrades expelled from the school at Edessa, and was bishop of 
Nisibin from 435 to 489. Narses, the companion of Barsuma, 
and president of the school he established at Nisibin, did not 
cease to propagate those doctrines till his death, which happened 
in 496. His successor was Joseph Hazita, by whose endeavours 
Nestorianism was propagated far and wide. In 496, B abacus, 
archbishop of Seleucia, was elected by the Nestorian party ; and 
in a synod held in 499 he not only confirmed the doctrine of 
Nestorius, but, following in the steps of Barsuma of Nisibin, made 
it lawful for all succeeding archbishops of Seleucia to marry. From 
that time the patriarchate of Seleucia, and all the sees in the East, 
were occupied by Nestorians. It appears that about six hundred 
and thirty-six bishops and priests of this sect were sent to India 
and China. 

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January 10.— News has just been received from 
Mardin, that the Vaivode has had another quarrel 
with the neighbouring tribes^ the chiefs of one or two 
of which have thrown down their tents. This is a 
signal among ther tribes of a guerre a routrance, 
and means — " I have thrown down my tent, and will 
not pitch it again till I have had my revenge." 

January 22. — I went to-day to visit the remains 
of the Nestorian monastery of Mar Elias, called by 
the Mahometans Deir el Munkoosh, the ornamented 
or painted monastery. I cannot find in Assemanni the 
date of its foundation*, but it is mentioned incident- 
ally in the ninth century-f. The natives say it be- 
longed to the Roman or Greek Christians, before 

* Mr. Rich afterwards discovered the date of the building of 
this convent in Assemanni. The following is an entry made in 
his note-book. ** At last I have discovered what I was hunting 
after. Under Jesujabus, Nestorian Catholicua or primate, who 
b^n to reign a.d. 581, and who reigned fifteen years, two 
monasteries were founded; one Saed, near Mousul, the other 
Mansoor, in the region of Nineveh. This Jesnjabus concluded a 
peace between the King of Persia, Hormisdas, son of Anushirvan, 
and Heraclius. The convent of Saed (which is our Deir el Man- 
koosh) was founded by Mar £lia." Deir Saed, as it may be seen 
from another part of Assemanni, is the same with the monastery 
of Mar Elia. Vol. ii. p. 415 : vol. iii. p. 264. 

t The following mention of Mar Elias is made by Assemanni. 
Joshua Bar nun of*Bath Gabar, a village on the Tigris, between 
Nineveh and MousMl, lived thirty years in the monastery of St. 
Ehas, before he was elected primate of the East, which happened 
A.n. 824. — Assem. vol. ii. p. 435. Abu Saed was Archimandrite 
of Mar Elias in aj>. 1028. 

Vol. II. I 

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the Mahometan conquest of these parts, and that \t 
was UBurpetkby the Nestorians. Dhaher Bibars, the 
hero of the romance of El Dhaheria, was imprisoned, 
or said to have been imprisoned, in a subterranean 
vault under the convent. It was ruined by Nadir 

The convent is situated in a little hollow or valley 
about two and a half miles south-west of our garden, 
and is a bare secluded spot, fit for monastic retire-* 
ment, commanding no prospect whatever. Yet in 
the spring, when all is green, it is a favourite haunt of 
the people of Mousul, principally on account of the 
mineral spring hard by, which is in great repute 
here. The water fills an oval reservoir, and is 
sulphureous, the surface being covered with a 
whitish scum, beneath which it is quite clear and 
not warm. No tar is produced here, as in a similar 
spring in the neighbourhood at Hamaum Ali. 

The convent is now a heap of ruins. On the east 
side of the principal court (about which are some 
foundations of other inclosures, little domed cells 
nearly sunk below the present level, and some vaulted 
reservoirs) is a long building or corridor with three 
open arches, entering from the court. On one of the 
piers between tliese arches, on the inside, is a beau-^ 
tifully ornamented niche, and on the corresponding 
one a tablet inscribed with old Chaldean letters, of 
such an age^ and so placed as to height and light, as 

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to be extremely difficult to make out. From the 
north end of this gallery you enter into a small room 
covered with a dome, yet standing. A tomb is in 
this, beneath which the Turks say is buried a priest 
of the monastery, who when they came for Ali*s 
head (Ali alone knows how that came here) cut off 
his own son's head to substitute for it. He of course 
afterwards became a Mahometan, and was assassi- 
nated by the Christians. On the tomb, however, are 
the remains of Chaldean writing, but quite illegible. 
The door is very small, and jseems, at least the bottom 
part of it, to be made up of fragments of cornices, 
&c., which appear to have belonged to the building 
in some former state. 

On the south side of the court you enter by a small 
door, into a long, narrow vestibule, running north 
and south, but not so high as the building, which 
communicates by a little half-buried door with the 
churches parallel to each other east and west. 

The principal church, which gives name to the 
monastery, has been beautifully ornamented. There 
are the remains of the figure of ftn angel in bas-relief, 
on one side of the arch over the altar, resembling I 
think the angel in the catacombs at Dara. The 
arabesques and figures about the altar are raised 
white, on a light blue ground*. 

Considerable parts of the church remain. It is 
elegant, not large, high, and a little too narrow for 

* A style etiU practised in some of the kiosks here. 


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its length. The arch of the roof is round ; a portion 
of it remains, the rest has fallen down, and foiihed 
heaps of rubbish on the floor, now consolidated and 
covered with a bright green mildew*. Standing near 
the altar, and looking down the church to the west 
end, I was struck with its great resemblance to 
Tauk Kesra. Every thing was in the same style, 
only on a smaller scale, and substituting good stone 
and gypsum for homely brick. So strong was the re- 
semblance indeed, that had there ever been a Christiah 
king of the Parthian or Sassanian dynasties, I could 
almost have pronounced the Tauk to have been the im- 
perial or patriarchal church. As it is, this may serve 
as an additional proof of the derivation of the archi- 
tecture of these parts from the Sassanian. The arch 
of the altar is composed of two segments of circles. 
The vault of the church is pure Sassanian, or circular, 
and, if it had but a little more space, would be really 
handsome. The niches, small doors and Avindows, 
little niches on the sides of the altar supported by 
small double pillars, are all correctly Kesranf. Of 
the parallel church, nifthing worthy of remark remains. 
Indeed it seems to have been of an inferior, possibly 
of a more recent construction. The little west door- 
way, which is the principal entrance of the hand- 
some church, appears to have been repaired with 

* The great damps observable at Mousul must proceed from 
the gypsum and its salt. The climate will not account for it. 
t By which Mr. Rich means in the style of Tauk Kesra. 

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8ome fragments of friezes^ at least these seem now 
not to be in their proper places. The stucco of the 
upper part is drilled with shot-holes, as the idle 
Turks amuse themselves with practising at it as a 

Tlie subterraneous buildingrwhich appears to be 
very extensive, is said to reach as far as Ghizelan on 
the banks of the Tigris, to the south-west of our 
garden*. The entrance is by a little low door in the 
sacristy, on the right hand of the altar. It led at 
one time, a-ccording to. the information of a person 
who had been in it long ago, out into the desert at a 
considerable distance^ but it has now become choked 
up with (ubbish. 

In the most ancient oriental churchesf , there seem 
to have been no chapels or altars, other than the 
great one ; and generally only one aisle ; but they have 
very often a parallel church connected with the prin- 
cipal one by a little door. 

January 24. — I had some interesting conversation 
with Matran Hanna about various particulars rela« 
ting to the antiquities and history of these countries, 
with which he seems well acquainted. I took my 
first lesson of reading Chaldean from him to-day. 

* Half way between Deir ul Mankoosh and GUzelan are the 
remains of another convent. The Syrians say there were two 
Jacobite convents in this neighbourhood, dedicated to St. Gabriel 
and St. Michael. 

t Several of the mosques in Bagdad were formeriy Chaldean 

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I again visited Mar Elias for the purpose of re- 
touching my sketch, in some particulars in which I 
thought it doubtful. I now think that the flatness 
of the arch of the roof may have proceeded from its 
subsiding. I have had the inscription on the slab 
in the verandah, or gallery, before the tomb of Mar 
Elia, copied. It imports that it was repaired by 
Khojah Yusuff Ibn Hindi*, and Kas Ishoua, and 
Mukdussi abdul Hiyya, and Khan Zadel, at the 
instigation of Shemas Isa, and the architect was 
Kas Hormuz, in the year a.d. 1316, of the Greeks 

February 4.— I went to town to-day to inspect 
the principal churches, and first that of ]V^^r Toma, 
or St. Thomas the Apostle, the archiepiscopal Jacobite 
church of Mousul, which I found worthy of a sketch. 
I executed it on the spot to the great admiration of 
the people, who were delighted to see their church 
thought worthy of such an honour by a European. 
In the sanctuary are three altars^ which are, as usual, 
mean kinds of setitry-boosesy or thrones of painted 
wood, vrith canopies of the same over them. The 

* This is the family of our old friend the Chaldean Catholic, 
patriarch of Diarbekir, whose ancestor, Joseph, the first Catholic 
patriarch of the name, was appointed by Pope Innocent II. The 
Nestorian patriarchs abandoned Diarbekir on account of the pre- 
ponderance of the Cathohcs, and betook themselves to the moun- 
tains of Julamerk, about the year 1560, under the patriarch 
Simeon, which name has been retained ever since by these 

t Vide Note, p. 155. 

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great door of the sanctuary was surrounded by ^ 
border of carved marble work, containing certain 
figures of Ciirist and the Twelve Apostles in medal- 
lions, with twisted scroll- work, which had a barbarous 
but rather curious appearance. The church is 
divided into three parts, a centre and two aisles, by 
three heavy pointed but obtuse arches, supported by 
octagonal piers. In one aisle near the upper end, 
luy attention was called to a carved stone filling a 
niche, before which hung a curtain, and which was 
an object of veneration to the congregation, they 
scarcely knew why, except that, from its antiquity, 
they supposed it to have some reference to the 
Christian religion* They had found it among rubbish 
in repairing the church, and placed it in its present 
fiituatiout Upon examination I found very clearly 
and legibly written around it in flowered Arabiq 
letters, between Cufic and the modern character of 
the age of the Sahibs, the very chapter of the Koran 
peculiarly directed against the Christians. 

So here had these poor people been devoutly rub- 
bing their foreheads against a monument, of which, 
had they known its import, they would have had the 
greatest horror and detestation. I believe the arch- 
bishop gave orders for its removal from its present 

The lower part of the church is railed in for the 
aceommodation of the women. It is manifestly ancient, 
and at the time of Tamerlane's irruption was, the 

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natives say^ covered over and concealed under heaps 
of rubbish. 

I afterwards went to Matran Hanna's church, 
which is dedicated to Mar Shemaoon Sava, patri- 
arch of Seleucia in the time of Shapor, who suffered 
martyrdom under that prince. 

The church is a single room, like that of Mar 
Elias and Rabban Hormuzd, and though very an* 
eient, offered nothing worthy of a sketch. The only 
remarkable object I saw was the ancient burial- 
place of the Abdul Jeleels, the family of the present 
Mahometan governor of Mousul, when they were 
Chaldeans *. 

February 24. — Hajee Jirjees has, at my request, 

* The following extracts, relating to the Christians of Assyria, 
are from Assemanni. They were found among Mr. Rich's loose 
papers, and are inserted here, in the hope that they may lead those 
who are interested in the subject to a very abundant source of in- 
formation concerning the history of Christianity in the East : — 
•* The Chaldeans or Assyrians received Christianity in the time of 
the twelve apostles — Peter, Thomas (St. Thomas the incredulous, 
and the apostle of India), Bartholomew, Matthew, and Judas the 
son of James, and Thaddeus, also called Lebseus. Also Thaddeus 
of the seventy, and Mark and Ayhaeus are called the apostles of 
the Syrians and Chaldeans. Adseus or Adi % one of the seventy 
disciples, was sent into the East by St. Thomas, one of the twelve, 
and was martyred at Edessa under the son of the celebrated 
Al^arus, on his return from preaching in Persia, Assyria, and 
Babylonia. Mark, a disciple of Adseus, proclaimed the Gospel 
in Babylonia, Assyria, and Persia. He fixed his residence at 
Ctesiphon and Seleucia, and is called first Bishop of Seleucia; and 
Seleucia, in this manner, became the head of the Oriental church* 

* Qu. Is Adaeus the same as Thaddeus? 

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inquired from a number of Yezids the meaning of 
the word Dcmni. In finding out the precise mean* 
ing he has failed, but he has ascertained the exact 
application of it. It is applied by the Yezids to the 
peasant Yezids under the government of Mousul and 
the vicinity : never to the Sinjarlis, who are called 
eoUectively, Jenu. (q. Jelu ?) Some other Yezids 
in these parts, who are distinct from the peasant 
vace, are called Sheikhanlis. On the frontiers of 
Jezira, Amadia, and Mousul are the Mussessan and 
Dinnedi tribes — all true Yezids. The name Yezid 
is only used by the neighbouring Mahometans ; the 
Yezids themselves never use the term. It seems to, 
be an epithet of reproach, from Yezid, surnamed by 

He died, after a ministry of thirty-tliree years, from a.d. 48 to 82. 
St. Thomas, whose surname, according to some, was Jude, not only 
was the apostle of the Syrians and Chaldeans, but also of the Par* 
thians, Persians, Medes, and Indians. It has been doubted whether. 
St. Thomas himself ever penetrated intolndia ; Assemanni decides 
in the affirmative. Christianity appears at a very early period to 
have gained ground ; for about the time of Papas, Bishop of Seleu- 
cia, or from 247 to 326, we find already a great schism in that 
church, the origin of which is attributed to the arrogance of Papas. 
Twenty-two bishops are mentioned as having suffered martyrdom 
under Shapor. When Christianity was first preached in the £ast, 
Artabanes was king of the Parthians ; Izates of Adiabene ; and 
Abgarus of Edessa. In the first century the churches of the 
East were already considerable enough to become an object of the 
Persian kings' persecution. In the second century Trajan perse- 
cuted the Oriental Christians in his expedition. In the third 
century the Manicheean Heresy commenced : in the fourth, the per- 
secution of Shapor began, a.d. 330. Nestorius was condemned by 
the Synod of Ephesus in 431. 

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the Mahometans "The Accursed," In like manner 
I have frequently heard the natives of the east 
abuse each other by the epithets^ '* Race of Pharaoh 
—People of Lot — Sect of Nimrod." 

There is a branch of the Tai Arabs called Haba<- 
bat» who more than a century ago^ on some quarrel 
with the rest of the tribe, seceded to Sinjai*. Their 
children became Yeaids, and the race are now per- 
fect Devil- worshippers, speaking the language of th^ 
Yezids, and in noways distinguishable from them» 

February 25, — My obliging friend Hajee Jirjees 
came again this evening with more information* 
which he had collected at my request* I set dowa 
the principal articles of it, as follows :-^ 

There are two Tirehs, or families of the Tai Arabs, 
indubitably descended from the famous Hatem, called 
the Sumbees and Al Hareetb, The Bey of the Tais 
was formerly a sanjiak of the Porte, and the Sheikh 
or Bey used to go to Constantinople to receive his 
investiture : he was of the descendants of Hatem. ' 

One of them was put to death at Constantinople 
on account of an intrigue with one of the women 
of the house where he lodged, about which a 
long and stupid story is told. After him no one 
went for some time, and there was an interregnum 
in the tribe. At last a young man of the name of 
Eshgeer was sent. He was a yeteem or prot6g6 of 
the Hatem family. He succeeded well at Constanti- 
nople, and received the investiture. The chiefs thus 

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nominated by the Porte then wore the kaouk or 
Turkish turban, and commanded all the Arabs of 
these parts. Since the disaster of the Sheikh who was 
put to death, none other of the family of Hatem have 
ever been sent to Constantinople, and both its branches 
have been gradually removed from the government of 
the tribe. The present family* is very low : the Arabs 
commonly call them '* Sons of Jews," to express 
their contempt for their ignoble origin. 

The only mountain you cross over, or rather go 
through, on your way from this place to Zakho^ is the 
Zakho Dagh, which begins in Feishabour, passes 
this side of Zakho* and thence to this side of 
Amadia. I have not been able to trace it farther 
down. In going to Amadia you pass over this 
mountain, and afterwards in half an hour arrive at 
Amadia. After Amadia there is another smaller 
range, and then an extensive plain just like Naokor, 
extending to the frontier of Hakkaria. The difficult 
and rugged mountainous parts are all towards the 
north and north-west of Amadia in the direction of 
Mount Judi t« Eight hours above Zakho on the 

* The present Sheikh, whom I know personally, is called 
Hassan Abdullah, 

t The Mahometans universally maintain that it was on Mount 
Judi the ark first rested, and that it is Ararat, and not the moun* 
tarn to which that name is given in Armenia. Don Calmet, Storia 
del Nuovo Testamento, p. 275, says, *'Monobazes, King of 
Adiabene, gave his younger son Ozates the government of Keron 
or Kairoun, a country where they showed the remains of the ark/' 
Calmet tapposes from. this that the country must have been near 

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right of the Jezira road is the Yaylak or Bummer 
encampment of Zakho on the^Zouzan mountaios. 

Mount Ararat in Armenia :— he is not aware of this tradition, 
which places the ark on Mount Judi, or Cardoo, which is 
evidently the Keron here mentioned ^. Hussein Aga maintained 
to me that he has with his own eyes seen the remains of Noah's Ark. 
He went to a Christian village, whence he ascended hy a steep 
road of an hour to the summit, on which he saw the remains of n 
very large vessel of wood almost entirely rotted, with nails of a foot 
long still remaining. In the third volume of Assemanni, p. 214, 
occurs the following expression : " There is a monastery on the 
i^ummit of Mount Cardu^ or Ararat. St. Epiphanius attests that, 
in his time, remains of the ark still existed, and speaks of relics of 
Noah's Ark being found in ' Cardiserum Regiones.' " 

* Josephus, on this subject, says, "However, the Armenians call 
this place Airo/Sa-nj^wv, the place of descent; for the ark being 
saved in that place, its remains are shown there by the inhabitants 
to this day (§6), Now all the writers of barbarian histories 
make mention of this flood and of this ark ; among whom is 
Berosus the Chaldean ; for when he was describing the circum- 
stances of the flood he goes on thus : — • It is said there is still 
some part of this ship in Armenia, at the mountain of the 
Cordyseans ; and that some people carry off pieces of the bitumen, 
which they take away and use chiefly as amulets for the averting 
of mischiefs.* Hieronymus the Egyptian also, who wrote the 
Phaenician Antiquities, and Mnasias, and a great many more, make 
mention of the same. Nay, Nicalaus of Damascus, in his 96th 
book, hath a particular relation about them, where he speaks thus: 
* There is a great mountain in Armenia over Ninyasy called Baris, 
upon which it is reported that many who fled at the time of the 
Deluge were saved ; and that one who was carried in an ark came 
on shore upon the top of it ; and that the remains of the timber 
were a great while preserved. This might he the man about 
whom Moses, the legislator of the Jews, wrote,' " — Whiston's 
Josephus, b. i., ch. 3. (London, 1820.) 

In the passage cited by Josephus it is to be observed, that 
while both his authorities speak of Armenia as the country in 
which the ark rested, Berosus speaks of its remains being at the 
" Mountain of the Cordyeeans." This proves, and there are 
many authorities to the same eflect, that the mountains of 
Corduene, or Gordyeean mountains, which Malte Brun places 

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where the Bey or Pasha of Zakho has a country* 

Shakh is a town belonging to the Bey of Jezira, 
who generally keeps his family there. It is situated 
in a valley between two mountains : a third closes up 
the valley, from which issues a streStm as large as 
the Ghazir Soo or Bumadus. This stream joins the 
Tigris above Zakho and the Khabour. In the latter 
part of its course it is called Feishabour, I believe 
from the name of a place through which it passes. 

Shakh * is situated on a prolongation of Mount 
Judi ; and the town, which is built in the form of 
an amphitheatre, is three hours this side of Jeasira t« 
The poplar timber which is used in Bagdad all 

within the ancient limits of Assyria, were of old sometimes 
xeckoned in Armenia Major. It is here especially worthy of 
notice, because the fact that the ancient writers place Ararat in 
Armenia has, apparently without a single additional reason, led 
some modems to look for it exclusively within the boundaries by 
which that name is now confined. — By a Friend to the Ed. 

* Shakh is commanded by an Armenian Prince who is invested 
by the Mahometan Prince of Hakkaria. At Shakh is one of the 
sources of the Tigris. The country is very mountainous as far as 
the town of Sert, near which the Tigris runs, and unites with the 
Diarbekir branch at a place called Tela Navroua, which means in 
Koordish *' between the rivers." There also the Betlis andRodowan 
rivers unite. Tela Navroua is twelve hours from Sert and two 
stages from Jezira. There is a castle there on a moutit, as the 
name indicates, and a large village of Koords and Jacobite 
Christians. From Shakh, which in Koordish means a chain of 
mountains, to Julamerk is nine hours. — From a Note Book of 
Mr, Rick's. 

t Just on this side Jezira, one hour and a half from it, is a hill 
which makes a high precipice over the Tigris. 

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comes from these mountains, and is floated down 
the Feishabour into the Tigris. The Heizil river 
also comes from the Judi mountains, and joins the 
Khabour below Zakho. It is a bad ford. 

March 1. — Kosrou EfFendi, who is most excellent 
authority, tells me to-day that Bekir Effendi, when 
digging for stones to build the bridge of Mousul, 
found on digging into the Koyunjuk a sepulchral 
chamber in which was an inscription ; and in the 
chamber, among rubbish and fragments of bone, the 
following articles : a woman's khalkhal, or ankle 
bracelet, of silver covered with a turquoise-coloured 
rust ; a hejil * of gold ; ditto a child's ; a bracelet of 
gold beads quite perfect ; some pieces of engraved 
agate. All these articles, and the chamber in which 
they were found, were seen and handled by Kosroa 
EflFendi. The gold and silver were melted down 
immediately, the agates were thrown away, and the 
chamber broken up by the stones being taken out 
and then buried in the rubbish. 

Among many other interesting particulars not 
noticed in Mr. Rich's Journal at Mousul, was the 
death of his amiable and accomplished young friend, 
Mr. Bellino. Though this was too affecting an event 
to be much spoken of, it was deeply felt by Mr. Rich 
and all his party. Mr. Bellino was a young man of 

* The hejil is likewise an ankle bracelet, but different from the 
khalkhal in this respect, that the latter has bells attached to it. 

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a singularly affectionate disposition^ whom no one 
could know and not love. The removal by sickness 
and death of such a character, therefore, could not 
fail to make a deep impression upon his surviving 
friends^ especially in the solitude of a foreign and 
barbarous country. He never recovered the effects 
of a fever he caught on an expedition he undertook 
while in Koordistan to Hamadan ; and though he 
received every attention and care that affection, aided 
by the medical skill of Dr. Bell, could afford, he 
gradually sunk under the disease, and died at Mouflul, 
in the month of November, 1820. 

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Departure from Mousul — Kellek, or Raft — Roaring of the water 
over a Rapid — Ruins of Nimrod — ^The Larisaa of Xenophon-^ 
Al Athur or Asshur — Pyramid— Cuneiform or Arrow-headed 
Inscriptions— Sulphur Springs — ^Mouth of the Zab — Stormy 
Night — Ruins — ^Tai Arabs— Whh-lpool — Singular and perfect 
Ruins— The Robber's Castle— Green Country— Wild Flowers- 
El Fatt'ha— Pass through the Hamreen Hills— Arabs— Tomb 
of the Son of Iman Mousa — Violent Squall— Al Hadhr — 
Tekreet — Prattling Barber — Imam Dour — Eski Bagdad— 
Samara — Curious Tower — El Sanam or the Idol — Fragment of 
a Statue — Mounds of Ruins— Kadesia — Date-trees — Villages- 
Meet the Yacht — Gardens of Bagdad — ^Arrival at Bagdad. 

March 3, — ^We embarked on a kellek, or raft *, at 
the Pasha's garden, on our return to Bagdad, at ten 
o'clock in the morning, and glided smoothly down 
the river until four o'clock, when we brought to 

* A kellek is a raft nearly twice as long as it is hroad. It is 
composed of goat-skins hlown up, and fastened close together by 
reeds; this is strengthened by cross pieces of wood, and over 
these again are laid others to keep the bales of merchandise out 
of the water. The only fastenings of this machine are twigs. The 
skins are repaired and blown up afresh every evening, and during 
the day care is taken to keep them continually wet, which prevents 
their bursting. These kelleks are conducted by two long oars, the 
blades of which are made of pieces of split cane fastened together. 
The passengers arrange themselves as they can on the bales of 
goods; and if a person wishes to be very much at his ease, he pro- 
cures a wooden bedstead covered over with a felt awning, which 
stands in the middle of the kellek, and serves him for a bed by 
night and a sitting-room by day. 

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about four hundred yards above the Zikr ul Aawaze*, 
the roaring of which we heard for some time before 
coming to it. No part of it is now visible, but the 
water rushes over it like a rapid, boiling with great 
impetuosity. The passage, which is narrow, is 
between it and the east bank. The dyke crosses the 
river. They say, at the latter end of summer and 
early in autumn, about a foot of it is visible above 
water, and it may then be seen that it is constructed 
of large hewn stones cemented with lime. 

Both sides of the river are highly cultivated all 
the way from Mousul wherever it is possible, and 
villages were constantly in sight. 

March 4. — It was so cloudy last night that I 
could not take an observation ; the morning was also 
overcast and threatening a storm, so that there ap- 
peared nO chance of my seeing the eclipse of the 
moon. This was, however, at present an object of 
minor importance with me. I was curious to in- 
spect the ruins of Nimrod t> which I take to be the 
Larissa of Xenophon. They were sufficiently visible 
from the shore to enable me to sketch the principal 

But I was desirous of a closer examination of 

* " The Zikr ul Aawaze is a dam built across the mer, which at 
low water stands considerably above its surface, and forms a small 
cataract. The inhabitants attribute it to Nimrod." — From Mr. 
Rich's Journal of his Journey from Bagdad to Constantinople. 

t Mousul is six caravan or four horseman's hours from Nimrod. 

Vol. II. K 

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such very venerable remains. I therefore sent the 
kelleks round the next reach, and set off the first 
thing in the morning on foot, accompanied by Mrs. 
Rich, the gentlemen, and a working party to inspect 
them. We had a walk of forty-five minutes in N. 
45 E. at a good hard pace, and my curiosity was 
amply gratified. The first objects that attracted our 
attention were a Pyramidal Mount at the north-west 
angle of a parallelogrammic platform or flat mound. 
Traces of ruins like those of a city were to be seen to 
the north a little way west and to a great distance 
east. It is indeed difficult to assign their precise 
extent, the country all around has been so much 
ploughed up. I ascended the mount first, as there 
was a slight clearing up of the horizon, in order to 
establish its bearings from the distant objects, whose 
positions I already knew. 

A dereh, or ravine, comes from about Khidder 
Elias, collects all the neighbouring drains, and pours 
into the Tigris, passing by and washing the south 
face of the platform. It is sometimes very fiiU of 
water, and scarcely passable ; but is now dry. This 
ravine is called Seikh Dereh. All around is beauti- 
fully cultivated. About a quarter of a mile from the 
west face of the platform is the large village of Nim- 
rod, sometimes called Deraweish. 

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t^^3. ^^7ftaZl^!fuc€^ ^inc^ 'mdk/ ^JhUom 


J7ua9 VKiScnplioa/ oocapiefi ^t^t^^ktAxfU^ l€n^l^cf 

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The Turks generally believe this to have been 
Nimrod's own city ; and one or two of the better 
informed with whom I conversed at Mousul said it was 
Al Athur or Ashur, from which the whole country 
was denominated'*'. It is curious that the villagers 
of Deraweish still consider Nimrod as their founder. 
The village story-tellers have a book they call the 
" Kisseh Nimrod," or Tales of Nimrod, vidth which 
they entertain the peasants on a winter night. 

But to come to a description of the ruins. The 
above-mentioned pyramid fonns the north-west angle 
of the platform, which aligns with the face of the 
pyramid. At the west base of the pyramid are a few 
yards of the same kind of concrete building which I 
had observed at Nineveh. Indeed these ruins singu- 
larly illustrate those of Nineveh, and I was delighted 
to jfind scattered about fragments of burnt bricks 
with cuneiform inscriptions on them. I immediately 
sent to the village to try to procure a whole one, and 
was successful. I obtained a brick covered with 
cuneiform writing on the face and the edge; the 

* In the name of this obscure place seems to be preserved that 
of the first settler of the country, and from this spot, perhaps, that 
name extended over the whole vast region. See Gen. x. 11 . *' Out 
of that land went forth Ashur and builded Nineveh," &c.; or, as 
it has been rendered, "Out of that land he went forth into Ashur,** 
i.e. Assyria. The former translation seems the preferable one; 
and the position of this village is favourable to the supposition of 
its having received very early a name afterwards to become so 


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132 RUINS OP nimrod's city. [ch. xviil 

writing larger than that at Babylon, and not in the 
centre of the brick, but covering the face ; the bricks 
thicker than those of Babylon, and indeed much 
resembling the Nineveh bricks. 

The area of the platform does not rise quite to the 
top of the sides, which leaves as it were a small sort 
of parapet all round. Torrents of rain have furrowed 
down openings from the centre to the face of the 
platform. The faces are aligned ; the two shorter 
east and west, and the longest north and south. 
From east to west measured, not including the pyra- 
mid, five hundred and fourteen feet ; north to south is 
about twice as much. The pyramid on the inside only 
falls to the level of the platform, and on the outside to 
the ground. The corners are now so rounded off, as 
to give it the appearance of being almost circular ; yet 
still its pyramidal form is sufficiently discernible. It 
is very steep, and the top is small. The height from 
the ground, or outside, is one hundred and forty-four 
feet and a half; the circumference, measured with a 
cord at the ground or lowest base, and over the plat- 
form, so as to give a great excess, seven hundred and 
seventy-seven feet. 

Northward the ruins are traceable and aligned 
with the west face of the platform for about two hun- 
dred yards ; they then turn east irregularly, and are 
obliterated or confused by the plough. Eastward 
the inequalities of the ground show ruins. Tel 
Seikh, a mount on the ravine at some distance from 

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the platform, on which stands the pyramid, may like- 
wise be a part of the city. South beyond the plat- 
form are no traces ; they may have been obliterated 
by the Seikh Dereh. North of the platform a smaller 
ravine, called Karadash Dereh, makes its way 
through the ruins to join the Seikh Dereh before it 
reaches the Tigris. All the country about is under 
complete cultivation, and the hills on the opposite 
side are also interspersed with villages ; but there 
are many mounds and ruins seen amongst them. 

We returned to where our kelleks awaited us, in 
S. 55 W., after thirty-five minutes' moderate walking. 
We found them in a long reach north and south ; 
and at a quarter past twelve we got under way, 
and soon after came to another artificial impediment 
in the river, called a zikr, or dyke. We crossed it 
near its west end without difficulty, but with some 
dancing of the kellek, as the water boiled consider- 
ably. It is either not so high or has been more 
ruined than the Zikr ul Aawaze. 

About two o'clock we were obliged to tie up the 
kellek, at the village of Shemoota, on the left bank, 
on account of the strong southerly squalls. From 
hence Keshaf, at the mouth of the Zab, was in sight, 
looking as considerable as the Mount of Arbela ; and 
a little inland from Shemoota was a tepeh, or mount, 
caUed Tel Sitteibh. 

A few minutes after four we left Shemoota, and 

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184 KE8HAF« [CH. XYIII. 

proceeded on our way, the river becoming much 
broader, aud diversified with islandsi Tel Sitteihh, 
and several other artificial mounts, were in sight; 
and soon after we came to sulphur-springs in the 
cMs on the right bank, which are of sandstone, and 
very much broken. 

At a quarter past five we reached, on the left bank 
of the Tigris, the first mouth of the Zab, of which 
there are two, separated by a pebbly islands The 
clear blue Waters of the Zab boil up and repulse the 
muddy stream of the Tigris. 

We tied up our frail bark again at twenty-five 
minutes past five, just below the second mouth of the 
Zab, on the pebbly bank. Keshaf, at a mile aud a 
half N. 45 E« of us, is a long flat artificial mount, with 
another lower one beside it. The natives of Mousul 
say its ancient name was Kharisa ; they do not seem 
to be aware of Haditha *. I was anxious to ascend 
this mount, in order to obtain a sight of the sur* 
rounding country and the course of the Zab , but 
the weather would not permit. The night too was 
very threatening ; however, I was detennined not to 
move thence till I had had an observation of latitude 
to fix indisputably this interesting point. 

March 5.— The night was very dismal, with 
thunderstorms and squalls of rain; The path to 
Keshaf leads through deep soft mud, 80 that We have 
* Probably the same word. 

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no hopes of getting there. Between ten and eleven 
the weather began to clear up^ sufficiently for me to 
get an observation for the tinie ; and at noon I was 
fortunate enough to get a great many circum-meridian 
altitudes, all unexceptionable. Just at that time 
some smoke ascended from the ruins of Kyara» 
which enabled me to set it in S. 15 W. ; it is said 
to be five hours inland by the river. 

About noon we got under way. Passing be* 
tween an island and the left bank, which was high, 
I observed a bed of concretion near fifteen feet thick, 
resting on a basis of sandstone, in some places just 
visible above the water. On the right bank the hills 
were seen gradually terminating at a point called 
Murshek, the burial-place of the ancestor of the 
Albu Selman Arabs, marked by a rude monument. 

About one we came to ruins on both sides of us, 
the Karatchuk hills being visible in all their length, 
about eight or nine miles off. The country was 
hence very open to the village of Sultan Abduila, 
where the river becomes very broad. Soon alter 
leaving Sultan Abduila, the river seemed as if it had 
once run more easterly, from the high and dry banks 
which were visible, taking that direction. 

We passed at half past three Mekook, an artificial 
mount, with some mounds round it, seemiqgly like 
Nimrod, but of less dimensions. The country here 
was open, verdant, and lev-el. . 

After crossing the Minshar, a rapid or breaker 

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ncross the river, we stopped at a quarter to four for 
the night, on the right bank two miles from Kyara, 
where are naphtha-springs, from whicli we saw a 
black smoke ascending. Before us was a fine, open^ 
verdant country, with some broken hills in the dis- 
tance, and the Hamreen in the back ground. A 
little building was visible on the hills, coming from 
the north-west to the south-east, bearing 8. 62 W., 
and distant about six miles. We passed a large 
encampment of Albu Selman Arabs, and of villagers 
from Karakoosh, Tel Agoob, and Selamia, who had 
come here for their cattle to graze. 

The left bank of the river was something like the 
country above Mousul, though not quite so much 
furrowed, except towards the water ; the high country 
or now dry bank, sweeping more east than the pre- 
sent channel, from the top of the reach, and return- 
ing to it at the end, about half a mile lower down 
than our station. The surface of the country was 
pretty level and open. 

At night we had squally weather and much light- 
ning to the east. There was a heavy storm over 
Karatchuk. The river is evidently rising. 

Match 6. — We got under way at twenty-five 
minutes past five in the morning, in order to make a 
good day's work, but as I had had a bad night, I did 
not rise until near half past eight. The river was 
broad, and the country all around beautifully verdant, 
very open, and here aad there fringed with brush- 

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wood. Tel Gek)08, a tepeh or mount, was just 
behind us on the left bank. We soon after came to 
an encampment of Tai Arabs, of the Shemamik or 
Diab division, who were come out to pasture with 
the Sheikh of Shemamik, Ali'l Hassan, whose large 
encampment was stretched along the left bank of the 
river. Our navigation to-day was in some parts 
very confused and intricate, from the quantity of 
islands, and passages. We stopped for an hour to 
breakfast on the left bank, which continued the same 
fine, verdant, level, open country I noticed before, 
and was covered with a profusion of daisies and wild 

About noon we came to a boiling current and 
whirlpool, called Khabata, formed by large stones 
beneath; perhaps it may be building, though the 
natives say it is not. Just before reaching the whirl- 
pool we passed on the left bank three mounts, called 
Tulool Agger, near which was an encampment of 
Arabs of the Albu Hossein and Abu Doula tribes, who 
are always here. Near their tents was a little jungle. 

The river was so very rapid that we were unable 
to land at Toprak Kalaa, where we arrived at a 
quarter after twelve. It is a mount of earth sur- 
rounded at the foot by a . ruined* wall, the whole 
elevated on a platform of ruins. 

Heaps of rubbish were scattered about, in which 

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might be seen lines of stoDe-^maaonry with, lime 
cemeut ; on the surface, fragments of building, and 
large square bricks. We observed one piece of stone 
caryed like the fragment of a statue, or fine orna- 
ment, which we saw distinctly through our glasses, 
as we were close to the shore, but could not land, as 
I have said above, owing to the violence of the 
current and the eddies, formed, I believe, by the 
fragments of building in the water. The men of 
the kelleks absolutely refused to make the attempt. 
These ruins are well worth investigation. They form 
a mass of about twenty feet high, extending north 
and south along the west bank of the river for nearly 
two miles, and apparently very far in. The dis- 
tance from Mousul by land is said to be twenty- 
two hours. The Hamreen hills are close behind, 
with several caves, looking like Dakhmehs, or ancient 
places for exposing the dead, on the summits. These 
ruins of Toprak Kalaa appear to be most perfect ; 
and from their desolate and out-of-the*way situation, 
they seem only to have suffered by natural decay, 
and never to have been disturbed by the hand of 
man. The Turks call the place Toprak Kalaa; the 
Arabs, Kalaat ul Shirgath ; which mean the same 
thing— the castle of earth. They all say it was 
ruined long before the time of Islam. 

Here is the southern boundary of the territory of 
Mousul, on the west side of the Tigris ; its boundary 
on the east side is the great Zab. 

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We cAliae to the termination of the ruins at half 
paet twelve, opposite to which was a large eucamp^ 
meDt of Tai Arabs^ pitched in an open country as 
green as an emerald. Not long after we passed the 
Hamreen hills close on the right bank, whicii formed 
an eddy called Khanuza, much dreaded by the kel- 
leks when the river is high, and the current rapid. 
The clifis w^re battered and broken down by the 
force of the vmter at the Khaniiza. About half past 
two we glided by a curious lump of concretion in 
the river called Nemba, said to be covered with ants, 
whence its name. A few minutes after we came to 
a very bad rapid, formed by masses of concretion, 
called Ferraj ; and a little after I observed on our 
right a long low tepeh or mount, on which was ihe 
tomb of an Arab Sheikh. At half past three >f as 
another rapid named Treisha^ and on the right bank 
ruins called Muk'hol Kalaa, standing on a per*- 
pendicular cliff foimed of bare strata of rock, the 
foot of which is washed by the river, which brings 
down large pieces of it. The principal building is 
one long room with loop-holes to the river, the roof 
of which is gone ; the left side is buttressed, or sup^ 
ported on a mass of building, in which was a kind 
of window that seems to show that there are subter- 
ranean chambers in it. Through openings in these 
hills, the Hamreen hills are seen close behind ; the 
front oneS) which I before mistook for the Hamreen, 
being only a branch or screen called the Muk'hol, or 

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Khanuza mountain, which is like the principal trunk 
of the Hamreen in eveiy respect, except that it ser- 
pentines more, the Hamreen bebg pretty straight 
in its course. 

I observed here a very curious bank which had 
been cut down by the river, and in which were very 
plainly defined, first a horizontal layer of pure soil 
above four feet thick ; secondly, a bed of concretion 
about eight feet ; and under aU, inclined strata of 
sandstone, about ten or twelve feet to the water's 

We tied up for the night, at about half past four 
in the afternoon, on the right bank, and just opposite 
the mouth of the little Zab ; on the banks of which 
was a large encampment of Alabeid Arabs, under 
their chief, Hassan Ali. Near us was a little jungle 
of brushwood, the grass around which was enamelled 
with wild flowers. 

The west bank of the Zab was formed by hills, on 
which were the tombs of some Arab Sheikhs, and 
these are the same hills which for the last twenty 
minutes had formed the left bank of the Tigris. On 
the east bank of the Zab the country is quite flat 
and open. 

March 7. — We got under way at about half 
past five in the morning, the wind blowing hard from 
the south. At six we came to a rapid and whirlpool 
much dreaded by the kelleks, called Kelab, or the 
nook ; and a few minutes after, we reached the termi- 

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nation of the Khanuza hills on the right bank The 
interral between them and the Hamreen is filled with 
a confusion of mounts, and debris, seemingly tossed 
about in a most fanciful and unsightly manner. At 
seven we passed a place called Musahhaj, or the 
crumbled, and from hence the tops of several of the 
mounts above mentioned wore the appearance as if 
they were crowned with ruins. Through the glass 
I could only descry indurated earthy and crumbling 
sandstone. The people say it is a kalaa, or castle, 
but none of them have ever been ashore here* The 
remains, whether of nature or of art, cover many 
separate mounts, and form the ridge or back-bone of 
many sharp ones, where nothing but a single wall 
ever could have been. There is in no part of the 
hills space for houses or habitations, and the pre- 
tended remains are solid. 

Proceeding on our way, we soon came to Tel 
Hamlia, a small mount on the left bank, and Kalaat 
ul Jebbar, or the tyrant's castle, on the right bank 
of the river, a ruin a little way up the Hamreen^ 
consisting of some round towers, connected by plain 
walls. Many vestiges of others were discernible, 
extending nearly up to the top of the mountain. 
These were merely inclosure walls, as of a city, 
though the area was steep. 

We stopped for breakfast at about half past eight 
under the Hamreen hills, on the right bank, near 
one hour below Jebbar, at which place it was impos-* 

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sible to bring the kellek to. Had I been as neav 
Toprak Kalaa, I would gladly have walked to see 
it ; these ruins, however, did not excite my curiosity 
sufficiently to induce me to go so far to see them. 
From their appearance they may have been Maho* 
metan. The ground where we stopped, and all 
around, was beautifully green, and enamelled with 
wild flowers. Near us were encamped some Arabs 
of a petty tribe, called Albu Is'hhak ; also on both 
sides of the river some Alabied Arabs. They 
brought us immense quantities of truffles for sale. 

We got under way again at about half past ten, 
but were soon obliged, on account of the violence of 
the wind, to bring to at a small island, opposite 
which, on the left bank, were some strange unsightly 
hills and mounts, worn into eveiy shape. We got 
off again at half past one, and in half an* hour 
reached Tel Dhahab on the left bank, called by 
Thevenot, Altun Daghi; a hill higher than the 
before-mentioned heaps which surround it About 
half has been carried away by the river, the action 
of which has here exposed the natural line of earth 
and horizontal strata of sandstone. 

At a little after two passed Breij a Bad, a rock, 
and rapid, at a turn in the river close to the left 
bank, on a hill near which was an Arab tomb ; and 
at half past two we came to El Fatt'hha, the pass 
through the Hamreen hills. The river runs through 
in S. 30 E.^ and is about one hundred and fifty 

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yards wide. In the pass en the left bank, among 
debris of tlie Hanoreen hills, are naphtha springs 
and nitre. We soon after passed a place where the 
river forms many islands, and in the beginning of 
autumn is fordable. The Diyabat horsemen from 
Sinjar cross here to go and rob in the Kerkook 
hills, and they follow the Hamreen down from 

The river continued broad, the current very strong, 
and there were many islands. On the left bank were 
low hills, among the rest one called Leg-Leg, much 
furrowed by an abrupt turn in the river ; and on the 
right the country was pretty open, but not so much 
so as to appear alluvial. Albu Hammed Arabs 
were encamped along the shore. 

About six we brought to for the night at an 
island. All the islands hereabouts were cultivated with 
Indian corn, &;c. by the Albu Hammed Arabs. The 
country on each side was very like that above Mousul. 
The Hamreen was visible to a great extent. 

Not very long before we tied up, we saw, on the 
right bank, a place called Khan Khernina, bearing 
S. 60 W. Two considerable mounts were distin- 
guishable, and under them large ruins : some arches 
were visible through our glasses. It seemed a very 
curious place. Just south begins a low range of 
hills or rather elevated strip of country, with a flat 
surface, called Jebel Khernina, which runs to 

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March 8. — We were off in the morning at a 
quarter to six, but our going was very slow on ac- 
count of a very violent south-easterly wind. When 
I began to obsei've at half past seven Fatt'hha bore 
N> 10 W., our course was south. 

We passed about eight o'clock some water-wheels 
and cultivation on the islands and lef); bank, be- 
longing to the Jowaree Arabs. Our going conti- 
nued extremely slow and difficult, and a little before 
ten we were obliged to stop, or rather were driven 
against the left bank, where we remained till a 
quarter after four. 

On the Khernina hills was visible the tomb of 
Tchereem Abu Khalkhalan, a son of Imaum Mousa.* 
Several other smaller tombs are about it. 

Water-wheels belonging to a little tribe of Arabs, 
called Albu Mohammed, and subject to Tekreet, 
were in motion as we passed them soon after getting 
under way again, which we did, in spite of the 
south-east wind, which was very strong and greatly 
impeded our progress. 

The Hamreen hills were still in sight at ten 
minutes to five, even through the mist raised by the 

* The seventh of the twelve Imaums revered by the Shiahs. 
He was born in the year of the Hejira 1 28, and was poisoned at 
Bagdad by order, it is said, of Haroun al Rashid. He is buried 
at the village of Kazemeen, on the right bank of the Tigris, three 
miles to the north of Bagdad, and the Persians have built a hand' 
some mosque over his remains, the cupolas of which are covered 
with beaten gold. 

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.CH.XyilJ.] RUIl^fS OF TBKREET. 145 

south wind> whicb> Iiowever, soon after fell, and 
there was a dead calm, the sky fast covering iu all 
round with very heavy clouds. 

As we proceeded the river became much wider, 
and in one place could not be less than a mile 
broad. There were many herds on the banks 
and islands belonging to the Albu Mohammed 

At half past five we came to a place called Selwa^ 
or the Syren, in the Khemina cliffs ; then round a 
cape in these hills, which from the Selwa make 
another bend in, and return again near Tekreet ; but 
this is in fact only the country cut down by the 
water, the river having evidently at one time passed 
by them. From Selwa our course was south. The 
river has decidedly begun to fall again, the late rise 
having been only a temporary one caused by the 

At ten minutes before six in the evening there 
came a violent squall from the west, which drover us 
on the east bank at some distance from the other 
kelleks. Luckily the bank was low and clear. 
The squall lasted so long that it was not worth 
while to get under way again after it was over. 
The ruins of Tekreet began a little below us on the 
high perpendicular cliffs. 

March 9. — ^We got under way at half past five, 
aftid at six tied up again on the bed of pebbles before 

Vol. II. L 

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[Cll. XVlll. 


While breakfast was getting ready, I sallied forth 
to view the curiosities of the place, which are indeed 
but few, and consist only of the rubbish of the former 
town, which covers an immense space, perhaps 
greater than all Bagdad. The castle (I now well 
comprehend how it might have been deemed impreg- 
nable) is on a perpendicular cliff over the Tigris 
above 200 feet high, and is separated from the town 
by a broad and deep ditch, which insulates the cliff 
of the castle, and no doubt was filled by the Tigris. 
On the opposite side of the ditch is the town, which 
was also walled. The area is now covered with 
heaps of rubbish, principally lime and large round 
stones, like those at Kasr i Shireen. Vaults and 
chambers are everywhere discoverable among them. 
At the foot of the castle cliff is a large gate of brick- 

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woi*k, which is all that remains standing, but round 
the summit of th& cliff the walls, buttresses, and has*- 
tlons are quite traceable. There are the ruinii of 
a vaulted secret staircase, leading down from the 
heart of the citadel to the water's edge. The people 
say that there ar^ the remains of ten churches in 
the modern town, but quite ruined. Just outside 
the north part of the city is a ruin, called in Arabic 
Dat el Benat, or the " abode of the girl." This 
may have been a nunnery. 

Al Hadhr* is two long days* journey from hence, 
N. 30 W, I saw the pyramid, or perhaps it would 
be more correct to say, the Cone of Door, 8. 8 E., 
four hours off. The Hamreen was visible from N. 
20 W, to N. TOE. El Fafhha N. 10 W. 

A caravan was just setting out for Kerkook. It 
rests for the night at the Hamreen hills, and arrives 
the next day at the place of its destination. 

The modern town of Tekreet, which contains six 
hundred houses, is built of burnt brick, and is faimed 
this year for 22,000 piastres. 

The barber who shaved me was a terrible talker, but 
was rivalled by his townsman, an old Seyd whom I met, 
and who told me long stories of his ancestor Sultan 

* From a native I learnt that at £1 Hadhr there are the remaiiie 
of a triple wall, and sculptures, and writing. It i^ on a canal 
from the Thilthar, which is a river that comes from Sinjar, and 
discharges itself into the salt lake. In a ravine, near Hadhr, are 
many slahft of marhle covered with writing. — See p. 108, and the 


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Abdul Siteehh. The air of Tekreet seeius favour- 
able to prosers, as there is a proverb common in these 
countries^ "To talk like a Tekreetli." If the women 
exceed the men in this gift, in the due proportion of 
the sex, he is to be pitied who marries a Tekreetli wife. 
We left Tekreet at a quarter past twelve, and 
proceeded along under the cliffs, which are composed 
of earth and pebbles — no rock was visible. The 
country on both sides of the river was well cultivated. 


About three we came to Imam Dour *, on the 
left bank of the river. It is a considerable town, 

* Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold whose 
height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits. 
He set it up in the plain of Dura^ in the province of Babylon. — 
Daniel iii, 1. In the retreat of the Roman array from Ctesiphon, 

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CH. XVIIl.] TUMULI, &C. 149 

with a few date-trees and a garden or two, and 
marked by a ziyaret, or place of })ilgriniage, with 
a cone-like spire over it Behind the town, at a 
little distance, is a very large ancient mount. 

A few mimites after we passed Hheimra, there is 
a zikr, or obstruction in the river, but not extending 
far from the left bank. The natives say it is artifi- 
cial; but I could only see some lumps of concretion, 
which had every appearance of being natural. Just 
below Hheimra is another zikr, or obstruction, called 
Ruweiahh. The river has fallen about two feet. 

At a place called Tel el Meheji, on the right 
bank, very considerable tumuli are obsei-vable, but 
they are some way inland. Alabeid and other petty 
Arab tribes were encamped there, who pay tribute 
to the Sheikh of Khernina, Alii Fadhah. On the left 
the people of the kellek pointed out to me a nahar 
or small stream, said to have been a canal dug by 
King Solomon, and to go as far as Howeiza. They 
say there is a bridge not far off, over it, of stones 
cramped with lead, and a similar one over the Ad- 
haym. It looks only like a natural ravine among 

under Jovian, tbey are described as pitching their tents near the 
city of Dura, four days after the death of Julian. Here, too, a 
part of the army, in the silence of the night, swam the Tigris ; and 
the success of this trial. Gibbon says, '' disposed the Emperor to 
listen to the promises of his architects, who proposed to construct 
a floating bridge of the inflated skins of sheep^ oxen^ andgoais^ 
covered with a floor of earth and fascines.** — ^Decline and Fall of 
the Roman £mpire, vol. iv., p. 208. 

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tl^e pebbly hills : it is quite dry, very narrow, »nd 
some feet now above the river. 

At twenty minutes past four we arrived at the 
commencement of the ruins of Eski Bagdad, on the 
high pebbly cliffs of the left bank of the river. They 
consisted at first of insignificant ruins of pebble- 
work, mud, and brick, in heaps of rubbish, but of 
considerable extent, as we were above an hour 
passing them. A great many islands were scattered 
along the right bank of the river, and we observed 
quantities of very curious birds, called in Arabic 
aajizan, flying about in the cliffs. They had long 
red beaks, changeable red and green wings, and 
were rather larger, I think, than a pigeon. The 
ruins continued till twenty minutes to six, when we 
came to a square inclosure, just in the style of the 
other ruins, but more perfect. It is called Thinai's ; 
and this seems to be the end of these ruins. 

We passed, about six, Kabr u Seyd, a lump of 

concretion, forming a rapid near the right bank, and 

soon after some more lumps, said to be the remains 

of the bridge of the Ashek. At Hawel-ubset, on the 

left bank, were some heaps of ruins. On the right 

was Ashek, which reminded me of Seiixiheh Khan *. 

At twenty minutes past seven we arrived at Samaraf , 

on the left bank of the river. 

• Sertcheh Khan is about three hours from Nisibis, on the 
ond frotn that place to Mardin, and is an inclosure framed of 
thick masonry and faced with large stones, 

t In the retreat mentioned in a former note, the Roman army. 

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March SO;— While waiting for the noon-day 
observation, I went to see the remains of the great 
mosque or medrisseh. The brickwork is good ; and 
the size about two hundred yards by one hundred and 
fifty. The wall is supported by buttresses, looking like 
towers at a distance ; outside of which, on the north 
of the town, is the barbarous, but curious-look- 
ing corkscrew tower, a spiral dividing it into six 

w . f -^ 

towers. It is about two hundred feet high. Ruins 
and heaps of rubbish are lying about in every direc- 
tion. The Caliph's palace is a great way off to the 
north. The modern town is about the same size as 
that cfTekreet. 

** after marching find fighting a long summer's day, anived in the 
evening at Samara, on the hanks of the Tigris, ahout one hundred 
miles above Ctesiphon.** — Dechne and Fall of the Roman Empire, 
vol. iv. p. 207. Samara afterwards, in the ninth century, hecam<^ 
the capital of Motassem, the eighth €aliph of the Ahassides, instead 
of Bagdad, which he quitted on account of the rebellious disposi- 
tion of its inhaliitants. 

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15^ C0IX)8SAL FItAGMENT. [cH. XVllI. 

At half-past twelve we got under way, notwith* 
standing there was a veiy disagreeable south*eafit 
wind blowing, and the day cloudy and dark. We 
passed more ruins, still called by the people, Eski 
liagdad. At a few minutes before tw^o we came to 
Nahar ul Ersas, on the left bank, or the head of the 
Nahrawan canaL On it was a square brick build* 
itig, sieemingly solid, and of the age of the Caliphs. 
On the opposite shore was the mouth of the Dijjeil, * 
a little below that of the Nahrawan ; and about half- 
past two we passed mounds of ruins at a place caUed 
Istablat, and stopped on the left bank at another 
place called El Sanam or Nabga, where were like- 
wise mounds of ruins, and a fragment of an unburnt 
brick wall on the bank. Below it, near the M^ater, 
was the fragment of a statue called El Sanam, or 
the idol, of grey granite and basalt, consisting of two 
feet, placed parallel on a pedestal. The length of 
the feet was thirteen inches, and the same measured 
over the instep. The design was not amiss ; the ancle 
bone was well traced, but all was much cliipped 
and wilfully defaced. Only a few feet more of 
the statue remain above the ancles ; and all that can 
be made out of it is that tlie drapery descended to 
the ancles, like a petticoat. Thty say the upper 
part was cut away by an Imam Dooi-li, to make 
pestles for pounding coflPee. 

We ascended the bank, and immediately saw all 
around considerable mounts of ruins dispersed abouti 

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covered with pieces of brick, of Sassanian, not As- 
i^yrian or Babylonian texture and dimensions. In 
addition to the other fragments usually found, were 
pieces of glass or vitrified substance, of green and 
amethyst colours, in crystals* or incrustations. At 
the distance of half a mile were some walls and 
riimparts, which I immediately set off to examine, 
though I was much exhausted by the south-easterly 
wind, and had hurt my toot considerably. I dis* 
covered an inclosure of unburnt brick walls and 
little towers, which I saw at once to be Sassanian. 
The area was not very full of rubbish ; not so much 
so as towards the river. I remarked the inner" work 
just as at Ctesiphon and Dastagherda ; in short, there 
can be no doubt of its Sassanian character. The 
mounds of ruins outside are continued to a consider- 
able extent south-east along what appears clearly to 
have been the former bed of the river. I did not 
see any reeds among the building. Aga Seyd, my 
Persian secretary, told me he had on a former occa- 
sion gone round the inclosure in one hour on liorse^ 
back. I asked the name of the place, and the Arabs 
who were standing about immediately answered, 
Gadesia, which I found to be Kadesia * ; and here 

* Tlie battle of Kadesia, which put an end to the Persian 
empire, was fought in the fifteenth year of the Hejira, under the 
Caliphat of Omar, by the Arab General Saad, against Rustum, the 
Commander-in-Chief of the Perian army, in the reign of Yezdigerd, 
the last of the Sassanian race. The battle lasted three days, at the 
end of which the Arabs were victorious and the Persian monarchy 

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is the place accounted for at once. They said it was 
a town before Islam. It is curious that the natives 
of the East, though they sometimes give too great 
au age to Mahometan ruins, never, on any oocasion. 
attribute more ancient remains to Islam. I asked 
the same men what were some fragments of brick- 
work I saw beyond these ruins, and they immediately 
said, *' A town of the Khalifs." 

Samara from hence bore N. 20 W., and the 
building on the Nahrawan, N. 40 W. The Nahrawan 
runs at the back of Gadesia*, at about a mile's 

We set off again at a little after four, but were 
compelled by the violence of the weather to bring 
to again at ten minutes before six. The river I 
observed to be rising again very fast. 

March 11.— Off at half past five in the morning. 
Passed Beled, the principal village of the district of 
Dijjeil ; near it were some date-trees, and a minarets 
A little way in from the bank was Ghowadir, another 
village, likewise among date-trees, The river all 
this morning wound greatly, and formed a great 
number of islands and channels. Khan i Seyd visible 
on the right bank, and a little below it the tomb of 
Seyd Mohammed. The banks here were steep, and 
composed of fine pure mould, much shivered by the 

destroyed. [See the animated account of this battle in the ninth 
volume of the *• Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."] 

* Macdonald Kinneir takes this for Opis, which is quite out ©f 
the question. 

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action of the water. We are now in the alluvial 
ooimtry, and not a pebble is to be seen on any side. 

Soon after ten we stopped for breakfast. The 
wind was from the north and north-east, and so very 
high as to raise considerable waves on the river, 
which did not at all suit our very frail bark^* 

We were off again at half past eleven, passed 
Mishraga. The high alluvial banks were here worn 
down, aud shattered by the river and the rain. The 
nrev has greatly varied its course hereabouts. 

At one we stopped at the junction of the Adhaym 
and the Tigris. The Adhaym is the trunk stream 
which receives the Kerkook, Taouk, and Toozkhoor- 
mattee waters. I laiided to examine it. It is now 
about a hundred yards wide, but is a small stream 
sometimes even nearly dry, and here runs through a 
plain of low ground gained from the river, which at 
no very distant period made a great sweep on the 
left band, as may be seen by the high and now dry 
banks about one mile off. It is beyond these that 
Opis must be looked for. The reason why Mac- 
donald Kinneir could not find any ruins is quite 
clear ; he looked on ground which but a short time 
before had been the bottom of the river. 

This low ground now pastures many buffaloes, 
and is the favourite haunt of wild boars. We saw 
five of them in our walk** 

* A wild boar one day caipe swimming dowu the Tigris in 
»igbt of our gfa:deu bousf , near Bogd^. He tended in the town, 

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We got under way again at half past one. 
There was very little current, and our going was 
very slow. We passed much ground that had been 
gained from the river. At a quarter past four the 
date-trees on the Khalis were in sight ; on the left 
was Tel Khumeisia. 

At six we stopped for the night at Sindia, the 
first village of Khalis, on the Tigris* ; and here we 

took his way up the b^aar, where he overturned and hurt sonie 
persons ; he then got into a mosque, to the great terror of a few 
people who were in it : being dislodged from this asylum, he took 
refuge in the house of the Seraff Bashi, a Jew ; and I believe paid 
two or three visits of this nature before he was shot. 

* The district of Khalis is situated to the north of Bagdad, and 
takes its name from a canal which is cut from the Diala to the 
Tigris, and supphes sixty-two villages, most of which are now 
become mere nominal ones, with water for agriculture ; the Tigris 
itself being unfit for that purpose. The principal of these villages 
are Yenghijeh, twenty miles from Bagdad, on the banks of the 
Tigris, now almost abandoned on account of the great oppression 
under which the peasantry labour : Howeish, a village of a hun- 
dred houses, famous for its fruit gardens, three miles from 
Yenghijeh, and also on the Tigris; Dokhala, close to Howeish; 
Hophopa, about six miles from Howeish in the desert ; Mansoo 
ria, six miles from Howeish on the Tigris ; Saadia, three and a 
half miles from Mansooria, also on the Tigris ; Sindia, Doltova, 
and several villages on the Diala. 

Near Mansooria some cotton is grown ; the rest of the culti- 
vation is barley, com, and grass. 

During an excursion I made through this district in the month of 
March, 1813, 1 had an opportunity of seeing several specimens of the 
strange impolicy and savage oppression of the Turks towards their 
peasantry, one of which is worth recording, Bfi it proves to what an 
extent the wretched system of mahhsoobiet is carried. A poor 
man at Howeish invited us into his garden, which we found in 
very bad order. He said he was a Mahhsoob, a dependant, or 

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met the yachts which had been waiting for us for the 
last fifteen days. We got on board at night, and 
found the change, from the confinement of the kellek 
to an airy cabin and good deck, a very pleasant one. 

March 12. — ^The yacht got under way at half 
past five this morning, and when I went upon deck 
at half past seven, I found we were going south, and 
were just below the village of Mansooria. The 
wind was south-east, and the day looked very threat- 
ening. Many villages were in sight. 

About nine the yacht got aground, but was soon 
off again; however we were obliged to go very 
slowly, and notwithstanding all our precautions we 
got aground again soon after eleven, and could not 
get off again till noon ; after which we sailed on 
pleasantly enough. About three we came in sight 
of the Bagdad gardens, the country being quite open 
on both sides. Soon after we had a tremendous 
storm of hail, and we were driven against the high 
bank of the river. At a quarter before six, we came 
into the' reach of Imam Aazem ; at six passed the 

protected, of the Defterdar or Treasurer at Bagdad ; and that some 
years hack, when the Defterdar was oppressed hy the Kiahya, the 
contre-coup extended to him, and he was ohliged to fly. During 
his absence his garden fell to decay, and from an annual produce 
of 6000 piastres, it now scarcely brought him as many hundreds. 

All government persons live at free quarters in these villages ; 
a most serious burden to the inhabitants when situated on a fre- 
quented road. 

The whole district is governed by a Zabit, but each village has, 
besides, its own head or Kiahya. 

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Pasha's garden ; and in half an hour more we an- 
chored just above the Bridge of Boats at Bagdad. 

Mr. Rich, on his return to Bagdad from his expe- 
dition to Koordistan, received an oflfer from the Hon. 
Mount Stuart Elphinstone, Governor of Bombay, 
of a situation ut the Presidency, which he accepted ; 
and as soon as he had settled his alSairs at Bagdad, 
he left it, to the grief of a large proportion of the 
inhabitants, and proceeded down the Tigris to'Bus- 
sora, of which voyage the following is an account, 
Mr. Rich had made the same voyage so many tinles, 
that he did not, upon the present occasion, keep 
a very minute Journal. In order to supply defi- 
ciencies, some of his former Journals are given in 
the Appendix. 

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cH.xix.] 160 


Departure from Bagdad — The Diala — Tauk Kesra — Scattered 
Ruins — River winding— Long Lines of Ruins— Mud Fort — 
Encampment of Arabs — Ruins at Taj — Great Ruins— Building 
with Arches — Mounds — Treasure found — Swarms of Mosqui- 
toes — Arab Tribe of Davar — Defeats the Pasha of Bagdad's 
Army — Jumbal — Remains of a supposed Bridge — ^The Village 
of Koot Al Amara — The Hye — Mountains in s^ght — Immense 
expanse of Water — Camp of the Beni Lam Sheikh — Clump of 
Trees — Ruins — ^Jungle of Tamarisk — Ruins of two ancient 
Towns — Dreary Morass— Arab Encampment — Boats loaded 
with Dates— Fine grove of Trees— Canal — The Hhud— Danger of 
one of our Boats — Albu Mahommed Arabs — Their Habitations 
— Wild appearance — Their Canoes — Tomb of Ezra — Albu 
Mahommed Arabs — Removal of their Camp— The Women — 
Koorna — ^The Pasitigris, or Shat ul Arab — Arrival at Buisora. 

May 11.— We got under way in the yacht at 
half past seven, with a south-east wind. The river 
very full, though not yet at its highest. We passed 
Hajee AbduUa Aga's garden, which is the last -be- 
longing to Bagdad, at ten minutes before eleven; 
arrived at the mouth of the Dial a at one*, and 
anchored at our old station at Hodheifa, opposite 
Tauk Kesra f, at half past five. 

The weather was squally and threatening, so We 
did not get under way again that night. 

* From the Diala to Tauk Kesra is noted in a former Journal, 
t For an account of Tauk Kesra, see the Journal above referred 
to, which will be found in the Appendix. — Ed. 

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May 12. — We sailed at five. The wind was wes- 
terly and pretty strong. Soon* after six we were off 
the mouth of the canal I originally supposed to be 
the Nabar Malca, but which I now believe to be a 
cut or opening from it. The real Nahar Malca 
seems to be in the horizon, and its mouth is at a 
place called Samera, far below the Tank. The boat- 
men called it Ugghur, and told me that formerly, to 
very old tiiiies^ it was navigable *. 

A little before seven we observed on the right 
bank, at a place called Hharrea, scattered mounds 
of rubbish to a great extent, and soon after passed 
Samera, the place where the boatmen had pointed 
out to us the Nahar Malca. 

The wind blowing pretty fresh from the south- 
east, and the river very winding, we were driven 
up against the left bimk, from whence we could not 
disengage ourselves for upwards of half an hour. 
A little after ten we passed Al Hammam on the 
right bank, near which heaps of ruins were scattered 
all about. 

At three we were in. a very long reach running 
east. On the right bank we observed long lines of 
ruins, or the banks of an old canal called Davar. 
Possibly this may be the Nahar Malca. In about 
half an hour we turned N. 45 E. It now fell dead 
calm ; the barometer dropped to 29"^ 52' ; and everj' 

* Trajan, in his voyage down the Euphrates, is said to have 
passed into the Tigris through the Nahar Malca. 

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tiling portending a squall, we thought it ais well to 
bring to for the nighty which we did in a long 
easterly reaeh at four. Soon after a squall from the 
west and north«west burst over us» with thunder, 
lightning and rain, which lasted about two hours, 
when the wind settled again in the south-east. 

Matf 13. — Got under way at half past four, and 
at a quarter past six we had turned from south-west 
into N. 45 E. The river winds here very much. 
Boats are to be seen almost all round the horizon. 
We passed on the right bank a small square nmd 
fort, or rather inclosure, built by Shufellah, the Sheikh 
of the Zobeid Arabs, and beside it was a canal dug 
likewise by him. At a quarter to seven we came 
to Ruebia — ruins were visible on the right bank — 
and a small encampment of Zobeid Arabs. The left 
bank was low and marshy. The liquorice plant was 
growing in abundance, and a great many buffaloes 
belonging to the Maddani Arabs were grazing. 
At ten minutes past eight our com*se was S. 45 E. ; 
our going was very slow, and we had frequent stop- 
pages, owing to the rapidity of the current, which 
drove us up against the banks, from whence with 
difficulty the vessel could be disengaged. Taj was 
just before us in the reach into which we were turn- 
ing at a quarter to nine in S. 25 E. Ruins were 
discernible about three miles iii the desert on the 
left bank, consisting of many mounds, with a build- 

Vou II. M 

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162 GREAT RUlNa. [CH. XIX. 

ing or fragment of wall on one. The Arabs call 
them Taj. 

At twenty minutes past nine our course was 
S. 30 W. At a place called Haddara, on the right 
bank, were more ruins. About ten we got into a 
long reach S. 80 E., along which we sailed rapidly. 
At a quarter to one passed on the right bank Zor Ab- 
duUa*, where are great ruins. Thence we proceeded 
south, south-east and east, through a long reach, 
into N. 45 E., or the reach of Dakkhala. At lialf 
past two we were going south-west. The wind was 
westerly, which enabled us to hoist sail; and we pur- 
sued our way with considerable rapidity. At three 
our course was west ; at four it was south : we were 
still under sail, and going about seven knots an hour. 

We soon after passed Zoweiya, an immense col- 
lection of ruins, extending as far as the eye can 
reach in the desert, and down the right bank of the 
river. On one of the mounds far in the desert was a 
building with arches. We afterwards came to Hu- 
meinya, on the right bank ; ruins were still visible, 
seemingly a continuation of those of Zoweiya. It 
was on one of the mounds cut down by the river 
hereabouts, that the great treasure was found in Ab- 

* It is perhaps necessary to inform the reader, that the names 
mentioned on the banks of the river rarely belong to towns or vil- 
lages now in existence, but rather mark where once they were. 
Sometimes they are found with ruins, sometimes even the very 
ruins have disappeared, and nothing but the name remains. — Ed. 

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duUah Pacha's tiiiie^ consisting of immense quanti- 
ties of ingots of silver, coins of the Macedonian sove- 
reigns before Alexander, Athenian drachms, and 
silver Persian coins before Alexander *• On a 
mound about a mile inland are the remains of a 
round or rather cylindrical building, like a minaret, 
but apparently solid ; it is much ruined at the bottom, 
and is faced with fine brick-work. The top is quite 
ruined, and only a few yards of it are standing. 

The reach we were in was north, and pretty long. 
We were again detained a few minutes by coming 
against the bank. We passed some Zobeid Arabs ; 
they extend from Hameira to Koot, and inland as 
far as Affejf. 

In rounding into the next reach we were again 
detained a little by the yacht running against the 
bank. We had a fine north-west breeze. We came 
to at a quarter to six for dinner, and set off again at 
half past eight. 

• Some of which, fonning part of Mr. Rich's collection, are 
now in the British Museum. — Ed, 

t Extracts from a journal of Mr. Rich's in September, 1819. 
" Bagdad, September 10. Three boats coming from Bussora 
plundered by the AfFej Arabs, who have come to the banks of the 
Tigris to cut off the Bussora fleet, of which these three boats 
formed a part. The property lost is said to amount to forty lacs 
of piastres, and many people were killed or drowned in attempting 
to escape. I called upon the Pasha, who was very kind, but it 
waa evident to one who knew him well, that he was affected 
by the late bad news. He did his best to conceal it, and was 
pretty successful." 


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May 14. — ^A fine night, and we have made good 
way, though not sailing, but I was devoured by 
innumerable swarms of very venomous musquitoes, 
notwithstanding I slept on deck. At day-break the 
Hamreen hills were visible, which I am informed are 
oije long day's journey inland from Koot. 

The river winds less. At Ishan we observed 
ruins on the right bank. The wind was north. We 
dropped down the reach without sails. The line of 
the Hamreen hills all along before us. 

At half past nine passed Buzheila, a small mud 
fort on the right bank, belonging to Shufellah, the 
Zobeid Sheikh, who was encamped near it in person. 

At eleven on the left bank were some Arabs of 
the tribe of Dawar*. 

* November 27, 1819. — ^The Kiahya Bey marched a few days 
ago against some wretched Arabs, called the Davars, wbo are sub- 
ject to a man named the Shat Beghi, who is allowed a small toll 
on boats coming from Bussora, in consideration of his supplying 
horses and guides for couriers and government officers who may 
pass towards Koot, Bedra, the Beni Lam Sheikh, &c. This 
little body of Arabs, for it does not amount to a tribe, were sus- 
pected of having had some share in the late robberies on the river, 
and the Kiahya Bey in consequence was ordered out to surprise 
tbem, at the head of half the Pasha's own Mamalukes, and the 
strong party of Agalee Arabs, Baratalis, and Tufenkjees, making 
in all about 2000 men of the supposed best troops in the Pa- 
shaUk. The Arabs, who had an effective force of about twenty or 
thirty musketeers, and perhaps 100 men in all, armed any how, 
with wooden clubs, javelins, &c., being informed of the Kiahya's 
approach, took post in a small jungle of underwood, where they 
managed so well that they repulsed the Kiahya with considerable 
loss — two Mamalukes killed, two wounded (one of them badly), 

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At five we were in thie reach, where Jumbul, the 
supposed bridge, is. The pilot tells me there is now 
about five deraas or ells of water over it. We have 
had fine gentle sailing all the day, at the rate of 
about five knots, with liglit north-west airs. At 
seven we wound round into the Koot reach, S. 45 E., 
and brought to at Koot al Aniara at eight. Since I 
was here last, a small mud fort has been built, and 
a new village established about it, a little below the 
old one. The present village is just opposite the 
mouth of the Hye, which bears S. 70 W. from it, 
distant the breadth of the river, which is here very 
considerable, the reach opening out to the breadth 
of a mile. Tliere are five companies of Agalee 
Arabs quartered here, who are allowed a small toll 
on each boat. 

I wished to get under way again as soon as I 

and a great number of Baratalis killed or wounded. The Turks 
were actually not ashamed to return to Bagdad with this loss for 
their pains. The Kiahya is personally a brave man, but what 
can be done with such miserable materials as his army is com- 
posed of? Last night the Pasha himself ordered a party to be got 
ready, and this morning he marched with the half of the Mame- 
lukes who had not gone out on the former calamitous expedition, 
with three field-pieces, the whole corps of the Baratalis, and some 
Agalee musketeers. The pretext is a hunting-party. 

December 5. — The Pasha's expedition appears t© have turned 
out indeed only a hunting-party. He came back to-day. While 
out, be sent me a couple of antelopes. I sent him seven mule- 
loads of refreshments, among which were some European cakes, 
sucli as Pane di Spagna, &c., with which he was much pleased. — 
Extract from a former Journal of Mr. Rich's. 

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had completed my astronomical observations, but the 
pilot was afraid to take the yacht through the crooked 
reaches beyond Koot at night, though we had the 
moon. I believe he and the trackers had no objec- 
tion to some hours* rest after the trouble they had 
had with the yacht the preceding night, so I let them 
have their own way. 

Koot al Amara is called half way between Bagdad 
and Bussora. The swarms of musquitoes were ex- 
tremely troublesome. 

May 15. — We got under way at half past three. 
The day was cloudy, the wind north-west and rather 
stormy, with a little rain. We rounded into 
N. 45 W, At four Koot bore S. 45 W. At 
twenty minutes past five our course was N. 45 E., 
and at a quarter to six S. 50 E. 

A little after six we passed some ruins on the 
right bank, where the river rounds up into N. 45 W. 
again. Here it blew so hard against us that we 
were obliged to bring to. 

There are twelve of these crooked reaches after 
leaving Koot. We have now passed three of them. 
The river has contracted itself again. 

In the line of mountains which has bounded the 
eastern horizon since yesterday morning, we can now 
distinguish two or even three ranges, the first being 
the low Hamreen, which is a good day's march from 
Koot. Behind these rise higher hills, forming the 
mountains of Loristan. 

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We were off again at twenty minutes past nine. 
In some of the reaches we went with great rapidity, 
but in others we had so much trouble that, as the 
gale too was freshening up greatly, we thought it best 
again to bring to at eleven. 

OflF again at four. We soon saw an immense 
expanse of water in the horizon, extending round 
many degrees. This is formed by the streams de- 
scending from the first mountains of Loristan, the 
Beni Lam plains being too level to carry off the 
Waters to the Tigris, which, in fact, itself in some 
places flows into the plains, and contributes to these 

At a quarter to seven we stopped for dinner. 
We wefe still in the crooked reaches, of which we 
have two more to go through. 

May 16. — ^The swarms of musquitoes last night 
were incredible ; they literally filled the air, though 
there Was a good breeze from the north-west, and 
the wind was cold. It was impossible to obtain the 
.slightest rest for an instant. 

We were two or three times detained against the 
bank. Soon after two we passed through the 
great camp of the new Beni Lam Sheikh, Ali Khan, 
extending about a mile along the left bank. At 
half past three we passed the mouth of the Nahrwan, 
and soon after heard the roaring of a lion quite close 
to us in the jungle. 

In the morning I could perfectly distinguish the 

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ranges of the Loristan mountains, of which I made a 

I observe our Arabs pronounce ^ like the Saxon 
g ; for example, gibbel, reggil, &c., instead of 
jibbel, rejil. 

At a quai'ter to nine our course was east, and we 
were sailing about six knots an hour. At ten mi- 
nutes past nine our course was S. 45 E., and at 
twenty minutes past nine we passed Um-ul-beia, a 
canal on the right, now full. All the country was 
at the level of the water's edge, and damp and mo- 
rassy. The horizon looked like the sea. 

Both sides of the river hereabouts belong to the 
Beni Lam Arabs. Just below Um-ul-beia we came 
to a clump of trees on the right bank ; the trees 
were of the species called by the Arabs ghurrab. 

We are now at the nearest point to the Loristan 
mountains, and beyond the fourth range we can see 
some points of |seemingly a superior range, probably 

At half past nine, our course being south, we 
were detained half an hour by the yacht going 
against the bank on rounding a point We suc- 
ceeded in getting round it about ten, and then pro- 
ceeded east. Soon after we met a fleet of boats 
coming from Bussora, and at half past ten we came 
opposite Imaum Gherbi, a ziaret, and grove of trees 
on the right bank. After passing a contrary reach 
at a quarter to eleven, we had beautiful sailing, at 

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the rate of eight knots an hour» until noon, ivith a 
strong north-west breeze. Our course was S. 20 E. 

At hAlf past twelve we ol)6erved a iniin on the left 
bank, a little inland, and soon after another on the 

In a part of the Loristan mountains, which has 
just opened upon us, is a conical mountain, looking 
very much like a volcano. 

The river now became very narrow, and we expe- 
rienced some detentions against the banks. The 
shore was here wooded with tamarisk jungle. 

We heard that Arar, the deposed Beni Lam 
Slieikh, has taken refuge with the Prince of Ker- 
manshah, and that Hassan Khan Feili is to be sent 
with an anny to restore him. At four passed the 
ruins of two ancient towns, Heifli on the left bank 
and Sioroot on the right. At low water the remains 
of a bridge which connected them is still to be seen. 
We came afterwards to a very large camp of the 
Beni Lams. 

At a quarter past six course S. 46 E. The whole 
country on the right and on the left, but especially 
the former, a dreary, dismal, and offensive tract of 
morass, consisting of large pools and lakes of stag- 
nant water extending among tussocks of rank grass 
and rushes as far as the eye could see. Many 
encampments of Beni Lams were scattered about. 

At a quarter to six we brought to on the edge of 
the morass on the right bank to get dinner and wait 

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for the boat, on board of which were the gentlemen 
of our party, which was greatly astern. Imaum All 
8herki, bearing S. 10 E., was distinguishable by a 
large clump of trees. Near the place at which we 
stopped were two boats loaded with dates, which 
they had brought from Bussora and Koorna to dis- 
pose of to the Arabs on each side of the river, and 
take ghee, rice, &c. in return. These trading 
voyages generally last from three to five months. 
All the boats now going up to Bagdad buy ghee of 
the Arabs, which they can dispose of at Bagdad for 
a profit of a hundred per cent. 

We were off again by ten, but in about an hour a 
sudden and unexpected squall from the west drove 
Us on the left bank, where we remained all night, as 
it continued to blow hard. The musquitoes were 
dreadful during the night and even in the day. Not 
even the tough hides of the Arabs and Turks could 
stand the attacks of these vampires, and no one slept 
all night. 

May 17. — We got under way at half past four. 
At six Imaum Sherki was N. 50 W. of us. Our course 
was S. 45 E. The reaches hereabouts consist of one 
mile each. We were under easy sail, and going about 
six or six and half knots. At soon after six we observed 
on the left bank, in a tamarisk jungle, a heap of 
mud, marking the tomb of Zendeel, the father of AH 
Khan, the present Sheikh of the Beni Lams. 

At half past seven we tied up to allow the kitchen 

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boat, which was a little way astern, to come up with 
our breakfast. We were oflF again by eight, and at 
eleven passed Jebeelo, a fine grove of trees on the 
right bank. 

At twenty minutes past one we were going S. 20 
W. On the left was Habsia, a small winding canal 
which goes to the river Hhud. Boats sometimes 
pass through it. We passed an immense marsh 
quite full of water on the right, and soon after a 
camp of Albu Mohammed Arabs on the left bank, 
all of mat-huts, and many little canoes were laid up 
before it 

At twenty minutes to two, going S. 70 E., we 
passed Mohammed Abul Hassan, a ziaret on the 
right bank, with a long grove of poplar, willow, 
pomegranate and date-trees. 

At half past two we reached the Hhud, a branch 
of the Tigris going oflF east to the Kerhha and to 
Howieza. A boat may now go to the Kerhha in five 
or six hours * through Al Hhud, which is very deep, 
and as broad as the main stream of the Tigris. I 
ascertained that the water runs from the Tigris into 
it ; an important fact, as the Hhud has been supposed 
by some to come into the Tigris. Hence the Tigris is 
south. There was a wet marsh extending both the 
sides of the river all the way to Koorna. 

For the last hour or two we have just been drbp- 

* My pilot has himself gone through the Hhud into the 

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ping down the stream in a very dead calm, which 
caused us much suffering from the musquitoes, ot 
which there were such incredible swarms as almost 
to drive us distracted. At half past three we had a 
heavy shower of rain in very large drops, succeeded 
by several other showers and a squall from the north. 
We were detained a few minutes by the sepoys' boat 
having been sucked into the mouth of a little canal 
on the right bank, where she was proceeding to bed 
herself, and would never have been got but again but 
for the very prompt exertions of all the people of the 
fleet. Many boats have been lost at this place, and 
obliged to be broken up. We afterwards sailed well 
for about an hour; many Albu Mahommed Arabs 
staring at us, or seen moving about among their mat- 
huts, which are the most primitive habitations pos- 
sible: A few reeds are bent into the ground at each 
end, and thus foi-m an arched crib of a few feet long, 
covered with common mats ; this is their only dwell- 
ing summer and winter. They are themselves wild, 
half-naked savages, living the greatest part of their 
lives in the water like their own buffaloes, of which 
by the way there are multitudes here. These Arabs 
are not well armed with respect to fire-arms ; and 
upon an attack from a superior power, such as the 
Montefik Arabs, they generally betake themselves to 
the heart of the morasses. They are all Shiyahs. 
The Sheikh' of the Montefiks invests their Sheiks, 
and takes tribute from them. They are said to be 

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rich from the sale of ghee, rice. Sec, but their appear- 
ance certainly bespeaks. the last degree of wretched- 

At half past six we passed Um al Jemmal, a canal 
which goes to the Euphrates ; along its banks much 
rice is cultivated. It is said to fall into the Euphrates 
at Soog es Shookh. We brought to at seven. The 
river here was not quite a hundred yards over. At 
half past nine we sailed again. 

Ma^ 18. — At five this morning we were off the 
camp of the Sheikh of the Albu Mahommed Arabs 
on the left bank. These Arabs have a great many 
light canoes covered with bitumen, which the nature 
of their country renders indispensable. At twenty 
minutes to six we passed Abdullah Ben Ali, a ziaret, 
about half a mile inland from the left bank. The 
river here was not more than a hundred feet broad. 
At half past seven our course was S. 20 W, 

At ten minutes past twelve we arrived at Ozeir, or 
the supposed tomb of the Prophet Ezra, where wj 
stopped for an hour, and where there was a large 
camp of Albu Mohammed Arabs, who attempted to 
rob Aga Minas's * boat, but were soon frightened 
away by a few shot over their heads from the yacht 

We saw a large party of these Arabs removing 
their camp, and it was the most savage sight I had 

♦ The principal native oflficer of the residency. See p. 6. 

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yet seen, and reminded me of tlie plales in Captain 
Cook's voyages. The march was opened by an im- 
mense drove of buffaloes, preceded by a man carrying 
a flag. Several men of the tribe then sauntered 
alcHig with their javelins over their shoulders, staring, 
copper-coloured, and more than half-naked savages, 
with their hair hanging about them in tangled elf- 
like locks. Then came parties of women scarcely 
better clothed, some with children strapped to their 
backs; others carrying articles of property or house- 
hold furniture ; others tracking canoes containing 
mats, children, goods, &c. The girls and boys were 
completely naked. All the women walked extremely 
well, but it was the regular well-measured pace of a 
grenadier, not a female step. They properly straight- 
ened their knees, which, as none of their clotliing 
reached so far down as their knees, we had ample 
opportunities of observing. 

At half past two going south. We came to Abu 
Khalkhal, a ziaret on the right bank, and soon 
after four we passed Abu Muzroon, another ziaret on 
the right, surrounded by the mat village of Zekia, 
where the Montefik Sheikh lias a custom-house. 
About six our going was very slow, not more than a 
knot or a knot and a half an hour, there being no 
wind, and the tide being against us. The banks of 
the river below Ozeir are inhabited by the Beni 
Maliks. At half past six the date-trees of Koorna 

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were just visible through the glass in S. 10 W. We 
got our dinner on board without bringing to. At 
half past eleven we entered the Shat ul Arab orPasi- 
tigris^ and continued going all night. We arrived 
at Bussora at ten in the morning of Saturday, May 
19th, 1821. 

Mr. Rich was detained in the Persian Gulf 
longer than he had anticipated. The Pasha of Bag- 
dad had manifested symptoms of encroaching on the 
privileges of the merchants in his dominions who 
were under the British protection, and had claimed 
dues from them which he was in no ways entitled to 
demand. Mr. Rich resisted this attempt to invade 
the rights accorded by the Porte to British subjects 
trading in Turkey. He both acquainted our ambas- 
sador at Constantinople and the government of 
Bombay with the circumstances of the case, and, 
though with considerable inconvenience to himself, 
he determined not to leave the Pasbalik or its neigh- 
bourhood until some explanation had taken place, 
and those individuals whose interests he had for so 
many years carefully watched over entirely set free 
from any molestation on the part of a rapacious 
Turkish governor. 

At the same time, Mrs. Rich was suffering under 
an intermittent fever, for which a change of air had 
been recommended by their medical friends. Mr. 
Rich therefore left Bussora and proceeded to Bushire, 

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and there he proposed awaiting the final instructions 
from his government, which he expected daily to 
receive. But in this he was disappointed, and after 
waiting some time, a sea^voyage was deemed indis- 
pensable for Mrs. Rich. Under a strong sense of 
his duty to his government, whose honour he felt 
involved in the question under discussion, and in llie 
hope of assisting the oppressed merchants at Bagdad, 
who looked entirely to him for support and relief, 
he determined upon sending Mrs. Rich down to 
Bombay by a vessel just ready to sail, and remain- 
ing alone at Bushire. The heat however soon 
became so intolerable at that place, that he found it 
impossible to continue long there, and accordingly 
he set out for Shirauz on the 24th of July, 1821. 
Some account of the journey to and residence at 
Shirauz is contained in the following extracts from 
letters written during that period. 

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Mrs. Rich's departure for Bombay— Arrival of Packets from Con- 
stantinople — Sir James Mackintosh — Lord Strangford— -The 
Cholera Morbus at Bahrein — ^Defeat of the Kiahya of Bagdad 
by the Koords— Heat of the Weather — Dr. Jukes — Return of 
Messrs. Tod and Wilson from Shirauz and Persepolis — ^The 
intense Heat — Intended Journey to Shirauz — Arrival of the 
Teignmouth from Bombay — ^I)r. Bell — Preparations for leaving 

Bus?nre, June 25, 1821. 

Captain Waterman's* abrupt departure was the 
best thing that could have happened for us both. 
The worst is over, and I can now bring my mind to 
dwell on the advantages of your voyage, consoling 
myself with the knowledge of your being in much 
better health than when you arrived at Bushire, and 
with the belief that I shall not be long after you. 

The good-natured fat Jemadarf of the guard has 
just been to pay his compliments, and wish you a 
prosperous voyage. He seemed veiy anxious to per- 
suade me that in fifteen days you would infallibly 
he in Bombay, and that the sea-air would certainly 
make you well. Poor fellow ! I like him. 
1 Dr. Tod has been talking over with me the ad- 


* The commander of the vessel on board which Mrs. Rich had 
embarked for Bombay, 
t A native officer of sepoys. 
Vol. II. N 

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vantages of your voyage down, and indeed the 
absolute necessity there was for your immediately 
quitting Bushire ; that if the fever had not been put 
a timely stop to (and the only way of effecting that 
was by going to sea immediately) > it might have 
degenerated into a complaint which might have 
forced you to go to Europe. Imagine the misery of 
that, and let us comfort ourselves and bless God that 
we are not put to a severer trial. 

The pilot has just brought me Dr. Bell's note ; it 
relieves my mind greatly. He (the pilot) desires 
a bakshish for having taken the Bee-bee* (not the 
ship) safely out of the harbour. 

June 29. — ^My head is in a complete whirligig ; 
such a profusion of packets, letters, papers, boxes, 
are arrived from Constantinople, to perplex my poor 
brain; nevertheless I will endeavour to give you 
some account of all that I have received. First 
of all, letters from F. ; thank God, all is well. Your 
fathert has been a little unwell, and what is curious, 
seemingly somewhat in the same way, but more 
slightly than I have been affected, viz. by giddiness 
in the head, which it is still more curious the phy- 
sicians attribute to the same cause Dr. Bell did 
mine, viz. the stomach. He is now quite well 
again^ but I think he undertook too mnch business, 
at least if I can judge from my own feelings, as 

♦The lady. t Sir James Mackintosh. 

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being alSiicted with similar complaints. Secondly, 
dispatches from Lord Strangford* ; he had not yet 
received my last ; but from my private note, and the 
reports he was enabled to gather, he has taken up 
the cause nobly ; what will he do when he gets my 

reports in full ? ' , writes " bring the Paslia to 

reason, for we stand upon very high ground here." 
I have no doubt all will be well now : but, to be 
more particular ; it seems the Pashaf had preferred 
a complaint against me» as I expected, but the best 
or worst that he could find to adduce against me was, 
that 1 had stirred up the Koords and Persitos against 
him. Lord Strangford says, he perceives his aecu«* 
sation to originate in my assertion of British rights ; 
and he voluntarily and gratuitously writes in my 
favour to Lord Castlereagb, lest a representation 
against me from the Turkish ministers to Lord 
Castlereagh direct, should have any prejudicial 
efiect. He sendis me a copy of his letter to Lord 
Castlereagh, a copy of which I enclose ;{;• All this 

* The English Amhassador at Constantinople. 

t Daoud Pasha of Bagdad. 

I Extract of a dispatch from Yiscoutit Strangfisid to .Viseowit 
Castlereagh^ dated April 10, 1821. 

" I have not had an opportunity of fully inquiring into the 
.grounds of the Pasha*s representations ; but from the information 
which I have already collected, it is quite evident to me, that Mr. 
Rich's sole offence consists in the manly and justifiable opposi- 
tion which he has continually made to the exactions and impQ- 
^tioDs which the Pasha has exercised towards British cpmmeroe 
at Bagdad. " 1 should , 


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was done before he had got my public reports, or 
had heard of the Pasha's ultimate aggressions ; so 
we may every day expect something important. 
My spirits are much raised by Lord Strangford's 

The Russian war turns out to be a Greek insur* 
rection, which will however very likely terminate in 
one. Poor Scanavi* and his good-natured son-in- 
law have been put to death at Constantinople, with 
the Patriarch, many Greeks of distinction, and a 
45rowd of others of less note. 

The Kiahya of Bagdad is gone out with an army 
towards Kizzeh'oobat, to watch the Koords and Per- 

I am delighted by the way in which our young 
friend Taylor comes forward to assist me, and he is 
a very eflGicient assistant. 

I hg^ve written till my brain is quite addled ; I 

have been in a continual bustle since the arrival of 

the packet. I shall give your packet separate to 

Captain Hill, pf the Bombay merchant ; he intends 

getting under way to-night ; he is already in the 

outer roads. There is a bare chance that he may 

. " I should not have thought of troubling your Ijordship on this 
affair, had I not learned, from good authority, the Turkish Chaise 
d'Affaires in London will probably be instructed to lay it before 
his Majesty's government." 

* He was governor of Cracovia in Wallachia, when we passed 
through it in the year 1814, on our way from Constantinople to 
Vienna ; and we were most hospitably entertained by this gentle- 
man and his family. — Ed, 

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Google ' 


overtake you at Muscat, in which case it will 1j6 
convenient for him to have your packet separate. 

Keep up your spirits ; our separation, protracted 
even to its utmost limits, must necessarily now be 
soon over. Providence has indeed been remarkably 
seen in the whole affair from its first beginning. It 
is even well that I had not left this before the 
receipt of Lord Strangford's dispatches. 

4t * * )|c * 

I have hitherto, I hope, done well ; let me finish 
my part of the affair with judgment, and then I trust 
all my troubles ai-e over. To-morrow I must begin 
my dispatches to Constantinople. I will endeavour 
to write a few lines to F., if possible ; she certainly 
deserves it. 

The weather is getting very hot and disagreeable. 
I pray God you may not suffer from it. I am more 
and more satisfied that you have escaped from this 
in time. 

Once more I must conclude* 

God bless and protect you. 

Buskire, July 2. 
The Captain of the Bombjiy merchant has taken 
the packets and boxes ; but I see he is not yet under 
way, notwithstanding a fine gale from the north- 
west, of which he would do well to take advantage. 
He might as well have let me keep the packet open 

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182 " VpYAGK BN PJSRSE." [lET* L 

till the last moment. However I begin my journal 
to go by the next opportunity- Poor Ovanness is 
laid up with a bilious attack, and almost smothers 
himself beneath the weight of clothing ; he is the 
colour of a stagnant pool of sulphureo-uaphthous 
water. All the rest are well. I begin to get very 
tired of this place, and must get out of it as quickly 
as possible before I stagnate altogether ; especially 
as the return of the north-wester with renewed force 
diminishes the chance of receiving any thing from 
Bombay speedily. 

The fat Soobadar (who by the by belongs to the 
light infantry company), whenever he comes to me 
in a morning, and thei*e is a fine breeze blowing, 
always says, *' Fine wind for Madam Sahib, Sir." 
Indeed I think you have been very fortunate, and I 
trust in God that you are now safe at Muscat, and 
that you have lost all remains of fever. 

I have just been looking over a book called 
" Voyage en Perse,*' which I received from Treuttel 
and Wurtz, with Lapie*s new map. The author 
marvels how I established myself at Bagdad at that 
time, but comforts himself as usual by supposing it 
was by force of gold poured out with both hands. 

Jtili/ 4. — Still a violent gale from the north- west. 
1 managed this morning to get my long-expected 
bbseiTation of the satellites, which was perfectly 
feuccessful. I am now in a complete state of misery 

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^Iways iacident to my preparing for a journey ; and 
what is worse, I have no one to help me now, or even 
to keep up my spirits. Mr. Hyde is spiriting me; 
up for the trip to Shirauz ; he has determined to go 
with me ; this will be agreeable, if, after all, I really 
go, but I had much rather not ; I would rather, turn 
ray head in a contrary direction. 

Taylor is very kind, and always joins me at Tiffin, 
and we take a walk together on the sands at sunset. 
Ovanness is better ; he implores not to be left behind, 
if we go to Shirauz. I believe not one of the people 
will stay behind, not even the Jews; they stick to 
me wherever I go. 

July 9. — Columbus did not look out for the land 
with greater anxiety than I do for a ship. Dr. Dow 
has been to hail a ship called the Malabar, just 
arrived from Bahrein with a very sickly crew, to see 
what is the matter on board. She is in the outer 
roads, and the Sheikh* will not allow the smallest 
communication between her and the shore to take 
place. It turns out that the complaint is the cholera 
morbus, which rages at Bahrein, and by which the 
Malabar has lost sixteen of her crew. They are all 
ill on board now, but still the fears of the people are 
not tranquillized, and there is as strict a quarantine 
as if she had the plague on board. Not a single 
inhabitant of Bushire would go within half a mile of 

* The governor of BiuBhire. 

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her on any account. A guard is planted to prerent 
any one coming ashore or communicating with the 
other ships ; and at the first moment^ the people of 
the town actually talked of deserting the place and 
retiring to the mountains. This terror at tlie chance 
of sickness speaks well for the genei*al healthiness 
of Bushire, which forms quite an exception to the 
other places in the gulf. The Malabar is going oflF 
for Bussora. where she will not have so many 
obstacles to encounter. 

Juit/ 12. — News is just come in from Bttssora, 
which confirms the report of the Kiahya of Bagdaxi 
having been defeated by the Koords (of course Avla 
was not idle). The Pasha, on hearing of the defeat, 
threw all the principal Persians in Bagdad into 
prison, to extort money ; that is to say, all he could 
catch, for I believe a great many had taken care of 
themselves. Georgians have been marched from 
Bagdad to Nejjif and Kerbela to do the same. They 
are determined to show at least that, if they cannot 
fight, they can plunder. In short there seems to be 
a general row. I have a letter from Ezra*, but not 
a syllable of news in it, of course his tone is very 

The weather is insufferable ; though the thermo* 
meter is only 90° at night, yet there is a heaviness 
and clamminess in the air, causing a weight on the 

* The Pasha of Bagdad's Jew banker, and at that time his 
chief counsellor. 

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ebest^ which makes breathing an effort. How re« 
jmced I am that you have escaped all this ! I caIcu-» 
late you must be at Bombay by this, and I trust in 
God quite free of fever. A tolerable breeze from 
the south-west has just sprung up. Inshallah ! it will 
bring in the Francis Warden, which a merchantman 
just arrived from Bombay says sailed seven days 
before she did, with Dr. Jukes on board, who is 
made political agent at Kishmeh, with a previous 
mission to Teheraun. 

July 13.-^ A terrible night again ; not a breath 
stirring; one rises exhausted, unrefreshed, and 
stupid. The weather is quite dreadful, and they say 
we are not at the worst of it by any means. I never 
felt any thing so oppressive in Bagdad as this heavy 
damp heat, which is quite stifling. Thermometer 
only 95°, but it is 91° all night, as 1 have an oppor- 
tunity of ascertaining ; for sleep is quite out of the 
question. Perspiration does not cool one, for there 
is no evaporation, and every thing is wet with steam 
as in a hot bath. Indeed I can compare this to 
nothing but living in a Hamaum. You may imagine 
the exhaustion that takes place. The hot sulphureous 
blasts of a Bagdad Saum are quite refreshing 
compared with it. There seems to be something in 
the air too, peculiarly favourable to the development 
of the prickly heat, which I never had so bad before. 
I am one wound all over my body and limbs down 

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to my fingers. What I used to suffer at Bagdad 
was nothing to it. The effects of the irritation spread 
over so large a surface are terrible. How I bless 
God you escaped in time ! Four-and-twenty hour$ 
of this would have killed you. 

July 15. — ^Messrs. Tod and Wilson are jiist re- 
turned from Shirauz. They are quite delighted with 
every thing they have seen. Climate so cold that 
the one was obliged to put on a fur jacket, and the 
other actually suffered from cold. You may ride out 
at Shirauz, in the middle of the day, without incon- 
venience. At Dustarjoon they were glad to get into 
the sun to warm themselves. They spent three days 
at Persepolis, but were not able to see Shapour, 
owing to some disturbances in the neighbourhood. 
In short, they are highly pleased with their trip, but 
represent the roads between this place and Shirauz 
as quite dreadful. Dr. Wilson says he never saw 
any of the worst precipices of Mount Libanus near 
so bad. 

July 17. — Another disappointment. At sunset 
we discovered a ship far to the southward, and con- 
cluded it must be the Francis Warden. This morn- 
ing we find it turns out to be an Arab ship from 
Muscat. If she has touched any where in the gulf^ 
the Sheikh will not allow of any communication 
with the town. A vessel has also come in this 
morning belonging to the Sheikh himself, with a 

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great many sick on board. He has made her stand 
off again immediately, and will not allow. even a 
cask of water to be put on board her. He has put 
Bussora under quarantine also. The sickness, what-? 
ever it may be> has spread up the Persian shore as 
far as Congoon. At Bahrein they say they have 
lost by it 4000 persons, or two-thirds of their popu-» 
lation ! It seems to nestle on the low hot shores of 
the Persian gulf. I cannot distinctly make out 
whether they have it at Muscat or not, though I 
believe they have. 

The thermometer all last night was 93®, till three 
o'clock this morning, when it fell gradually to 90^ 
which is its lowest point. It is not however the heat 
I so much complain of, as the steam and closeness, 
which is very relaxing, and irritating beyond any 
thing I ever felt or imagined. My poor Bagdadee^ 
look like ghosts; and even they are covered with 
prickly heat. " Sir," said Yusuf Aga* to-day, " we 
can live in fire, but not in a Hamaum." He said 
this upon my remarking that it was quite delightful 
to hear the Bagdadees at last obliged to complain 
of heat. 

I bless God every hour of the day that you have 
escaped this. It cheers my spirits under the smart- 
Jug and burning of the prickly heat, and the un- 
common languor which I feel, and which renders it 
quite a labour to walk across the terrace. 

* One of Mr. Rich's Mahometan servanto,^ and a native of Bagdad^ 

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Dr. Wilson has just shown me some arrows and 
javelin heads, which he procured at Persepolis. He 
has found precisely similar ones to some of them in 
the tumuli at Marathon. 

The thermometer 97°. I am now beginning seri- 
ously to think at last of going to Shirauz. I have 
fought it off as long as possible, but I can stand it 
no longer ; so I must needs away, bien malgre mot. 
There are two months more of this kind of weather 
here, and I do not think I could endure two weeks 
more of it. The sea itself is so warm and relaxing, 
that Dr. Wilson, an expert swimmer, tells me he 
finds the greatest diflBculty in swimming a little in 
it ; and Mr. Hyde, \vho has travelled in the Libyan 
desert without feeling any inconvenience from the 
heat, now complahis of a most painful sinking and 
faintness occasionally. 

July 19. — Thermometer 91^ A tolerable day, 
succeeded by the most dreadful night I ever felt. 
Thermometer 93° all night; not a breath of air 
stirring. The whole sea seemed to rise to heaven in 
a mass of vapour ; no one closed an eye, not even the 
Bagdadees ; and Mr. Hyde, who thought he might 
bid defiance to anything in the way of heat, acknow- 
ledges himself defeated. Poor Aga Seyd is as much 
lacerated by the prickly heat as I am. The tempe- 
rature of the sea this morning at dawn was 90", 
and, according to all appearances, we are going to 
have a dreadful day, I can stand this no longer ; I 

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will to-day order the mules, and be off in a day or 
two ; in a short time none of us would be able to 
toove. Why could I not have gone with you to 
Bombay ? All would have been over now. * » ♦ 

July 20, — ^This morning I had another observa- 
tion of Jupiter's satellite. Mr. Sturmey counted for 
me, and Mr. Hyde assisted at the operation. Mr. 
Sturmey has just said that, if I go to Shirauz, he 
would like much to accompany me ; and I believe 
Dr. Tod will come also. They both improve very 
much on acquaintance ; and I shall like them very 
much to be with me on the trip, which I now begin 
seriously to think of. 

July 21. — ^At length I have ordered the mules> 
and hope . to be off on Monday. This terrible 
weather quite conquers my repugnance to starting; 
I now long to escape from this miserable place. Dr. 
Tod has consented to come with me ; this I know 
will give you great pleasure, for I know how vessvessi 
(nervous) you are about me. My present plan is to 
make for Shirauz in the first instance, and there stay 
quiet till the verj^ great heats are over ; as, to confess 
the truth to you, I have no great fancy to be running 
about in the sun seeing curiosities, and making 
myself ill I hope then to get a run to Persepolis, 
possibly to Darabgherd, and take Shapour on my way 
back to this place, when the weather will be cooler, 
and will allow of my inspecting its remains at leisure 
and without danger. 

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190 DR. BELL. X^ET. I 

July 22.— Last night was quite intolerable ; there 
seemed as if a heavy load was laid on the chest 
Every one agrees that» had you been here, last ni^t 
might have been fatal to you. Thank God you are 
by this time safe. God protect you. How I should 
have liked to have had you on this journey, but I 
am more and more convinced it would have be«i 
quite impossible. AH is for the best. Poor Ahmed 
Aga has got his Koordistan fever back again very 
bad ; and poor Ovanness looks quite in a stun, but 
he is evidently quite delighted that Dr. Tod is going 
with us. "This is very good Sir/' said he, " please 
God nobody get ill ; but if get ill, the doctor a very 
great comfort." I hope we shall be oflF to-morrow 
night, which will amuse you, knowing how I hate 
night marches. 

Remember me to Dr. Bell ; I miss him mucb» and 
should have liked to have had him on this trip. 

This is but a dull journal to send you after all, 
but neh yapayein (what can I do?), this is not Paris ; 
and moreover the languor brought on by the heat is 
enough to stupify and seal up one's faculties entirely. 
I think it Is all for the best I am setting off. 

July 23.' — I have just passed the mules in review. 
We are off to-night, — ^'en est done fatty je pars— 
much against my will. I will now close this journal, 
and give it to Mr. Hyde. 

July 24.-— I had closed my journal yesterday, ai^ 
was proceeding to pack up, when a ship made ber 

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ftppearance in the south, and proved to be the Com- 
pany's cruiger, Teignmouth. This of course mad^ 
me put off my journey for that evening. She came 
in about five in the afternoon, and brought the Ter*- 
nafs and Francis Warden's packets, and, more than 
all, your note from Muscat : a load was taken off my 
mind ; I most sincerely blessed God for his good- 
ness ; I did not imagine you would have suffered 
from heat, still less from running ashore. Tell Dr. 
Bell I am infinitely obliged to him for his very kind 
and amusing letter. I cannot adequately express 
myself towards him and the Watermans for their care 
©f you. 

We had a night that is not to be described. It 
was more terrible than I could have imagined ; not 
a soul closed an eye; the day too is dreadful. 
Captain Hardy of the Teignmouth says it is wanner 
on board than in the house. His crew are all ill 
from sheer heat, and yet they say this is only the 
commencement of the heat, and that August will 
bear no comparison with it. Nevertheless the ther- 
mometer is only 93° in the night. Captain Hardy 
says he cannot venture down the gulf with the 
Teignmouth yet, and that he will pass the great heats 
at Bussora. Mr. Hyde, however, still persists in his 
resolution of going down to Bombay, if the Harriet 
comes in, against the advice of every one. 

I am now expecting Lord Strangford's dispatch 
on the receipt of my report on leaving Bagdad, which 

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must come in shortly. I hope it wiil finish my part 
of the business, and enable me to retire speedily with 
honour. I think you may rely on seeing me after 
the breaking up of the heats. In the mean time I 
am oflp for Shirauz ; we start this evening ; it would 
be death to continue here. Three easy marches 
bring us into the cool country. 

Once more God bless and preserve you. 

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PreparatbnB for the Journey from Bushire to Sliirauz — Messrs. 
Tod and Sturmey — Flat dismal country — ^Village of Tchah- 
koota — Hot wind — Night -marches — Present of a Chamois by 
the Khan of Burauzgoon— Guard-house — Sulphur and Naphtha 
Spring8-*-*Daulekee — Heat of the weather — ^The mountains — 
Wood of Date trees — The Pass of Kutal i Meloo — Bad preci- 
pice — Winding defiles — Zigzag road up the face of the moun- 
tain — Plain of Khisht — Narrow glen — Steep road — ^The Pass 
of the Kutal i Kemarij — Delicious water — Kauzeroon — ^De- 
scription of the Persians — Ali Esker — His oddity — The Pass 
of Kutal i Dokhter— Fine road — The Simplon of Persia — ^Fine 
scenery — Guard house — Beautiful country — ^The Pass of Peri i 
Zen — Stony ascent — Woods of dwarf oak— Caravanserai — 
Valley of Aijoon — Beautiful spot — Verdant plain — ^Meet with 
a Koord — Plain of Shirauz — Arrival in the neighbourhood of 
the city — ^The Garden of the Jehan Numa — Civility of the 
English agent — The Hafizia, or garden of Hafiz — Aga Minas 
and the people go into the city — Impression made by the first 
view of Shirauz— Rudeness of the people — Advantages of the 
situation of this city — The gardens — Cypress trees — Kerim * 
Khan— Climate — Provisions. 

Shirauz, August 4, 1821. 
Once more upon the road, like a perturbed spirit, 
hurried about by every blast, and destined to find no 
repose. Once more do I draw forth from their 
recesses, where I had hoped they would have 
slumbered tranquilly, my smooth-worn mother-of- 
pearl eye-glass, my old green leather roulon, or 
writing-case, my pencil and pen-case, patched with 
a fragment of an old glove at each end, and my 
Vol. IL O 

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smudged and scribbled note book. Once more do I 
pack my sextant and the horizon, my canvass-stitched 
tables, almanac, and greasy journal, into the no less 
greasy saddle bags. Once more do I suspend my 
compass by the self-same old red cord round my 
neck, endoss the self-same old tarnished jacket^ thrust 
my chronometer into its snug recess in the brea.8t of 
my waistcoat, ascend my skin-clad saddle, and again 
expose my tender face to the scorching blast. You 
must not expect a regular journal from me ; I will 
just give you a few random notes, which will suffice 
till we meet. 

July 24. — ^At nine o'clock at night left Bushire 
with Messrs. Tod and Sturmey ; both very kind to 
me. I was much indisposed, and, add to this, I 
always dislike night-marches. I soon found> how- 
ever, the air of the Desert much less oppressive than 
that of Bushire, though really hotter. The whole 
country is a perfect dismal brown flat. At one 
place the high tides make* a disagreeable swamp; 
vrith this exception,, the Desert is as burnt as the 
worst parts about Bagdad. At a quarter to six i» 
the morning, we arrived at the large but miserable 
village of Tchahkoota, with date-gardens about it. 
The place is composed of Albu-Mahommed-Uke mat 
huts*, with the exception of a mud enclosure, digni- 
fied with the name of Kalaa, a Castle, in the door*- 
way of which we were lodged, quite in public, The 
\: * Seep, 172. . 

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mouDti^ins not far off gave some diversity to the 

Juk/ ^d.-^At Tchahkoota^ a true burning SaumV 
w^ich quite invigorates my Bagdadees. Thermo* 
meter 110°; notwithstanding which I found myself 
eonsiderably better. But away with all night-marches. 
There is nothing to relieve the tedium of the journey ; 
it reverses the whole order of one's ways and habits ; 
and, during the day's halt, leaves one drowsy, 
languid, and lazy. Besides, I have lost a little bag, 
your old reticule, containing my pencil, knife, small 
eye-glass, and all my keys, which slipped from my 
side unperceived during last night's march ; so away 
with all night-marches : nevertheless, it is the only 
way to get on now. At half-past eight, we mounted 
from Tchahkoota : the road rather broken by ravines; 
and here and there rocks. The mountains were on 
our right hand. The night was intolerably hot} 
the ground seemed to send up a hot reflection that 
almost took one's breath away. At two in the 
morning of the 26th, we arrived at Burauzgoon, 
parsing through about two miles of plantations oi 
dates and tobacco. We wei-e lodged under the^ 
gateway of the €;aravanserai. Burauzgoon is in the 

* The Saum is the hot wind better known perhaps as the 
Simoom, which prevails over so large a portion of Asia, and of the 
f«tal effect* of which theie are so many acoounti« It was Mr^ 
Rich's opinion, the result of a long course of inquiries, that the 
hot wind kills hy exhaustion, and not by any poisonous quality in 
kself.— i?€^. 


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style of Tchahkoota, but rather better and more 
extensive ; with a caravanserai, which would not be 
amiss if it were finished. Thermometer 112^ in the 
eoollest place we could find ; a true burning Saum^ 
yet by no means so oppressive as the heat of Bushire, 
The mountains are not above three miles oflF; they 
are stony and bare, crumbled and furrowed, and are 
much about the height and appearance of the hills 
opposite Sulimania. It is quite ridiculous to suppose 
that snow lies on any open part of the mountains 
between Bushire and Shirauz all the year round, as 
some travellers have imagined. 

The Khan sent us a present of a very fine chamois 
or ibex, which tasted something like delicate beef. 

July 26. — ^At seven in the evening we mounted* 
keeping the mountains on our right hand, and 
gradually inclining towards them. The Khan of 
Burauzgoon had sent a man with us to take out 
guards at a post half way, as there was supposed to 
be some little danger coming near Daulekee. We 
halted at the guard-house, or Rahdar Khoneh, half 
way, for about forty minutes, and then set forward 
agaiii with a few Tufenkjees, who took leave of us, 
when we approached Daulekee, by cracking oflF their 
matchlocks ; not quite so good a report as a boy's 
squib*. On coming near to Daulekee, the hills 
reached down to our road, and we soon perceived 
the smell of sulphur and naphtha; and passing 
through the Stygian stream into wliich the naphtha 

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iET. II.] DAULEKEE. 197 

springs discharge themselves, I could have fancied 
myself again in the defile of Toozkhoormattee*, or 
in the Hamreen, The night was dreadfully close 
and fatiguing, and by the time we reached Daulekee, 
at one in the morning, I was quite exhausted. 

July 27. — A terrible hot day. The sandstone 
rocky hills, which almost overhang the little town and 
caravanserai, reflected the heat^ and the glare was 
intolerable. The people brought us some fresh dates, 
but they were not near so good as the common Bag- 
dad dates. 

We had now to begin the so much talked of 
dreadful precipices of the Shirauz road. I was 
anxious to commence them, for I would willingly 
have gone over the Himmalaya to escape this heat. 
We left Daulekee at half past six in the afternoon, 
and I mounted a good mule. We saw a wood of 
date-trees extending all along the west horizon, 
looking more considerable than all the gardens of 
Bagdad. We soon came to the hills, and crossed 
the first ridge, which was rocky, bare, and burning, 
but not a bad road. They were very Hamreen-like, 
but higher. We afterwards descended to a valley 
occupied by a considerable river, the water of which 
was nitrous, warm, and nauseous ; the road some- 
times precipitous, but not bad. We then crossed 
the river by a fine bridge of thirteen arches, and 
alighted to take coffee, as we had the worst part of 
* See Vol. L p. 35. 

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19S PASS O*' kUTAL 1 MELOO. [lE'T. It 

the pass, called the Kutal i Meloo, before us. After 
resting about three quarters of an hour, we mounted 
again, and moved forwards, winding through narrow 
rocky defiles, hills of sandstone, and earth crumbling 
down in ruins ; the river still on our right. At one 
part there was a bad precipice, but for a short con- 
tinuance, and the road was not narrow. The hills 
grew more ruinous as we advanced. Immense masses 
of stone almost blocked up the narrow winding 
defiles. We here lost sight df the river, and began 
to ascend the Meloo in good earnest. It is exces- 
sively steep, and the road, which is much encumbered 
by loose stones and fragments of fallen rock, zigzags 
up the face of the mountain, not along a precipice. 
It is certainly diflScult, but by no means so bad as I 
had been led to expect. In Koordistan, and in parts 
of Turkey, it would have been deemed very tolerable. 
It must be bad, however/ to come down. At the top 
of the pass is a guard-house, or Rahdar Khoneh — 
we (in Turkish) should call it a Derbent — ^which 
completely shuts up the road* We now proceeded, 
without descending, along the fine plain of Khisht, 
and in less than an hour from the top of the pass, 
reached the caravanserai of Konar Takhta, where 
we were well accommodated in the Bala Khoneh, or 
place over the gate. We arrived at about half past 
one in the morning. 

JtJtf 28. — Still the hot wind, and still the date- 
tree, but the former by no means oppressive. A 

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iveight seemed to he taken off mjr chest, and even 
poor old Pietro found himself well enough to begin 
quarrelling with the servants. We marched again 
at half past six in the evening ; an hour brought us 
to the extremity of the line oval plain of Khisht, and 
we then entered among the hills. We crossed the 
first line, which was as usual of earth and sandstone, 
and inconsiderable, and descended into the valley of 
the Shapour river ; on whose banks we stopped to 
refresh ourselves for an, hour, and to allow the bag^ 
gage to get well on, so as not to encumber us in 
the pass before us. The water of this river, which 
comes from Shapour, is very fine, and the banks were 
fringed with rhododendrons in bloom, which emitted 
a pleasant odour. We now entered a narrotv rocky 
glen, the scenery growing wilder and wilder as we 
advanced, and the effect considerably increased by 
there being only star-lights The cliffs seemed often 
almost to close over our heads, and threaten us with 
destruction ; their ruins almost choked up the path. 
It was a wild solitude ; nothing was to be hesird but 
the sound of the hoofs of our mules over the rocky 
bottom of the glen. We were generally on the 
ascent ; but I observed that, even in ascending^ the 
Persian roads, keep to the bottom of the ravine as 
niuch as possible. Probably the scarcity of streams 
generally enables them to do this ; but in Turkey 
And Koordistan they would have preferred leading 
the road along the precipitous sides of the hills. A 

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preoipice was, however, still in reserve for us ; for, 
where the hills seemed to shut up the ravine we 
were ascending, an immense chasm had been formed; 
I should like to say, poetically, by a convulsion of 
nature, which would be in much better keeping with 
the scene ; but I fear homely truth will compel me to 
look for the cause of all this havoc and ruin in the 
more gradual but not less effectual operation of a 
small stream of water which descends from the pla- 
teau above into the ravine, and has cut down its 
course through the crumbling and shivering sand- 
stone. Whatever be the cause, however, the effect 
is not less terrific. The road grows steeper, and 
continues its ascent along the perfectly perpendicular 
side of the chasm, offering some terrible precipices, 
whose effect was rendered more appalling by the 
night. The eye sought through the gloom in vain for 
the bottom of the gulf, which seemed to lead to the 
dominions of Chaos and Erebus. The very bad 
places, however, were not of long continuance, and I 
do not believe I walked more than a quarter of an 
hour or twenty minutes ; but in one or two spots for 
a moment it was no bad trial for the head, even on 
foot. This is called the Kutal i Kemarij. After 
descending a very little, we arrived at the deserted 
caravanserai of Kemarij, at half past eleven. The 
night was delightfully cool, as soon as we began to 
rise out of the narrow passes. The worst part of the 
road is now over, and I find its troubles have been 
greatly exaggerated. 

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July 29.— We intercepted a load of snow coming 
fiom Kauzeroon, and, procuring some airan, or butter* 
milk, from a neighbouring village, we had a most 
delicious regale, which reminded me of my dear 

The thermometer was 109°, but the wind not 

At six in the evening we mounted, and marching 
through the almost circular valley of KemariJ for 
about an hour, we entered a narrow, rocky, and 
winding defile, called Tenj i Turkoon* Here "again 
the road ran through the bottom of the defile, which 
was dry, and encumbered with large stones. In 
Turiiey or in Koordistan, it would have been up one of 
the sides of the defile, and have given me a fine walk* 

At twenty minutes past eight we stopped at a 
Rahdari, or Derbent, at the termination of the pass, 
to refresh ourselves. I'his Derbent is only one mile 
from Shapour, and the river just by the guard house 
afforded us a draught of delicious water, which was 
quite a luxury to people accustomed of late to the 
soft brackish water of the Ghermaseer. After a 
halt of half an hour, we descended by a gentle slope 
into the fine extensive valley of Kauzeroon, and 
arrived at that place at twenty minutes past mid- 
night, where we took up our quarters in a garden 
outside the town, which is a poor and ruinous place. 
The Persians were troublesonie here from superfluous 
hospitality, and we had great difficulty in getting 

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fi03 ALI BIfKfetl. [hzr. lU 

allowed to settle ourselves fts we chose. From hence 
Shapour is four farsakhs off, and I am glad to find 
that on my return it will be the very proper time to 
visit it. At present it would be much too hot. 

July 30. — ^Thermometer 80° in the morning, and 
105° at the hottest time of the day. The wind was 
rather heated. This is the first place where the 
black cap begins to be universally worrt. - 

The Persians are the most noisy^ dilatory^ aiid 
immoveable fellows I ever met with ; but the muleteers 
at least load well, for we have not had a minute's 
delay with the baggage (among which is the tele<- 
soope and my tripod) the whole way. The mules 
too are capital, and our head muleteer, Ali Esker, a 
most amusing fellow, by the oddity of his ways. Of 
his person and weather-beaten face it is not easy to 
give a notion. His head is surmounted by a pointed 
chintz cap, to which be seems to attach no small 
value ; those of his subordinate muleteers being only 
of ordinary felt. His voice is hoarse and croaking, 
yet he is perpetually exerting it ; and when riding 
alongside of you, he speaks as though be were 
hailing a ship at a mile's distance. Bad as its 
quality is, it seems to be peculiarly grateful to the 
ears of the little donkey he bestrides ; for when he 
gets into a full prose, the animal runs along with in- 
describable glee, playing its ears alternately ^i-e and 
aft. He has a ridiculous habit of thinking aloud, 
which has .a most whimsical effect ; «ince all the 

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UTr tl.] PASS OF letfTAL I bORHTER. 203 

nknserles and contradictory flitting notions that cross 
his mind are instantly uttered in the tone of a boat- 
swain bailing the top in stormy weather* Enough 
however of Ali Esker, who amused us much on the 

At seven in the evening we started from Kauze- 
foon, not without some difficulty ; for the muleteers, 
who were all natives of Kauzeroon, had a great 
hankering after a day's rest here. We proceeded 
along the plain, and after night-fall, turning to the 
mountains which bound it on the south, we stood 
under the black and frowning cliff of the Dokhter^ 
which seemed to bar all further progress ; yet up the 
face of this we were to ascend ; how, it was impos- 
sible to say, at least by this light*. We soon how- 
ever found that an entirely artificial road zigzagged 
up the face of this perpendicular and gigantic walL 
Imagine the Sarraashookf, or perhaps something 
more, not to be crossed, but ascended up from the 
plain to the summit, and y6u will have some idea of 
the Kutal i Dokhter ; but far different are the roads. 
The Dokhter is a most skilfully constructed road, 
buttressed, levelled, and parapetfed, so as not to alarm 
the most timid, and broad enough to allow of several 
mules abreast. It is in thorough repair, and is 
almost worth coming to see. It may be called the 

* Look at Dante's description of the rock of Purgatory. I 
have not time to quote it. 

t A mountain road we had crossed in Asia Minor. — Ed* ' 

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204 GUARD-HOUSE. [l^ET- II- 

Siinplon of Persia. The rocks must afford some 
fine sceneiy by day-light, and trees and shrubs in 
many parts project from the crevices, and overshadow 
the road. This is the first ascent, or screen of Za- 
gros. After reaching the summit, we proceeded to 
the guard-house, or Derbeht, where we arrived at 
twenty minutes to twelve ; and here we stayed smoking 
our pipes and drinking coffee till twenty minutes past 
twelve. Near the top of the Dokhter I had a walk of 
a few minutes, as my mule went close to the parapet, 
and I was foolish enough to look down ; when I saw 
the fire-pot of my calioon-bearer* at a veiy great depth 
below, almost under my feet. This made my head 
turn, and I was obliged to dismount before I reco- 
vered. From tho guard-house we descended by a 
very gentle slope and excellent road for a little way, 
into a longitudinal valley of Zagros, between the 
screen before mentioned, Avhich bounds it on the 
west and Peri i Zen, which is its east wall. The 
valley is narrow and well wooded, both in its area 
and sides, Avith oak, some of a very considerable 
size, and other trees which I could not distinguish. 
The country now became beautiful, and, as Avell as 
I could see, reminded me of my own Koordistan. 
This valley, which is called Desht i Ber, must be of 
a great elevation, and the night-air was so sharp as 

* ,The servant in Persia who has charge of his master'^ cali- 
oon always carries with him, on a journey, a small iron pot f\iU 
of fire, in readiness for the calioon when required. — Ed, 

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LET. II.] PASS OP PEKI | ^EN. 205 

to make us long to be housed. After proceeding 
through it for about an hour at a good round pace, 
we began the ascent of Peri i Zen. The road does 
not zigzag much, nor are there any precipices ; but 
the ascent is stony, and rises among woods of dwarf 
oak, hawthorn, and broom, of ten or twelve feet high. 
The more we ascended, Alps on Alps seemed to 
arise above us, and show we had yet much more to 
perform. We met a caravan of Arabs, from the 
opposite coast, returning from a pilgrimage to Me- 
shed. Continuing to ascend, we reached a caravan-* 
serai at three in the morning, and by the pleasui-e 
we felt on reaching it noAV, could estimate the value 
it must be of in December's snows. It is kept by a 
few soldiers, and we found an oak-wood fire burn- 
ing, which was very agreeable. We were not yet 
half way up the mountain, the whole ascent of which 
is three hours without intermission. 

July 31. — ^We marched at ten minutes past six in 
the Evening, continuing the ascent almost immedi- 
ately, the area of the caravanserai itself being scarcely 
in a level place. As we advanced, new summits seemed 
still to rise above us, and the ascent appeared to be 
interminable. From near the top of the pass we 
saw the lake which terminates the valley of Kau^Se- 
roon ; and from some of the summits still far above 
our heads they say the sea is visible. After pro- 
ceeding for some time along pretty level ground, we 
descended a little way through. fipe woods of oak, of 

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gigantic hawthot'n/alid othisr shrubsi which gave out 
a fragrant odour, into the valley of Arjoon*. It 19 
of a fine o\ral form, and terminated on tlus side by m 
lake. It sparkled all round with the fires of the 
Eliauts'f, some of whom were Arab buffalo<-feeders. 
Wild boars are in prodigious abundance, and lions 
not uncommon. 

The night was so cold as to give me a sharp pain 
in the temples, and all my Bagdadees got the usual 
kam aghriBsee^ or stomach-ache. We arrived, to 
our great satisfaction, at the village at eleven 
o'clock, and found a warm room exceedingly agree- 
able. We had only halted thirty-five minutes during 
the march. . 

August 1.-— We went to examine a beautiful spot 
we had noticed the night before, about a quarter of 
a mile from the village. One large and some 
smaller streams burst from a marble rock, and forni 
a beautiful stream clear as liquid crystal, in a fine 
grove of tchinars, or plane-trees, and gigantic wil-* 
lows. In the rock are some curious caves. The 
place is consecrated to Ali, about whom there is a 
foolish legend. The spot is lonely. Our elevation 
in this plain, amid the summits of Zagros, must 
be very great, in which, however, no snow lies 
openly. Shirauz has been determined, by boiling 
water, to be 450Q feet; and it is even visibfy 

* Desht i Arjoon, or more properly Arzhen. 
t Wfodering tribes. 

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pBT. II.] PLAIN OF 8HIRAU2. 207 

lower than this plain, and ther« is a manifest 
descent from hence to Shirauz the greater part of 
the way. I suppose this can hardly be less than 
6000 feet. The plain is verdant as an emerald 
at this season. We marched at twenty minutes to 
six, and soon were engaged among the hills, through 
a beautiful road well wooded with hawthorn, wild 
cherry, pear, &c. Flocks of koorkoors, or partridges, 
were running across the road, scarcely deranging 
themselves for us, and we saw hares pricking up 
their ears under the bushes. Lions are said also 
to be not uncommon, and Mr. Tod heard one roar- 
ing the last time he passed this road. 

We descended to the valley of the Karagatch, a 
little murmuring river, the glens on each side illu- 
mined with the fires of the Eliauts. Two of them 
came to see us, and we found they were Nanekeli 
Koords. I immediately got into conversation with 
them, and they invited us to their tents to treat us 
with stuffed lamb. We refused their hospitalityi 
however, and after halting to take coffee, for forty 
Hiinutes, we crossed the river, and arrived at the 
miserable village of Khoneh Zengoon^ where there 
i^ 9k filthy caravanserai. We arrived at ten minutes 
before ten. 

August 2. — ^The thermometer this morning was 
jBS*". We got some delicious butter, which reminded 
u«i of that of England. At ten miqutes past five we 
mounted, and rode Qver a country of open^ undulating 

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downs, covered with bushes, the wood having now 
disappeared. It was a perfect desert ; not a village 
to be seen in any direction. The descents were 
considerable though gradual, and our progress was 
rapid, though we made two halts to allow of the 
baggage keeping up with us. The first was of an 
hour and twenty-five minutes, about half way, and 
the other of thirty-five minutes, at the guard house, 
in a pass in the mountains which forms the entrance 
to the plain of Shirauz. We had expected here to 
have learnt what arrangements Nazar, Mr. Arra-* 
toon's agent, had made for our reception ; but our 
messenger returned with a note saying that we were 
to go to Major Litchfield's garden for the present, 
until he could see what was to be done. This 
annoyed me very much. 

We marched with great rapidity over the plain^ 
and at ten minutes before two of the morning of the 
third we arrived at the famous garden of the Jehan 
Numa, where we found Litchfield quietly esta- 
blished. He had expected us after day-light, and 
meant to have ridden out to meet us. His reception 
of us was exceedingly kind and hospitable. He 
would not hear of our having separate establish-* 
ments, and pressed his invitation in a manner not to 
be refused. 

The Jehaa Numa is close to the tomb of Hafilz^ on 
the opposite side of the road ; and we had, before 
We went to bed^ a draught of the '' water of Rocna*^ 

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bad," clear as crystal, and fully meriting its poetical 

The English agent here, a Mahometan, Mirza 
All Akbar, to whom I had not written, behaved 
with greater civility than the Armenian to whom we 
had been particularly recommended. His secretary 
was sleeping at the Jehan Numa, to be in readiness 
for us, and I foimd he had already spoken to the 
Vizir, who had ordered Hafiz's garden to be pre- 
pared for us, and appointed an oflScer to be in attend- 
ance upon us. 

The next morning early he came himself to pay 
his compliments, and we went to look at the Hafizia. 
The spot is certainly interesting. The vestiges of 
genius, even though it be Persian, cannot be visited 
with indifference. It has as yet, however, " begot 
no numbers grave or gay," and, after an inspection, 
we determined on remaining with Litchfield at the 
Jehan Numa. Minas, Ovanness, Yusuf Aga, and 
others of our party I dispatched into town. 

I will now proceed to give you some general idea 
of the journey, and the impression made on me by 
the view of the town and gardens. I have met 
with no travels which give me a good idea of the 
country. I have forgotten what Niebuhr says. My 
companions were agreeable, and the whole journey 
a pleasant one. I often longed for you, but I also 
often thought how difficult it would have been to 
have managed had you been with us. The people 

Vol. II. P 

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of Fars are the most impudent starers^ and the most 
troublesome fellows I ever knew. You could not 
have taken a walk in the garden without trouble, 
and certainly scarcely have stirred out without being 
closely veiled. The people here are renowned, even 
among the Persians, for their impertinence. 

My expectations were surpassed in the general 
view of the tovm and the plain, and disappointed in 
the gardens. The town certainly presents itself to 
advantage, perhaps more so on the whole than 
almost any other Oriental town I have seen — of 
course excepting Constantinople. The plain is fine, 
well cultivated, and pretty green even now, but mi- 
serably bare of wood, and the mountains are rocky 
and barren. The gardens do not surround the town, 
nor are they by any means so numerous as I had 
expected. They are scattered here and there, and I 
have not seen anything that can be compared with 
the Khosroo-abad at Sinna. The Khosroo-abad 
would make three or four of the gardens here. 
M. de la Fosse, who is just arrived here, and Aga 
Seyd, of their own accords, drew the same compari- 
son between the gardens of Shirauz and that of 
Sinna, so that it could not be wholly fancy on my 
part. Indeed from what I hear it seems that Aman 
uUah Khan has copied the taste of the Sefiviyahs, 
rather than the modem school, in his public works. 

Our garden, the celebrated Jehan Numa, is one 
of the best here, but the house, or bungak>w, is in 

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rather a ruinous condition. There in a fine terrace 
before it, and then a lower garden, much in the 
Italian style, but it is only two hundred yitrds 
square. The mere pleasure-part of the Khosroo- 
abad was eight hundred. Three or four Walks are 
planted with cypress-trees, but with the exception of 
these and some others scattered about here and 
there in soine of the gardens, the cypresses for which 
Shirauz was once so celebrated have almost entirely 
disappeared. They have been unmercifully cut down 
for common carpentry, for Aoot and window frames, 
&c. The other day the prince wanted some timhet 
to repair the roof of his kiosk in his garden, and cut 
down some remarkably fine tchinar trees, which had 
been much celebrated foi* their beauty in Kerim 
Khan's time. I have ordered a neat box to be made 
for you out of the Shirauz cypress wood, btit the 
trees, however renowned in oriental song, are not so 
fine as those of Constantinople. 

It is astonishing how much the memory of Kerini 
Khan is venerated, even by those in the service of 
the present government. To judge by such of his 
public works as have been allowed to remain, 
Shirauz must have been a splendid city in his time. 

The climate is very agreeable, atid is teckiM^A 
healthy. The thermometer is at 9F for an hour or 
ttvo, and this only in the hot season. The nights 
are cool, but 1 find it most pleasant to sleep in the 
open fit, though nmny keep to their roonis^ Hiere 


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is a fine bed of fragrant tool see, or marvel of Peru, 
just before my window. 

Tell Bell we have admirable provisions here— 
mutton finer than our best Arab, the best nectarines 
and pears I have tasted out of England. Peaches 
are just coming in, and promise well ; kishmishes 
pretty good; grapes not yet in; capital bread; very 
delicate cheese; airan, or buttermilk; and snow in 

I have not yet taken a review of the bazars, or seen 
the curiosities procurable here. The Vizir hinted 
that he would pay me a visit, and that the prince 
would be glad to see me, but I mean to avoid both 
if I can, 

August 7. — I have just had a visit from Aga 
Manutchehr, the brother of yom* friend at Bagdad* 
Mrs, Elias, the sister-inJaw of Coja Yusuf Andrea. 
He is a handsome, gentlemanlike young man. The 
Prince forced him to become a Mahometan once, 
but seems really to care so little about it, that Aga 
Manutchehr occasionally goes to the Armenian 
church. The family anxiously inquired about the 
sister, and seem highly displeased at her having 
married a Catholic. Aga Manutchehr seems in 
higll favour here. 

I have also had a visit from a little boy, a son of 
Mahommed Nebbee Khan, by his Shirauz wife, or 
your friend Bebee Hanifa's goonnee*, whom the 

* The designation of the second wife among the Mahometani. 

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Prince has married, and so got possession of all the 
property that remains. * * * * 

They are just come to tell me that a cossid, or 
foot messenger^ is going off for Bushire, so I must 
close my letter rather abruptly, as I wish you to get 
the news of my safe arrival at Shirauz in perfect 
health ; thank God, by the same opportunity as 
will convey the other letters. 

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Excellence of the climate of Shirauz — PropoBcd Journey to Per- 
sepolis and Morgaub— The Bridge of the Araxes — Plain rf 
Persepolis — The Author's desire in early childhood to visit 
these ruins — Mader i Suliman^ or supposed Tomb of Cyrus — 
Perfect design apd beauty of this Monument, built of white 
marble — The fidelity of Sir R. K. Porter's Drawings — ^Return 
to Persepolis — Peculiar taste of these ruins — Inscriptions — 
Nakshi Rustum — Return to Shirauz — ^The Cholera at Bushire 
— ^Visit from a Persian Painter — ^Violence of the Cholera at 
Bushire — ^The road towards Shirauz strewed with dead bodies 
— The disease reached Bussora — News from Bagdad and 
Koordistan — Preparations for the Marriage of the Shahzadeh's 
Son — Arrival of the Bride — Procession of Ladies to meet 
her —Illumination of the City — Fire- works — The Cholera 
at Shirauz — Death of a Lady and several Slave Girls in 
the Haram — Departure of the Shahzadeh and his Family 
to a neighbouring Garden — His Mother seized with the 
disease — Flight of her Son and his Sister — His example 
followed by the principal Inhabitants of the City — General 
terror and dismay — Description of the confusion — Abatement 
of the malady— Taken by none of Mr. Rich's people — ^His 
staying a comfort to the Inhabitants — Persian mode of treat- 
ment — Major Litchfield — Arrival of Mr. Fraser — Proposed 
return to Bushire. 

Shirauz, August 11, 1821. 

The praises that have been lavished on this cli- 
mate have scarcely been exaggerated. The heat of 
the day is very tolerable, the nights deliciously cool, 
without being chilly. There is no want of air, and 

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Z prefer this climate much beyond that of Koor- 
distan, as the days are not so hot nor the nights so 
cold ; and when the season begins to cool, the days 
and nights cool together in an equal proportion. In 
Koordistan the nights alone grew chillyi while the 
days remained scorching. The climate here is ex- 
ceedingly regular. For days together the tempera- 
ture is exactly the same to a degree. The usual 
temperature is 90^ at the hottest time, being from 
twelve till three ; 82'' at night, when I go to bed ; 
and 71° in the morning, just before the sun appears 
above the hills. The wind has no tendency to get 
heated, which is curious considering the bare rocky 
mountains by which the plain is surrounded; and 
all winds are alike agreeable. This may proceed 
from the great elevation of the level. In Koordistan, 
last year at this time, the thermometer was dQ"" and 
9T at the highest, with a hot wind, and at night it 
fell to 76^ and was 65*" in the morning. The winter 
here is said to be agreeable and much milder than 
that of Isfahaun; but the Persian houses seem but 
bad winter habitations. The water is excellent here. 
As we live in a garden, among tall cypress trees, we 
are a little tormented by musquitoes, but not by flies* 
in the day time, and, what is better, there are no 
sandflies. I think, on the whole, Shirauz is by far 
the best place in the Gulf for a person to come 
from India to spend a season ; and by landing at 
Bunder Abbassi they would save the unpleasant 

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voyage up the Gulf, and have a good road to 

They ornament the covers of books very beauti* 
fully here. I have seen some that were superb both 
for taste and execution. I have nothing in my li- 
brary like some that I have seen, but the books 
themselves are extravagantly dear, and the old fine 
copies not to be procured. Whatever I see enhances 
the value of my own collection greatly. 

August 14. — The moon-light nights are now so 
uncommonly beautiful that I am resolved not to let 
them slip, but to avail myself of them for my anti- 
quari^m excursion. The moon is the only thing that 
can alleviate the tedium of a night-march. There is 
besides something in viewing Persepolis and the 
tomb of Cyrus, " by the pale moonlight," especially 
as I visit them merely for the sake of the impres-^ 
sions I hope they will make on my mind and fancy ; 
and this makes me undertake the expedition, I sup-* 
pose I ought to be ashamed to say, with more ala- 
crity than I usually do antiquarian excursions. The 
ruins I propose visiting have been so accurately de- 
scribed, measured, and delineated by our friend 
Porter, that nothing remains to be done ; and I can 
abandon myself entirely to the luxury of imagina-^ 
tion, of which the line, compass, and pencil, and the 
intolerable labour they bring on, are eminently de- 
structive. There is certainly a great pleasure in 
discovering, and afterwards showing complete deli- 

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neations of places which it falls to the lot of very 
few to see ; but at the moment I prefer lying down, 
and idly contemplating the traces of the march of 
time, and allowing the fancies to rise and pursue 
each other, to the preparation of a whole portfolio, 
and all the glory that might accrue from it. Tout 
cela etanty to-morrow afternoon we propose begin- 
ning our trip : first to Morgaub, as that is the far- 
thest point, where I hope to contribute towards 
settling what seems as yet a very equivocal matter 
about Cyrus's tomb and Pasagardee. On our return, 
we inspect Persepolis and Nakshi Rustum, which 
will probably find us amusement for a couple of 
days^ Mr. Tod comes with me. Taylor talks of 
coming, and Mr. Sturmey has not yet made up his 
mind between business and pleasure, but he proposes 
at all events to meet us at Persepolis on our return. 
It may be done at one march ; I shall make two easy 
stages of it. 

Persepolis has long attracted my wishes. Other 
places charm by a knowledge of what they were ; 
but there is something even in the uncertainty of 
Persepolis that throws a kind of additional interest 
over it. Poor Bellino ! how he would have enjoyed 
this tour, and what an addition would his society 
have been on it! 

August 31. — ^I returned last night from my expe- 
dition. We set off about sun-set on the 15th. My 
permanent travelling paiiy was reduced to Mr. Tod, 

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218 RUINS OF PBRSEP0LI8. [lBT. Ill* 

who was a very pleasant companion. Our first 
stage was to Zcirgoon, which we left in the evening 
of the 16th, and rode along the plain of Persepolis. 
It was dark when we left the bridge of the Araxes* 
My expectation was greatly excited. Chardin, when 
I was a mere child, had inspired me with a great 
desire to see these ruins, and the desires excited in 
us in childhood are too vivid ever to be effaced. 
Their gratification has a relish which motives sug- 
gested by reason and judgment are unable after- 
wards to equal. My late antiquarian researches 
had, however, also added their interest to my other 
inducements ; and as I rode over the plain by the 
beautifid star-light, reflections innumerable on the 
great events that had happened there crowded on 
my memory. I was in the moment of enjoying 
what I had long wished for ; and what a delightful 
moment that is ! At last the pointed summit began 
to detach itself from the line of mountains to which 
we were advancing. Mr. Tod pointed it out: — 
" Under that lie the ruins." At that moment the 
moon rose with uncommon beauty behind it. Ages 
seemed at once to present themselves to my fancy. 

We were lodged in a half-ruined garden-house, 
fronting the ruins, and at the distance of about a mile 
from them. You may be assured that my last looks 
at night, and first in the morning (I did not go to bed 
till twelve and rose with the dawn) were directed to 
that spot. Yet I took a capricious kind of pleasure 

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in not going to them, and forcing myself to be con* 
tented with this general survey. This may be foolish, 
but I determined to put off my minute inspection of 
them till our return, and enjoy for the present the 
general impression caused by this distant view. Lord 
Byron would have employed the interval better than 
I could do. 

We set off on the evening of the 17th for the 
famous and much^disputed ruin of Meshed i Mader i 
Suliman, where we arrived on the evening of the 
19th. I have not yet made up my mind whether 
this be the tomb of Cyrus or not, and I have very 
foolishly left my Arrian behind me at Bushire ; but 
I was greatly surprised at its appearance, quite dif<« 
ferent from anything I had been led to expect. It is 
evident that it is of the very highest antiquity, but 
what still more astonished me was, to find it of the 
correctest taste I had ever seen any Eastern build? 
ing. It is in design a perfect Grecian sepulchral 
monument^ built of white marble, and of a firmness 
of construction and vastness of materials intended 
evidently to defy the attacks of ages. I was un- 
wearied with contemplating this venerable edifice, 
rendered still more interesting by the probability 
that it may have contained the mortal remains of the 
meet illustrious of oriental princes. Near it are 
some pilasters with cuneiform inscriptions, aud a 
curious figure, beautifully executed and most cor- 
rectly copied by Sir R. K. Porter, to the unrivalled 

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fidelity and character of whose delineations I can in 
every instance bear ample testimony. Farther on, 
a hill has been faced or converted into a platform^ 
with prodigious blocks of white marble cut in the 
rustic taste — a fine monument^ and superior to the 
platform of Persepolis. These ruins are eminently 
interesting, and I rejoice in having come to visit 
them. I think they have a character of greater 
antiquity than Persepolis, as they are superior in 
taste and simplicity, and one would pronounce at 
once, on seeing the sepulchral monument, without 
being acquainted with the conjectures that have 
been formed concerning it, **this must have been 
the burying place of some great man desirous of 
transmitting his name to posterity." The Persians 
have a great respect for it, supposing it to be the 
tomb of the mother of the Prophet Solomon, and 
built by genii at his command. 

We returned to Persepolis by partly a different 
road, and arrived there on the evening of the 22nd. 
We pitched our tents on the platform, close by 
the portals, which contain the colossal figures of 
the mythological animals. You may imagine I 
could not sleep that night. It was not a situation 
to steep the senses in sweet oblivion. I watched 
the rising of the moon, to indulge myself witk 
a solitary ramble among the iniins by her light, 
so favourable to contemplation ; and I was well 
rewarded. The strange gigantic figures on the 

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pf>rtals near which we w^re encamped, had a singu- 
lar and portentous aspect^ faintly illuminated by the 
moon, and by the remains of a fire our people had 
lighted, which cast a reddish mysterious light on 
part* of them. As I walked among the lofty pillars, 
numberless were the fancies that arose, and the 
incomparable ode* at once presented itself to ray 
recollection. I was actually walking among the 
remains of those very " Persian abodes," but how 
changed ! The fall of my own footsteps, and the cry 
of the fox from the hills which contain the royal 
sepulchres, were the only sounds heard, while above 
the pale moon was pursuing her tranquil course, 
unconscious of, or at least unchanged by, the lapse 
of ages. 

September 1. — I have been running on, giving 
you " moods of my own mind," instead of an account 
of Persepolis. I shall reserve my further fancies till 
we meet, and indeed my account of Persepolis also ; 
for I am no great inditer of long accounts, and be- 
sides, so much has been said about Persepolis, that 
scarcely anything can now be added, especially when 
one has seen Porter's admirable drawings. I found 
I had formed a tolerably correct notion of the ruins, 
and that I was neither surprised nor disappointed 
by a right of them, which is rare in such cases. They 
are of a taste quite peculiar. The execution and 
finish are very beautiful. The fault I find is the 
• Dryden's " Alexandet*B Feast." 

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disproportionate application of vast and ponderous 
materials to inadequate purposes ; narrow door^ways 
and small windows^ formed of blocks that would 
build a mole, nay frequently even of one single 
block. There is no correspondence between the 
object and the means, which gives to many parts of 
these remains, at least as they now appear, rather a 
heavy, crowded, and crushed effect ; and withal some- 
thing of littleness, notwithstanding the vastness of 
the materials. * The orientals at no period seem to 
have understood the laws of proportion^ and the 
magic effect resulting from a due attention to them ; 
and this is evident in every part of the ruins of Perses- 
polis. They are, however, very interesting remsdns ; 
and let us be grateful to the want of judgment of the 
architect, who unnecessarily employed such immense 
masses for ordinary purposes ; for by it a specimen 
has been preserved to us of the arts and manners of 
ante- Alexandrian Persia, when all other monuments 
of that period have perished by the work of time, 
and still more the hand of the barbarian. The latter 
engine of destruction has been at work here, even 
lately. Many parts have been defaced by the passion 
for possessing curiosities. This rage has induced 
some even to chip off Uts of inscriptions ! One has 
endeavoured to chisel off a very fine head, which 
was well preserved, and, not succeeding, he has 
apparently in wrath, thrown his mallet against the 
head and smashed it. 

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I dropped a most unfeigned tear to the memory 
of poor Bellino, when surveying these ruins> which 
would have caused him such rapture. And notwith- 
standing my tirade against industry, I was actually 
diligent enough, afler I had satisfied myself with 
viewing the ruins over and over again, to fall to work 
at copying the inscriptions ; and during the six days 
we remained at Persepolis, I copied all the inscrip- 
tions except one. I have found much to corroborate 
Grotefend's system, and have admired his sagacity. 
The labour I have gone through will greatly assist 

I of course visited Nakshi Rustum, where I saw 
a singular and most curious fire-temple, beautifully 
built, and looking as if it had been completed yes- 
terday ; the tombs of the four kings of the first 
dynasty ; and the more recent Sassanian sculptures 
beneath them. These latter are but coarse per- 
formances, and clearly indicate a more barbarous 
age than the Persepolitan. There is at least as 
much difference as between the works of the Au- 
gustan age and that of Justinian. One sculpture 
represents a Roman, in the correct costume, pros- 
trate at the feet of a Sassanian king in his uncouth 
garb ; and at a certain distance it has rather a 
striking eflfect. There was something affecting, at 
the first view of it, to see the majesty of Rome, 
even the Rome of Valerian, prostrate before a bar- 

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There are some Sassanian sculptures at Nakshi 
Regeb, a place nearer Persepolis, better finished in 
the same barbarous style. 

We returned to Shirauz on the 30th August. 

September 8. — Dr. Jukes is still at Bushire, 
where the cholera is said to have made its appear- 
ance. The prince has put it in strict quarantine. 
We are, thank God, out of the range of that dreadful 
visitation, which has made great ravages at Bussora, 
and will doubtless proceed to Bagdad. 

I Have retained Dr. Tod with me. He has been 
a great accession to my pleasure. I have been 
busily occupied since my return in making fair 
copies of my inscriptions. The climate now is quite 
delightful ; in short, this is a pleasant place, with 
the worst inhabitants imaginable. I never was in a 
place, even in the worst parts of Turkey, where you 
so much needed the protection of an officer of the 
local government; and even with one there is no 
stirring out without being insulted. There are now 
no mare remains of the Koordistan fever lingering 
among my people ; and I am myself quite well. 

September 10. — I have just had a visit from 
Mirza Mahommed Hadi» the most distinguished 
artist in Persia. I was indebted for this honour to 
his having heard that '' amch'io son pittore," and 
that I had praised some of his works. He was 
accompanied by a khan, and one or two of his 
choicest disciples. He enjoys the highest reputa* 

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tion here, and the Persians almost consider him in 
odour of sanctity. I found hini an extremely polite, 
intelligent, gentlelnanlike old man. He is full of 
the spirit of his art, and is passionately fond of 
flowers. This Iranian Van Huysum never works 
now ; and it is almost impossible to procure a spe- 
cimen of his pencil. They are bought up at any 
price by the Persians. He has not even preserved 
a specimen for himself, yet by great good fortune 
I have got one exquisite little painting of his for 

September 11. — News from Bushire. The cho- 
lera is raging there, and carries off thirty persons 
a day. It is all >over the Ghermaseer ; and Mr. Stur- 
mey, oh his way down, saw the road from Burauz- 
goon to Bushire strewed with dead bodies. The 
Liverpool frigate, which had arrived at Bushire, 
lost three lieutenants in fifteen hours. The surgeon 
and a great part of the crew we hear are also dead ; 
and she has been obliged to officer herself out of the 
cruizers, all of M'hich have lost part of their crews. 
At Bussora it has carried off seventeen thousand 
persons. In short, the news is melancholy in the 
extreme. Now every thing has happened for the 
best with respect to us ! There seems to be a parti- 
cular providence watching over us, and we ought to 
be for ever grateful. 

Pilgrims have just arrived from Bagdad in thirty- 
seven days. All is in confusion there, and a Per- 

Vol. II. Q 

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sian war seems inevitable. The Turkish troops are 
plundering and insulting every One, and the bazaars 
are quite deserted. Tlie Pasha seizes every one he 
can get hold of, to extort money ; and all who can 
possibly escape are running away in every direction. 
He has taken five thousand rupees from the Nuwaub. 
Some workmen of the Imperial Mint have arrived at 
Bagdad to coin, as it is said, the bullion taken from 
the treasuries of Nejef and Kerbela. Mohammed 
Ali Mirza is at the foot of the Tank, waiting for 
troops, which the king is sending him. Aman ullah 
Khan is ordered to co-operate with him, and it seems 
the Koords have joined him also. To oppose this 
hostile demonstration, the Kiahya has stationed him* 
self at Mendeli with the Turkish army, while the 
Pasha stays in Bagdad. 

September 12, — For some time past great prepa* 
fUtions have been making here for the marriage 
of Anushirvan Mirza, one of the prince's sons, with 
his cousin the Princess of Kerman. A splendid 
deputation was sent to fetch the bride, and the Shah- 
zadeh says that the rejoicings and show shall sur- 
pass any thing that has ever been seen in Shirauzi 
as it is the greatest marriage that has yet taken 
place in his family. The lad, moreover, is his favourite 
son; and, though only twelve years old^ has been 
created a general in the royal army by the king. 
To-day was appropriated for bringing in the bride- 
The prince's sister went out to meet her, and got 

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into the kajava with her ; for it is not the custom of 
the Kajar* brides to go to their husband's house in a 
takht-revan, though they may travel in one. The 
road all the way from the town to the pass through 
the hills which open into the plain of Shirauz, and a 
very fine road it is, was lined with spectators, prin- 
cipally women, as the prince had ordered all the 
Shirauz ladies to turn out to do honour to the bride, 
and they rent the air with their shrill leliUas. 

Soon after midnight the Istakbolf began its march 
in different divisions, keeping up an incessant firing ; 
and about seven this morning the approach of the 
bride was announced by an increased discharge of 
artillery, musketry, and zembureksj, of which latter 
there were above a hundred. The Zemburekjees, 
or artillerymen, were dressed in scarlet, with scarlet 
caps, and brass plates in front ; and the saddles of the 
camels which carried the zerabureks were covered with 
scarlet cloth, and a flag attached to each, looking on the 
whole very showy. Great bodies of horse opened the 
procession ; but the Persian horsemen do not look 
so well as the .Turkish, or our friends the Koords. 

One. of the young princes deputed to represent 
the bridegroom, who had unfortunately just been 
taken ill, was among these squadrons. Then came 
four field-pieces, and all the zembureks, firing at 

* The name of the tribe of the present royal family of Persia. 

t A procession or public entry into a town. 

\ Guns carried on camels. 


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intervals the whole way, every discharge making the 
rocks roar like thunder. Next followed a guard of 
honour, composed of the khans and principal officers 
of government, with the screaming mehter khana, or 
band. The travelling takht-revans, not so good as 
yours, were in the line of march ; and then came the 
bride herself, with her aunt, in a kajawa*, each bcLsket 
of which was covered with a superb Cashmere shawl, 
embroidered with pearls and spangles. Zeki Khan 
the Vizir himself led the mule on foot. It was pre- 
ceded by a troop of Pehlivansf , whirling their meelsX 
to the sound of their little kettle-drums^ and escorted 
on each side by the Serbazes, not much better in 
discipline than Aman ullah Khan's, but much cleaner 
and better dressed. They kept a terrible rattling 
upon their very bad drums. Close after the kajawa 
followed the most interesting part of the procession, 
namely, about twenty Kajar ladies in their full cam- 
paign costume. They were on horseback like the 
men, and very well mounted^ not led, but seemin^^ly 
quite at home in their saddles. They had on boots, 
wore neat cloth baroonies§, and their heads were 

* This very uncomfortable kind of conveyance is composed of 
two baskets or cradles, swung one on each side of a mule.-— ^c/. 

t Wrestlers. 

t Two very heavy oblong-shaped pieces of wood, with small 
handles, by which they are held and whirled about.— £«/. 

§ A kind of cloak made of red cloth, and, I believe, trimmed 
with gold lace, which is worn upon great occasions by the Persian 
gentlemen, and, as we are informed above, even by the ladies. — Ed, 

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enveloped in splendid Cashmere shawls^ embroidered 
with pearls and spangles, which fell halfway down 
their backs. Their faces were covered with white 
yeils, with very large net-work eye-holes, so as not to 
be at all incommodious to these Amazons. Two of 
them, had on sabres, richly ornamented with jewels. 
AH of them were said to be true Kajars, and ladies 
of very high rank. The more ordinary females were 
on mules, in the common Persian costume. The 
Kajar ladies all ride well, and go armed, according 
to their fancy. Some carry pistols at their saddle- 
bows, some bows and arrows, in splendid embroi- 
dered cases, and all of them wear sabres ornamented 
with jewels. But to return to the procession, of 
which indeed little more remains to be said. Its 
fag-end was joined in by the crowd, who fell into the 
rear, and resolutely kept its station in defiance of 
the hail-storm which the sticks of the police officers 
unmercifully kept up. A procession of about three 
hundred pilgrims from Kerbela, with their green 
flags, and priests . singing verses of the Koran, in- 
creased the. crowd, and formed a contrast to the 
mundane festivities which were going on around 

The evening closed with a general illumination, 
or rather large bonfires lighted on the roof of every 
house in the town, not omitting the bazaars, mosques, 
and other public buildings. As the fires were 

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lighted up, and ran along from house to house, till 
the city appeared one blaze of light, the effect seen 
from our garden, which commands a complete view 
of the whole town, was exceedingly fine. A few 
blue Jights were occasionally let off, which heightened 
the scene; and the people passed the whole night 
with music, dancing, and feasting. Drinking was 
of course not forgotten ; for the Persians here of all 
classes are, without exception, the most shameless 
and incorrigible drunkards I ever knew. Yet it is 
something to the credit of their tempers and cha* 
racter, that outrages are seldom or ever heard of on 
these occasions. 

The lighting bonfires on a* marriage is a very 
ancient custom, retained by the Persians from their 
fire*worshipping ancestors. 

September 15. — On the thirteenth the amusements 
consisted of a feast or dinner party only ; but no amuse- 
ments at night, except in the harams, it being the eve 
of Friday. On the fourteenth the bridegi'oom was 
taken to the bath, with a crowd of dancers and 
singers. The prince himself came into Divan at 
Aasser, under a salute firom two hundred zembureks. 
Rope-dancing, tumbling, and buffoonery commenced 
immediately, and lasted till sunset. After dark there 
was a tcheraghoon, or illumination of the meidan, 
which is the outer court of the palace, and a graad 
display of fire-works, which had a fine effect from 

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wh#re we saw them. Some of the hills were also 
lighted up with lines of bonfires^ which greatly 
heightened the scene, and the zembureks kept up a 
continual discharge. The Persians are extremely 
fond of the zemburek, d toute sauce. The whole 
sight was uncommonly fine. Dancing and singing 
succeeded^ with the usual terrible noisy band, scarcely 
less offensive than the zembureks. The Persians 
delight in perpetual stir, bustle, and noise. 

Minas has just been with me. He was at the 
exhibition in the meidan yesterday at noon. It con- 
sisted principally of a dance, performed by all the 
most disreputable women of the town, who were 
drunk. The Shahzadeh, who was looking at them, 
was drunk also, as were two or three favourites who 
were standing about him. In short, it was a most 
disgusting scene* 

September 17.— Last night there were more fire- 
works, dancing and singing as usual ; but the prin- 
cipal feasting was among the women. The bride 
is said to be twenty, and by no means handsome. 
Hie bridegroom is only twelve. 

October 2. — ^You will doubtless start at the long 
interruption this letter has suffered. You will, I 
fear, start more when you shall learn the cause; 
but my honesty will, I hope, restore you to con-» 
fidence. Without any other alarming preamble, 
therefore, know at once, that the cholera has been 
here, and that it has gone clear away. El Humd-u- 

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lilla '^. I was unwilling to take my pen in my hand 
during its continuance, as I would not disguise any 
thing, bad or good, that happens from you, and I 
was loth to mention the cholera while it lasted. 
The diary of the disease would also have been but a 
dismal sort of a communication to send you. All 
things considered, therefore, I resolved not to put 
pen to paper till I could at the same time tell you all 
is safe and over. I shall now, then, just give you a 
hasty summary of all that has happened since I left 
off my Journal. 

" Who is it that comes from the bridal chamber ? 
It is Azrael, the Angel of Death." The festivities 
of the wedding were suddenly put a stop to by the 
appearance of the so much dreaded cholera. The 
first death by it happened on the 44th. On the 15th 
it got very bad, yet still the people seemed to wish 
not to attend to it, and the marriage ceremonies 
continued. On the 17th, however, the voice of re- 
velry ceased, and was succeeded by silence and con- 
sternation. A lady and some slave girls died in the 
Haram, whereupon the Prince and his family left it 
for tlie gardens, in the afternoon. In the night the 
Prince's mother was taken ill in her new quarters. 
Her dastardly son, with his sister, immediately 
mounted their horses and ran away, leaving the 
poor old lady to her fate. She died before morning. 

* Thanks be to God. 

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The Vizir followed the Prince, and most of the prin- 
cipal people shortly imitated their example. In the 
morning of the 18th, when the death of the Princess 
mother, and the flight of her son and the principal 
people were publicly known, the terror and dismay 
became general. The scene that ensued can scarcely 
be described. Parties of horsemen were seen gal- 
loping across the plain, and in dijBTerent directions ; 
groups of people on foot, women and children, co- 
vered the road — going they knew not whither — to 
escape an invisible, undefined, but mortal foe, which 
every one imagined to be close at his elbow. Several 
dropped and died on the road from fright, which in 
a multitude of cases doubtless converted a slight 
bilious attack, than which nothing is more conmaon 
now, into a mortal malady. The town was left to 
take care of itself, for the Prince and Vizir had gone 
away in such terror that they had not even thought 
of any orders or regulations. The flight of the go* 
vernor did great harm, and increased the public 
consternation tenfold ; indeed it was the most 
shameless dastardly action I ever knew, and now 
that the people have come to themselves a little, 
they openly talk of the Prince with contempt. 

On the morning of the 19th, Aga Baba Khan, 
the first Shirauzee nobleman, much to his honour, 
returned to town, took charge of the government, 
and has constantly employed himself in allaying the 

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popular ferment, comforting the timid, and main- 
taining peace and order. As soon as order waa 
restored, and things began to get a little into train 
again, the malady was found to abate, which is a 
proof how much depended on the imagination. 
Nevertheless the mortality was considerable, though 
much slighter than at any other place it has yet 
visited, and the disease itself was no doubt of a much 
milder character from the beginning. Thank God, 
it is all over ! None of my people had it. Mules 
were not to be got at first, and besides where could 
we have gone, surrounded as we were by the dis- 
ease ? I thought it much better to remain where 
we were. I understand my staying comforted many 
people, who were looking to see what I would say 
and do on the occasion ; if so, I thank God for it. 
But I certainly often thanked God also while llie 
disease lasted that I had not brought you up here. 
I should have ran away then as bad as the rest. 
There is certainly a particular providence watching 
over us. 

The third lieutenant of the Liverpool, I now find, 
died not from cholera but from the heat, which Mr. 
Hyde, who joined me the day before yesterday, de- 
scribes as something more horrible than that of the 
desert of Nubia. 

A great many poor fellows in the cholera were 
doubtless hurried out of the world by the Persian 

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practice. As soon as a man was attacked, they 
made him swallow quantities of grape verjuice, 
called kora soo, mixed with salt, which they said 
was good to cut the bile and strengthen the stomach, 
and kept sousing him over head and ears in the 
coldest water they could procure. If a poor man, 
they tumbled him headlong into the first tank or 
pool; if a rich one, they cooled the water first with 
snow. Numbers died under the operation, and a great 
many more from the effects of it, which, added to 
those who died from neglect, and those who were 
killed by terror, will reduce the real deaths by cho- 
lera considerably. 

Major Litchfield, who has been uncommonly kind, 
leaves us this evening for Bushire. As there is no 
more cholera on the road between this and Bushire, 
I fehall follow him in a few days ; but in the mean 
time, lest he reach Bushire before me, I give him this 
letter to forward on. He will probably give it to Dr. 
Jeffries, a gentleman who passed through this place 
some days ago, and is very anxious to reach India 
as soon as possible. I did not like to give him a 
letter when he passed here, because I could not con- 
scientiously say that the disorder was quite over ; 
but now it is, I should like him to take charge of 
this, that he might tell you all about our going on. 
Mr. Fraser. the Himmalaya traveller, has been with 
us for some days, and I find him a great resource. 

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I hope to take Shapoor on my way to BusLire, 
for which I shall set out in a few days, please God. 

Such was not the will of God. After a few 
hours' illness, Mr. Rich died of the cholera morbus, 
at Shirauz, on the 5th of October, 1821, the paiii- 
culars relating to which are contained in the follow- 
ing letters. 

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Extract of a Letter from James Baillie Eraser, Esq., to William 
Erskine, Esq., containing the Account of the Death of >ir* 

ShirauZf October 6, 1821. 
My dear Sir, 

I did not expect to have occasion to address you 
from this place, and far less that a correspondence 
should commence in so melancholy a communication 
as it falls to my lot to make you. Preparation, could 
it be made for such intelligence, I generally hold to 
be fruitless, and now I know not how to set about it. 
Mr. Rich is no more ! He has fallen a victim to the 
dreadful prevailing malady (the cholera), which has 
for some weeks past desolated this city. I have just 
come from paying the last sad duty to his remains, 
as yesterday at this hour I attended, in company with 
Dr. Tod, his dying moments. Gloomy and desolate 
as we all feel after this most distressing event, I lose 
no time in giving you the particulars, while they are 
strongly impressed on my memory. 

Mr. Rich had, for the whole of the last month, 
been in rather delicate health. He had, on or about 
the 2nd of September, made use of the warm bath, 
which had a severe effect on him, producing a vomit- 

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ing of bile and violent spasms, which however gave 
way to the effects of medicine ; and though as I have 
said his health was delicate, he still was sufficiently 
well to enjoy himself and pursue his usual occupa- 

On the 4th of October he felt quite well, and 
having that day again ordered the warm bath to be 
got ready in the Prince's Garden, close to where we 
live, we all, that is Dr. Tod, he and I, went and took 
the bath. Dr. Tod and I rode out that afternoon, 
and found Mr. Rich walking about waiting dinner 
for us, and he ate as usual a pretty hearty meal* 
After dinner we conversed together, though he was not 
so full of spirits as he generally was, and about eight 
o'clock he complained of sickness and disorder at 
stomach ; this increased so much as to force him to 
retire at nine o'clock. He was followed to his room 
by Dr. Tod. Mr. Rich had always expressed con- 
siderable apprehension of the cholera, and certainly 
felt more than he expressed. When he had retired 
and was joined by Dr. Tod, he stated his fears. 
Thei*e was at this time no symptom of cholera, nor 
was it till about half past ten, when slight appear- 
ances of cramp were detected, that any approximation 
to a symptom of the epidemic could be traced. The 
jfirst moment was seized to exhibit the usual reme- 
dies, which about twelve relieved him. At seven in 
the morning his pulse was good, and we were in 
sanguine hopes of his doing well. But soon after a 

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most rapid and awful change took place ; the pulse 
sunk and disappeared, and Dr. Tod came from him 
to whei*e I was sitting, saying he feared the worst. 
I went and sat by him, as did Dr. Tod, nor did we 
leave him while life remained. He fell from a sweet 
sleep he had had for an hour into a heavy painful 
stupor, and was evidently insensible to everything. 
At half past ten all was over, without a struggle or 
any apparent pang. 

The place of sepulture was a consideration of 
some difficulty. It was at first proposed that it 
should be in the Armenian church, within the walls 
of the city, where Mr. Sheridan, of Sir Harford 
Jones's mission, was interred ; but on making appli- 
cation to the acting governor, Aga Baba Khan, we 
were informed that no dead body of whatever rank 
or country could be admitted into the city, having 
died without. Not even was this rule broken in the 
case of the King's wife and Prince's mother, lately 

The inclosure containing the tomb of Hafisa was 
- then suggested ; but it occurred to us, that, in mo- 
ments of fanaticism and popular turbulence, the 
Hafizeea being a sort of public place, the power of a 
weak government, even if exerted, might not be suf- 
ficient to protect the monument or even the remains 
from insult. We then proposed that the interment 
should take place M'ithin the garden where he had 

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lived, and where we now are, called the Jehah 
Numa, as, if permission were once given for this 
measure, there was more probability that the spot 
would be respected in future ; and at all events, 
being royal property, there was little chance of any 
wanton dilapidation or insult. 

Accordingly, a letter was written to Aga Baba 
Khan, requesting permission for the interment to 
take place in this garden, which was instantly 
granted, and measures were immediately taken to 
perform it the next morning. 

We understood, however, that Dr. Jukes, who had 
remained behind at Kazeroon, was within a day's 
march, and would be in also the next morning ; and 
it seemed so desirable that he should witness the 
ceremony, that I dispatched a messenger express 
to inform him of what had happened, and determined 
to wait his arrival. 

A most anxious and distressing day passed ; and 
in the morning, about three o'clock, we were most 
gratefully roused from sleep by the arrival of Dr. 
Jukes, who had come on even more rapidly than was 

There were few additional measures, however, to 
be taken. The Armenian priests and officers were 
in attendance, the pennission of government was 
procured, and we therefore proceeded to pay the last 
duties to our departed friend. Everything was 

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decent and, for the place, imposing. All his own * 
suite and ours attended, with the most respectable 
Christians connected with the English interests here. 
I read the funeral service of the Church of England 
over the grave, and we all witnessed the shrouding 
the body in its last earthly home. 

I have been thus painfully particular ra every 
thing relating to this most melancholy catastrophe, 
that you may feel convinced that every exertion was 
made to save our friend when living, and eVefry 
attention which his friends could wish was pkid to 
his remains. Dr. Tod, who had accompanied him 
from Bussora, attended him with a tenderness of 
anxiety, nothing could surpass ; i and the paiif^'he 
could not conceal: at the event showed how sincere 
the regard was with . which the dead had inspired 
him. The scene indeed altogether is of a nature 
I shall never forget. I have seen much of death in 
many shapes, both among those dear to me and 
among common acquaintances, in the usual course of 
things, and under circumstances of very striking and 
awful effect ; but I do not remember to have suf- 
fered more in any case than in the lamentable one 
in question. We had been for some days only, it 
is true, together, but happy and comfortable, mu- 
tually communicating our plans for the future, and 
pleasing ourselves with the hope and prospects that 
future offered. In the space of twelve hours he 
was all that was pleasing, instructive, and amiable. 

Vol. II. R 

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and a corpse ! and I saw the last struggles of ex- 
piring nature in this elevated and noble being. The 
circumstances of our being alone in a strange inhos- 
pitable^ almost inimical country, surrounded with a 
ghastly disease of which we had had such an awful 
experience, the possible consequence to either or 
both of ourselves, and the wretched situation of the 
survivor in case one of us should go — all these things 
helped to heighten the anxiety and distress of the 

I can offer no comments or condolence on this 
most distressing event — the wreck of so many fond 
hopes and high promises — for Mr. Rich was a man 
from whom his friends might well look for much 
delight, comfort> and honour. I saw just enough of 
him to regret the passing gleam. It is a dreadful 
lesson to human pride. The blow to his friends 
must be in proportion to the loss they have sus- 

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Extract of a Letter from Dr. Jukes. 

Shiraux, October 13, 1821. 

" My last dispatch conveyed to you the sad tidings 
of Mr. Rich's death. I believe I informed you that 
I had, by means of a forced night-march, arrived 
here in time to assist at the last sad ceremonies due 
to his remains. It had been the intention of Dr. 
Tod and Mr. Fraser, the only English gentlemen 
then at Shirauz, to have the body interred in the 
Armenian church in the town ; but by an old esta- 
blished law here, no dead body can be carried into 
the town to be buried. The controlling authority of 
Shirauz, however, Aga Baba Khan, had given per- 
mission for the body to be interred in the garden 
where he died, and no place cotlld be more appro- 
priate. Mr. Fraser, though Armenian priests at- 
tended, read the funeral service at my request, for 
I think that in foreign countries, and especially 
where Armenians are not much respected, these 
ceremonies should be performed by ourselves. There 
is always something very solemn to me in the funeral 
service of our religion, but upon this occasion, where 
only three companions in a strange land were per- 
forming these last duties over a brother, there was 


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244 MR. rich's tomb. [let. v. 

something peculiarly affecting. All Mr. Rich's 
seiTantSy with many of my own, attended the cere- 
mony, and many tears were shed. I have caused a 
tomb to be raised over his remains, and have put a 
small marble slab upon it, merely to record his place 
of rest, with the following simple inscription — 
'Claudius James Rich, Esquire, 
. 'Died 5th October, 
'A.D. 1821.' 

" The cypress trees of the garden are appropriate 
emblems of the tomb, and I think, if the whole em- 
pire of Persia had been at our disposal, a more 
desirable spot could not have been chosen. This 
event has naturally cast a gloomy shadow around us. 
Not that there is anything so terrific in the grave to 
those who live and die as they ought ; for everybody 
sooner or later must feel, I think, that . . 

" This world is not our place of rest, 

Uncertain all but sorrow." 

« • « • « 

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Khan t Seyd at Bakooba^ 
Night of the \Sth March. 
Here I am, notwithstanding your express injunc- 
tions not to go farther than Orta Khan ; but I 
really found the day so fine, the Khan so wretched, 
and myself so strong, that I thought it would be 
a pity to lose time in such a hole, and so I ventured 
on, and do not find myself a bit the worse for it. I 
feel quite different from what I had done the last 
two days. I have no signs of a headache, and am so 
strong that, if occasion required, I could recommence 
my march immediately; nevertheless, I will take 
care of myself. The countiy between this and 
Bagdad is the flattest and most burnt desert I ever 
saw. The other parts of the desert, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bagdad, are Pelion, and Ossa, and 
Temp6 put together, compared vrith this. At half- 
past three we came to the Naharawan * canal, which 

* " In the year 590 Chosroes Parviz, King of Persia, marched 
out of Ctesiphon to meet Bahram, a revolted general, who, with a 

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was at least as wide as the Diala ; and we arrived 
•here at four p.m. Finding that our old friend Hajee 
Omar had gone into Bagdad the day before yester- 
day, I resolved on remaining in this Khan, which is 
an excellent one. It is on the Bagdad side of the 
Diala, just. opposite the villages of Bakooba and 
Howeida, which I have no curiosity to visit To- 
morrow morning I march for Shehraban. I have 
had, since I came in, an observation of amplitude, — 
nine altitudes of the sun, eighteen of Sirius, and eight 
of Rigel. We then went to dinner. 

I must now close, as a caravanjee, who is setting 
off, promises to give. this to you. Pray give him 
a baksbisk if he performs his promise. I have not 
yet written my journal, which I must do before I 

Shehraban, March . 1 9th. . 

We left the khan soon after; sunrise,: aqd crossed 
the JMala at the ferry of Howeida. ; The banks of 
the river were very high and steep, in' most places 

jowerful army, had appeared before the capital of the empire. A 
battle was fought at a place called Naharwan, according to 
d'Herbelot, in which Chosroes was defeated ; and what is rather 
singular, it is added, he was obliged to fly and take refuge tn 
a monastery J which could not have been very far from Ctesiphon 
and Naharwan, as he was soon joined there by his frieirds. All 
that country is now one vast solitude, and no traces of Christi- 
anity are discoverable in any form. — D'Herbelot, Bib. Oriental, 
. 996." — Gibbon's Decline and Fallof the Roman Empire, vol. viii. 
p. 187. 

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like a perpendicular wallj and Dear, the . banks the 
ground was singularly, cut up aind furrowed by the 
rain.. The ; depth of the river was about eighteen 
feet; It was eight o'cbck before, we were all ferried 
over, though we had been up by day-light. The 
villages hereabouts were completely embosomed in 

At ten we passed through what seemed, to be ,an 
ancient canals on the side of which was a high 
mount, with rubbish and bricks, and even small frag- 
ments of marble on it, called, I believe, Lissia, if the 
fellow who. told me can be depended on; but they 
are herfeAbouts extremely variable in their nomenclar 
ture. There ai'e many Imaums scattered about. the 
country, said to be the. gi:aves of those Mahometan 
soldiers who died of their wounds on returning from 
the battle of Kasr i Shireen, each man being buried 
on the spot where he died, as a shahid, or witness, for 
Islamism. Along the road I observed some frag- 
ments of brick- work, and many pieces of brick were 
lying all . around. We passed some fine meadow 
land and many canals from the grand trunk stream. 
Kharnabat and other villages were on our left. At 
two we came to the bridge of one arch over the 
Mebroot canal, which runs north to the Diala ; and 
we ^ halted till three at Imaum Seyd Mokdad al 

We arrived here at four, and I am now extended 
my whole length along : the ground, in order to be 

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able to see to write. We have had a very unplea-^ 
Bant ride, owing to the terrible strong southerly 
wind which raised clouds of dust, that very much 
distressed both men and animals. Tell Minas 
the mules are very bad ; they tumbled down every 
mile, and it was with great difficulty we got them to 
the end of the stage . I am promised others here. 
The stage from Bakooba to this place is called nine 
hours. The country all the way was entirely flat, 
and intersected everywhere by canals. We had a 
very heavy westerly squall, with thunder and rain, 
when we started ; and no sooner had it ceased than 
a tremendous south-east wind came on, which still 
continues, and renders it very unpleasant. I am 
very well, excepting my eyes, which are much in- 
flamed with the wind and dust. 

We found here as governor Sadoon Aga, the in- 
habitant of our old house, who would not hear of my 
going to a Khan, which I wished much to do, but 
had a house cleared out for me. Selira Bey is also 
here, being no longer governor of Khanakeen. 
They have both been to see me, but not before I 
assured them it would be perfectly convenient, and 
Selim Aga sent me afterwards a splendid dinner, of 
which my people profited, for I had just finished my 
francolin and curry when it arrived. I had particu- 
larly charged Sadoon Aga not to send me any dinner, 
which did not seem to meet with the approbation of 
my party. Send and thank his wife for her hus- 

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band's attention, though it is most likely I shall give 
this letter to him, to be sent to you through her 

After I leave this I cannot, I am told, be certain 
of good opportunities for Bagdad. The journey 
would really have been a pleasant one but for the 
bad cattle. In all Asia Minor you never saw any- 
thing so bad as the mules. 

It is getting abundantly hot, and the sooner we 
leave Bagdad for our grand expedition to Koordistan 
the better. 

Shehraban, March 20th. 

I have made many curious discoveries. My 
adventures to-day far exceeded my expectations ; and 
what I have seen here, in a geographical and anti- 
quarian point of view, was well worth coming all 
the way from Bagdad for. I can, however, tell you 
little about it, as I have had a hard day's work, 
which was rendered painful by a soft hot south wind. 
Nevertheless, thank God, I am 'only wearied, and 
have no headache. 

I set off this morning to examine the ruins called 
the Zendan, which are about five miles to the south 
of this place. Half way to it, when I was thinking 
of nothing less, our guide, the master mason of 
Shehraban, asked me if I would not turn aside to 
look at an old castle. I accordingly went over a 
canal or two, and suddenly discovered the ruins of a 

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Sassanian town, as large as Ctesiphon — ^the walls 
just in the same state and style — ^the area filled with 
rubbish and ruins. It is just three quarters of an 
hour from Shehraban, though its northern extremity 
reaches much nearer that place. Tlie south and west 
parts of the wall, at the latter of which we entered, 
are the most perfect, and exactly Jike those of Se- 
leucia and Ctesiphon. These ruins are' calledEski 
Bagdad, but are evidently much older than the time 
of Islam. You ^vill recollect I placed Dastagerd at 
the Zendan. I was not far wrong; for I am now 
rather inclined to think that at Eski Bagdad are the 
remains of the royal ' city *. Going on we found 

* Dastagerda was a favourite palace of Khosroo Parviz, King 
of Persia, where he resided for many years, in preference to 
Ctesiphon, which was the capital of his empire. Gibbon, whose 
geographical descriptions are most masterly, and frequently 
clearer and more correct than those of eye-witnesses, in his ac- 
count of the Emperor Heraclius's Third Campaign against Persia 
in the year a.d. 627, thus points out the probable position of 
Dastagerda, in his description of the march of the Roman army 
towards Ctesiphon, after the battle of Nineveh. '* Eastward of 
the Tigris, . at the end X)f the bridge of Mousul, the great Nineveh 
had formerly been erected ; the city, and even the ruins of the 
city, had long disappeared ; the vacant space offered a spacious field 
for the operations of the two armies. . . .The Persian cavalry stood 
firm until the seventh hour of the night : about the eighth hour 
they retired to their unrifled camp, collected their baggage, and 
dispersed on all sides, from the want of orders rather than of reso- 
lution. The diligence of Heraclius was not less admirable in the 
use of victory ; by a march of forty-eight miles in four-and-twenty 
hours, his vanguard occupied the bridges of the greater and the 
lesser Zab ; and the cities and palaces of Assyria were open for the 
first time to the Romans. By a just gradation of magnificent 

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more Sassanian ruins ; and half-way to the Zendan, 
opposite Seyd Sultan Ali, I observed two parallel 


Sassanian walls, running north-east and south-west, 

about six hundred feet distant from each other, and 

about as much in length, just like Seleueia. I 

remarked reeds between every layer of brick. After 

passing these ruins we came to the Zendan, which 

is about forty-five minutes ride from Eski Bagdad, a 

most curious and interresting ruin, totally differing 

from any thing I ever saw, all of burnt brick and 

solid masonry. My present idea is, that it was a royal 

scenes, they penetrated to the royal seat of Dastagerd; and 
though much of the treasure had heen removed, and much had 
been expended, the remaining wealth seems to have exceeded 
their hopes, and even to have satiated their avarice. . . .From the 
palace of Dastagerd, Heraclius pursued his march within a few 
nailes of Modain, or Ctesiphon, till he was stopped on the banks 
of the Arba by the difficulty of the passage, the rigour of the 
season, and the fame of an impregnable capital." — Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. viii. p. 248 to 251. 

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sepulchre. The length of the ruin is thirty-two 
chains, of the small chain of fifty feet ; the breadth 
over the top is forty-six feet six inches ; the height 
sixteen feet ten inches, though at one place it rises 
still higher. It has twelve towers, or buttresses, still 
standing, and four at the north end, which are quite 
in ruins. 

The diameter of each tower from the building 
outwards is thirty-three feet five inches, the breadth 
at the wall thirty-nine feet eight inches. The in- 
terval of the curtain between each tower is fifty- 
eight feet six inches. Between each tdwer are three 
pair of loop-holes. This is on the eastern face of 
the building. On the western is a dead wall with 


no towers, but with a iiiche opposite to each tower 
on the other side; and the last but one of these 
niches was quite perfect, with a pointed arch. The 

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height was ten feet six inches, the breadth two feet 
ten inches ; the depth inwards^ as far as I measured, 
forty-one and a half feet, and terminating in a very 
narrow passage, faced by a dead wall. All the rest 
have theur roofs> or tops, fallen in. 


On the tower side of the ruin we dug into the 
building, and found that the loop-holes above men- 
tioned led to a passage, or channel, which probably 
joins the one seen on the opposite side. 

The roof of the whole building is formed of many 
layers of bricks laid flat-ways, as is clearly to be seen 
on that part of it which is visible on the east side, 
where all along it is broken and worn away. On 
the west side, the roof reaches over to the edge of 
the building, which, in that direction, is generally 
higher than on the east side where we measured it. 

At the fifth niche from the south-west end is a 
fragment of ruin adhering to the wall, as if there 

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had been a buttress, or some projection there, pos- 
sibly an ascent. The north end is quite ruined; 
ipany houses having been .built at Shehraban and 
elsewhere, out of the materials found in the Zendan. 

At the west side, the desert appears elevated all 
along the front to some distance, as if there were 
more building there, and the whole country is 
covered with broken bricks. 

This curious building is of burnt brick, laid in 
good mortar, and very solidly constructed. There 
are no inscriptions on any of the bricks I saw, and 
no clay unburnt bricks, or reeds, were visible. 
There are many hollows in different places, which 
are now quite filled with earth and rubbish. It is 
very singular, but a piece of Chinese copper coin was 
found in this ruin. I must, however, reserve much 
that I have to say concerning my discoveries* to-day, 
until we meet, as I have not yet set down my astro- 
nomical observations. 

To-morrow we start at peep of day for Kizzel- 
rebat, an easy stage. I intend to dispatch this by 
the return muleteers, as I send back from heace 
all the bad mules, keeping the most tolerable, and 
supplying the remainder from the village. 

A government messenger has just been with me, 
who offers to take charge of this letter. I wish I 
could have heard from you here, as I am now going 
to strike out of the road, and have but little chance 
of getting a letter till I come back to the environs 

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of Bagdad. I have just heard of a route which in 
all likelihood I shall pursue ; it will bring me out 
through a curious country to Kifri, a line that I have 
long been desirous to verify, but which 1 was not 
aware could be done. 

Selim Aga goes with me by way of a party of 
pleasure ; he does every thing he can to amuse me, 
and has had the village music for this purpose, to the 
great annoyance of Bellino. They sung " Bir Yazi 
Yazdum," which Selim Aga remarked all the 
women of Bagdad were mad after, 

Be sure and let me hear from you at Kifri, where 
I sliall be, God willing, in five days. If no one is 
going off directly for Kifri, dispatch a messehger ; 
indeed I believe this will be the best plan whether 
or no* The thermometer to-day stands at 66"^ ; it is 
a delightful-feeling day.. 

March 21*«. 
We left Shehraban about ten minutes before 
seven, and were soon agreeably surprised with the 
sight of the first rising ground we had seen since 
leaving Bagdad, looking something like a down in 
England; and shortly after we came to the Bela 
Drooz canal, a fine large stream, which we crossed 
by a good bridge of one arch. 

At half past eight we reached the Hamreen hills, 
in no part higher than two hundred feet ; the first, 
Vol. II. S 

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or southern ridge, was composed of bare sandstone 
in inclined strata, then an area filled with mounds 
looking like hills in ruin ; after which came the 
north ridge, composed of mere soil and grarel. At 
the foot of the hills was a small stream which runs 
into the Diala. 

We descended from the Hamreen hills by a gentle 
slope into a plain called Deshteh, over which were 
scattered some huts belonging to the Surenieoi 
Koords, who come here at this season to cultivate 
tobacco. The Khezerj, Beni Rebiaa, and Beni 
Weiss Arabs* were formerly established hereabouts 
as cultivators, but they have been lately dispersed. 

We asked a traveller whom we met how far Kizzel- 
rebat was from the Diala, and I was amused by his 
answer, " Bir tchubook itchemeh," that is to say, the 
time a pipe will last. 

Our road was nitrous and miry, and yet notwith- 
standing there was much cultivation on either hand. 

Bcfhirid Kizzelrebat a range of hills was visible, 
parallel with those we had left. They are called the 
Khanakeen hills, and come from Kerkook, going 
down towards Loristan. 

As we approached Kizzelrebat, where we arrived 

* The Khezerj, or Khazerij, is a very ancient tribe, and was 
in possession of Medina when Mahommed fled there. Abu 
Osaibi was of this tribe. The Rubina, once the most celebrated 
tribe in Arabia, is now a small broken clan. The Anazeh Arabs 
come of this race. 

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at noon^ I saw some very small hillocks of rubbish 
on the left, but nothing to speak of There is an 
artificial mount at the village of Baradan which 
seems curious. 

At sunset I went up to the terrace of the house 
where we lodged, from whence I could see the 
Diala about two miles off. 

Through the activity of Mahmood Tchaoush*, I 
beard of some ruins near Kasr i Shireen, which 
have never been visited by any European. I have 
engaged a guide to show us the way. 

At night I was much entertained by the festivities 
of the peasants who were celebrating a wedding, and 
the sword-playing and dancing by torch light made 
it altogether a very picturesque scene. 

The people here speak Turkish and Koordish, 
and Persian is also commonly understood, but no 

KiMelrebat is said to be worth in all about 70,000 
piastres per annum. 

The thermometer from two to three p.m. 73°. The 
wind 8. Horizon hazy. 

March 22nd. 

We mounted at twenty minutes before seven this 
morning, and, at a place called Gharmia, I observed 

* One of Mr. Riches servants. 


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two insignificant mounts, which, however, appeared 
to be artificial. At seven we came to the canal of 
Kizzelrebat. The soil was gravelly and covered 
with a thin vegetation, making good sheep-walks, in 
which we saw large flocks of sheep and goats. 

At a quarter before eight we reached the hills. 
The first range were of earth, much furrowed and 
broken up by rain, then came a ridge composed of 
gravel and pebbles bound together by a scanty soil, 
and here and there some sandstone appearing. We 
passed through a narrow defile, called Sakal Toutan 
(beard-catcher) on account of the thieves which 
infest it, into a plain, or I may rather say a basin, 
filled with remains of broken hills, covered with 
soil washed down from the higher I'idges. 

At nine we reached Yenitcheri Tepeh, which is 
reckoned half way between Kizzelrebat and Khana- 
keen. Our road wound through hills, and after 
ci-ossing a second ridge we began to descend by a 
very gradual slope towards Khanakeen. The hills 
we had passed are scarcely higher than those of yes- 
terday, and appeared to be more entirely composed 
of pebbles and earth, the sandstone only here and 
there appearing in strata inclining towards the 

The plain of Khanakeen was verdant and agree- 
able, and diversified here and there with some lines 
of little hills. The soil was gravelly. Indian corn 
and tobacco are grown, and there was much grass. 

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ALi mirza's bridge. 261 

Higher up on the river Ehvan rice is cultivated, 
which in autumn renders the air very unwhole- 
some. I was told here that the common produce of 
grain is ten to one of seed. Koordish tribes at pas- 
ture were scattered about the green plain in diflferent 

We halted in the plain for half an hour while I 
sent on our konakjee, or courier. On our right 
were the mountains under which lay the district 
called Ghilan, before us were the mountains of Per- 
sia, behind the Koordish town of Zehav. 

Crossing a small eminence we descended upon 
the little town or village of Khanakeen, where ^ye 
arrived at a quarter past twelve, and where there is 
a very good khan built by the Persians ; but instead 
of stopping here we crossed the river El wan (a rapid 
mountain torrent, running from south to north and 
falling into the Diala not far from Kizzelrebat) 
over a magnificent bridge of thirteen arches, which 
was built by Mahommed AH Mirza*, and took up 
OUT quarters at Hajee Kara on the opposite bank. 

March 23rd. 

We have had a very stormy night. This morning 
the wind is north-west. I have just heard of a 

* The King of Persia's eldest Bon and Governor of Kennan- 
shah. The building of this bridge cost 200,000 piastres. There 
had been two others, which were both carried away. 

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route from this plaee to Karatepeh, which I think I 
shall follow. 

I have been amusing myself to-day in walking 
about the neighbourhood and sitting in a garden lis« 
tening to an old musician of the Koordish tribe of 
Suzmeni, who are all musicians and dancers. This 
old man played tolerably well on the native violin, 
or rebab with two strings, which was not at all 
unpleasant. He came again in the evening to amuse 
me, and sung many wild Koordish songs. 

The thermometer to-day at three p.m. was 66^ 

Kifri, March 27, 1820. 
Here I am, after having performed a most curious 
and interesting journey ; so curious indeed, and so 
fortunate in its results, that it is rather like one of 
those plans we frequently project but are seldom able 
to execute. We left Khanakeen on the 24th, escorted 
by Selim Aga, who insisted on accompanying me on 
my excursion, with a strong party of his yeomaury, 
there being some danger from the rear guard of 
Aman uUah Khan's* army, besides the more regular 
thieves, Avho have been known to occupy the passes 
hereabouts, to the number of 500 horsemen. We 
sent out regularly an advanced guard and flankers, 
and Bellino, and the Seyd, whose organs of vision 
are almost as acute as Bellino's, detached themselves 

* The Governor of the Province of Sinna in Persian Koordis- 
tan.— See volume lat, p. 200, 

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pn the look-oiit. The country is hilly, and the rid^ 
for about five hours waa very agreeable. 

At nine we reached Kalai Seizi, an enclosure like 
a sheepfold, built as a derbent, or guard station, by 
Abdulla Pasha, the grandfather of Fettah Pasha of 
Zehav ; but it hag been long since abandoned. 

When we arrived at half past eleven at the Khan 
of Kasr i Shireen, we found all in confusion, owing 
to the recent visit of Aman uUah Khan. The poor 
peasantry, who are Derghezeenli Turcomans, told us 
a piteous tale of their sufferings. The Khan, we hear, 
is four hours off, in the Koordish Pashalik of Zehav*, 
against which he has commenced hostilities, 

I pitched my tent on a beautiful green knoll, pver 
the Elwaa river. Mr. Bellino quartered himself in 
the little observatory tent close by, and Selim Aga 
and his people occupied a less advantageous post in 
the rear of ours. The yeomanry made a kind of 
battery with their rifles. The Seyd, Mahmood, the 
troopers, &c., planted two guards, which gave and 
returned the " All's well," in high style. The 
trumpet sounded watch-setting, Avhich made the 
mountains ring, and our camp bore a most martial 
and imposing appearance. Happily we had no 
occasion to display our heroism. 

I spent three hours in clambering among the 

* The Pashalik of Zehav is dependant upon that of Bagdad, 
and consists of two divisions ; Dema or Zehav, and the mountains 
in that direction ; and the plain of Bajilan. 

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ruins of tlie Palace of Khosroo*, which, by the way, 
not a little disappointed nie ; but I had but too lately 
come from Tuuk Kesra, and I have certainly seen 
nothing since which could compare with it. These 
ruins are extremely coarse, and of no grandeur of 
design or dimensions. There never could have been 
a city here, and consequently this is not Dastagerd, 
but merely one of the hunting palaces of the Sassa- 
nian monarchs. 

On the brow of the hill, behind the caravanserai, 
is a square enclosure, like a fort, and surrounded by 
globular looking buildings, if I may be allowed the 
expression, one of which remains perfect in the in- 
side* It is of small dimensions, and something like 
an inverted cone. The architecture is of the mdest 

* Khosroo Parviz, King of Persia (of the Sassanian dynasty), 
was the grandson of Chosroes Anushirvan. He married a 
daughter of the Emperor Maurice's, who is generally supposed to 
be the same person as the heroine of the eastern romances of 
Khosroo and Shireen, and of Ferhad and Shireen. This eastern 
heroine has likewise had the honour of being sung in German 
verse by M. Joseph von Hammer, in his poem of '* Shireen ;** and 
whoever may be desirous of knowing more of this lady, and of the 
poets who have treated of her history, will find ample details on 
the subject, in a work just published by that distinguished and 
indefatigable orientalist, entitled " The History of Ottoman 

The town, which is supposed to have been built by Khosroo 
Parviz in honour of Shireen, and to have been called after her, is 
described as situated between the towns of Holwan and Khana- 
kcen. He is reported to have said to Shireen, " R(^alty. would be 
a glorious thing, if it endured for ever j" to which she answered, 
" If it had endured for ever, it would never have come to ub.'*— JBd. 

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description I ever saw, and seems merely to be com- 
}K>sed of round large pebbles, heaped together with- 
out any attention to order, in an immense thick bed 
of coarse mortar. 

At the south-west corner, over a torrent, are the 
remains of a bridge of the same rude architecture, 
at about ten minutes walk from what is called the 
town, before coming to which we passed over the 
ridges of a number of parallel and almost vertical 
layers of sandstone, which my people wanted to per- 
suade me was building. Indeed it was amusing to 
see how they were prepared to be astonished at every 
thing. They cried out " Ajaieb," or '^ Wonderful," 
at every bit of insignificant ruin, and often remarked 
how impossible it would be to build in so fine a style 

The town is an irregular enclosure of not a mile 
over, with four gates, and the western one is veiy 
perfect. But I will go on regularly with my sketch 


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of the ruins as we visited them. The first place we 
came to adjoining the wall, and N. 15 W* of wli£rf; 
I call the fort, was a square building facing the car^ 
diiial points, each side of which measured fifty-three 
teet by measurement, and I should think (for I did 
not measure) about forty high. There was an arched 
door-way in each face, and above each a narrow 
window. The roof, which has evidently been a dome, 
has fallen in. The building is of the rude masonry 
before described, but has been faced with coarse red 
bricks, with which also the windows and doors are 
pointed ; part of the facing may still be seen. On 
the north and south sides are small square courts, 
with little cells on each side of them, but quite 
ruined ; and on the east is a long piece of ruin, con- 
taining long narrow compartments, which appear to 
have been vaulted. 

But the principal ruin in point of surface, which 
much reminded me of the one at Dara, is situated 
about the centre of the town. It appears to have 
been a large platform supported by vaults, forming 
veiy narrow passages and cells. On the western 
end of the south s\de is what looks like a ruined 
portico, with a gate at each end. .On the north side 
it is open, and consists of cells and compartments 
alone, but I think that it must once have been 
covered by the platform^ On the east and north, 
and on the east part of the western face, the platform 
remains entire, and has on each side one double 
staircase, underneath which the vaulted support of 

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the platform is clearly seen. I do not think that any 
front is more than two hundred feet in length, and 
from eight to ten feet in height, in the highest 
remaining places. The masonry is of the same kind 
s^ the rest of the remains. 

In front, and extending to the eastern gate, is an 
pblong enclosure, composed of round stones heaped 
together, the area of which is now under cultivation. 
At first I felt doubtful whether this enclosure was 
ancient or modern ; all the people of the place main*- 
tained that it was ancient, and I am inclined to 
believe they may be right ; it may have been a tank 
or reservoir of water in front of the palace. The wall 
is most perfect on the east side, but in no part has 
it been flanked by towers. It seems to have been 
a simple enclosure without defences. The outer gate 
has a double portal, which has been domed over, and 
there is a room similarly roofed, on each side. The 
wall is all built of sandstone, cut into an oblong 
form. The arch-way is formed of very large pieces 
of sandstone. The breadth of the gateway is fifteen 
feet three inches ; and it might have been somewhat 
less than twenty feet high, when not encumbered 
Wth rubbish. 

I took two sketches of these ruins. The latitude 
of Kasr i Shireen, by rough computation, is noith 
34^ 3(y S&'. 

The next day (after a piercing cold night) we 
marched for the hitherto unknown ruins of Haoush 

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Kerek, in the Koordish Pashalik of Zehav, which 
had been first mentioned to me at Kizzelrebat. I 
rose by peep of day notwithstanding the cold, and 
while the tents were striking, I went to look at a 
ruin which we had forgotten yesterday. It is beyond 
the fort going from the Khan, but is situated on the 
highest mount or eminence, on the brow of the hill 
which overlooks the Khan. This mount is circular 
on the top, and has been built round, or cased, and 
contains hollows. The masonry is of coarse red 
brick ; might not this have been a Persian Dakhmch, 
or place of exposure of the dead ? The hills in the 
neighbourhood are composed of gypsum ; the soil is 
red and in many places nitrous. Between the foot 
of the hills and the Khan are many traces of foun- 
dations, but I am persuaded there never was a town 
here, but only a hunting palace ; nor do I believe 
there was ever any building within the enclosure, 
except the palace above described. 

We mounted at seven, and proceeded over wild 
hills, and among Koordish tribes, who seem to be of 
a very superior race to those of Mardin*. We passed 
the prince of Kermanshah's camels grazing, and 
encountered many parties of Zengheneh Koords 
with their families. Whenever we passed a party 

* Mr. Rich and his family, during their residence at Mardin, 
on a former journey from Bagdad to Constantinople, had been 
placed in circumstances of difficulty and even danger, by the 
wandering Koords in the neighbourhood of that town, who are a 
turbulent, lawless, and treacherous people. — Ed, 

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of Koords or an encampment, Selim Aga always 
insisted on the trumpet sounding ; he. said it was 
heihetU, or dignified ; and indeed I can assure you, I 
found my trumpet added more to my dignity than an 
addition of fifty men would have done. The Koords 
said, they knew me to be an iltchee or ambassador 
by my trunipet, especially those among them who 
had known Generals Malcolm and Yermoloff. A 
propos of Yermoloff; an old Koordish fiddler played 
me a Cossack dance, which he had picked up from 
YermoloflF's band ; and a propos of the trumpet : at 
Haoush Kerek, my horse suddenly reared up ei-ect, 
and attacked another horse near him, who received 
him in the same way. The trumpeter was on foot 
between the two horses, and was knocked down 
among the loose stones. People thought his brains 
had been knocked out, and congratulated him on the 
escape of his head. " I did not care for my head," 
said he, " I was only thinking of my trumpet, for 
fear that should be bulged;" he was not hurt. 

We arrived at the ruins of Haoush Kerek at half 
past nine. The road wound much among the hills, 
but the general direction was N. 80 W. from Kasr i 
Shireen, Haoush Kerek is exactly similar to Kasr i 
Shireen, but is less ruined, and consequently we 
were better able to make out the plan. Here some 
Bettarawend Koords, subjects to the prince of Ker- 
manshah, and an uncommonly handsome, lively, 
well-behaved people, brought us some admirable 

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yoghourt and fresh cheese, which afforded us a very 
pleasant regale, before we commenced our inspection 
of the ruins. 

The ruins of Haoush Kerek consist of, first, an 
enclosure of stone walls of irregular shape, following 
the nature of the ground, of less extent than that of 
Kasr i Shireen, and with no ruins in it. At about 
a hundred yards south of the enclosure is the build- 
ing, which I chiefly came to inspect, and which 
properly is called Haoush Kerek. Some of the Koords 
say it was the place where Kesra bred his colts, and 
that he brought milk for them through an aqueduct 
cut in the rock, some remains of which are to be 
seen about an hour from Kasr i Shireen, but we did 
not think it worth while to go and see it. The 
Betarawend Koords who were with us, observed of 
Haoush Kerek, that it was a Kasr or castle built by 
Shapour. The style of building is precisely the same 
as at Kasr i Shireen, and being in rather a more 
perfect state, we could better comprehend it, as well 
as Kasr i Shireen. 

Haoush Kerek consists, like the above-mentioned 
place, of a platform supported on vaults which form 
little vaulted rooms, or rather cells, which are a 
celebrated rendezvous now-a-days for robbers. The 
most perfect of these cells are on the north side, and 
are black with the fires of those who take shelter in 
them in winter. This platform, which is aligned on 
the four points, is of an oblong form. I measured 

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its northern side, which was three hundred and 
forty feet, including the building, on the west face. 
The height of the platform is fifteen feet and* a half; 
its breadth, north and south, may be about half as 
much as its length east and west. At its western 
end are the remains of the building or Kasr, which 
was entered by a slope for a horseman to ride up. 
On each side of the slope is a small court with 
vaulted rooms on the ground. The building or Kasr 
is also a heap of ruins of small rooms, all built of the 
round rolled sandstone, with which the whole coun- 
try is covered in incredible quantities, till you descend 
into the plain of Binkudreh. At the east end of the 
north and south face is a double stair ; from the foot 
of the south face the ground is built up level, and a 
little higher than the ground for the breadth of a 
few yards, all along the south face* Aga Seyd said, 
this reminded him of the kind of buildings erected 
by the King of Persia, when he encamps with 
his army. About a hundred yards on the north- 
west, and adhering to the wall of the enclosure, 
on the outside, is another curious building, quite 
open on the top, the walls not above ten feet 
high. It consists, first, of an open court on the east, 
about seventy feet square, with archways all round. 
Secondly, two very narrow passages, which have 
evidently been arched over in many parts, the spring 
of the arch remaining. Thirdly, an open court like 
the first, and then a still larger enclosure. On the 

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north are two narrow passages, the boundary of the 
last being the enclosure wall. Whether the whole of 
the building was once terraced over like the platform 
of the palace, is difficult to say. In the courts I saw 
no quantity of rubbish that one could conclude to 
proceed from the terrace hanng fallen in ; but the 
passages had certainly been vaulted over. 

My people immediately said this was the harara, 
and, indeed, there have been many worse conjectures. 
The whole building is, like all the rest^ built of sand- 
stone. All that I have yet seen of the Sassanian 
works gives me no high idea of their taste or mag- 
nificence. I conjecture these, as well as the ruins of 
Kasr i Shireen, to Imve been one of the many hunt- 
ing palaces and parks which we kflow the Sassanian 
kings to have possessed. When richly painted, 
gilded, and ornamented, they might have be«n worth 
seeing ; in their present state of ruins, they are cer- 
tainly not imposing. There are no other ruins or 
traces of building here than what I have described. 

We did not remain the night at Haoush Kerek, 
but mounted at eleven and marched through the 
plaift of Bajilan in the Pashalik of Zehav, which 
enabled me to establish a number of interesting 
geographical points, and solve difficulties no other 
means could have cleared up, especially the complete 
tracing of the Diala. We continued our way over 
the tops of the hills till one, when we descended into 
the plain, through which we saw the Diala winding 

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far on our right, with a high artificial mount called 
Shirwaneh, on its banks. The plain appeared to be 
well cultivated, and here soil began to predominate 
over the rolled sandstone above-mentioned. 

At ten minutes before two we arrived at Bin 
Kudreh, a large village belonging to Hassan Aga, a 
Koordish chief of Bajilan. He came to see me in my 
tent, and was most splendidly accoutred in a gold- 
flowered gown and ermine pelisse, put on evidently 
for the occasion. He spoke Turkish fluently, was 
very hospitable, and would not hear of my purchas- 
ing anything in his village, insisting that I was his 
musaffety or visitor. At night he and the whole 
village turned out to dance the Tchopee, to the 
sound of the big drum and zoorna ; and, to our no* 
small amusement, they made Selini Aga fall in with 
them, before the festivities began, Hassan Aga 
came to see me, and we agreed that he should pre- 
pare some sort of kellek to enable us to cross the 
Diala, which is about half an hour's distance from 
this place*. 

We mounted next morning at seven ; and herie 
I took leave of my agreeable conductor Selim Aga, 
who returned to Khanakeen, while I marched with 
the head of the district to the Diala, which we 
were near an hour in reaching, the intermediate 

* From Bin Kudrek to Zehav is uine hours : to Khanakcep, 
direct over the hills, three hours. Bin Kudreh is ahout S. SO W, 
from Haoush Kerek, and is considered to be in the Persian territory. 

Vol. II. T 

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space being a morass, formed by the overflowing of 
the river. We observed many willows and arbor 
vitfle. Just after leaving the village we came to 
some large heaps of ruins called Kattar Tepessi, or 
partridge-mount, which, they told us, was the place 
where Anushirwan kept his mules. There are many 
vestiges of building all along the Diala. 

As soon as we arrived at the Diala, our horses 
were swam over by some Arabs, and a kellek or 
raft was got ready to cross ourselves and our bag-» 
gage. The raft was small ; and we were obliged 
to make so many trips, that the passage detained us 
five hours. The main stream was about four hun* 
dred yards broad ; but when overflowing, the chief 
informed me, it covers a space of a mile and a half, 
besides flowing into the morass above-mentioned; 
In the neighbourhood I observed cotton and tobacco 
were cultivated. Arabs of the tribe of Beni Ajeel 
and Al Uzzi were encamped on its banks — the 
kellek on which we crossed being worked by some 
of the latter tribe. This ferry is farmed by Hassan 
Aga for between two and three hundred piastres. 
We were all carried safely over, notwithstanding 
the frailty of our bark and the strong current of the 
river, which rushed as from a sluice. 

Ahmed Aga *, who was in very great terror at 
the idea of the undertaking, when he found we were 
all safely over, blubbered out — for he was almost 
* One of Mr. Riches servanto* 

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crying — '^ Oh, sir, I would rather have gone round 
five days' journey than see you (Qu., himself?) cross 
that horrible river." Tchejrt Sing * quavered out — 
** Bisniillah irrahman arraheem — Bismillah irrahman, 
arraheem ! " all the time of the passage. 

We mounted again on the right bank at half-past 
one, and proceeded first over hills, and then into an 
alluvial and, occasionally, inundated country, to 
Zengabad f, the native village of the Keywanni's | 
mix. He was not there, but his Vakeel was very 
civil. About three miles from it I saw on the left 
bank, just under the ridge of hills, Dekkeh, which 
is l*eckoned one hoUr from Zengabad. 

We arrived at a quarter past four, and found the 
governor had, in true border style, gone out to steal 
sheep. Zengabad is farmed for 55,000 piastres for 
the year. It is about one mile, in a direct line, from 
the Diala, which we had winding on our left, at 
a small distance, from the time we passed it in the 
neighbourhood of Bin Kudrek. It flows off in an 
easteriy direction, in the neighbourhood of the village 
of Zengabad. 

Zengabad, which is the capital of the district, is 
h miserable, half-abandoned, and more than half- 
ruined village, with vestiges of having once been in 

* A servant of Mr. Rich, who from a Hindoo had become a 

t Id S. 30 W. 

X The title of the principal female servant, or duenna^ in the 
harani of the Pasha of Bagdad. — Ed. 


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a better condition, such as the remains of a hamaum 
and a mosque, which was built by Suliman Pasha, 
the grandfather of Abdurrahman, Pasha of Suli- 
mania, and in which we took up our quarters. It 
was the first time its walls had ever heard the name 
of Christ invoked. 

Northward, and a few hundred yards from tha 
village, we remarked a high square mount, called 
Kalan Tepessi, with a small one adjoining it. It 
looked like a Babylonian temple. No bricks are 
dug out here, but many on the other side of the 
village, among mounds of ruins, called Khist-ken, or 
the place where bricks are dug out. There has evi- 
dently been an ancient town here. 

Th^ air of these low grounds is reckoned very un- 
wholesome, owing to the morass and quantity of 
water. A couple of miles to the west of Zengabad 
is Manativa, another similar village, embosomed in 
date-irees, the air of which is particularly unwhole-. 
some. There are many other villages in this district, 
but they are merely an assemblage of wretched mud 
huts, thatched with reeds. 

We suffered this day greatly from the heat, I 
felt more fatigued after a march of three hours than 
I have often done after one of ten. 

We left Zengabad a little before seven, and at 
nine came to Kiushk i Zenghi, which appears to 
have been named from the Atabeks, where we heard 
there were ruins. We found them very insigni- 

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ficant, consisting only of some vestiges of coarse red 
brick, and brick foundations, on the summit of a 
circular tepeh or mount. We were told of some 
X'uins at a little distance, where much marble was to 
be found, but we did not go to see them. The tra- 
dition of the people may generally be trusted with 
respect to the age of ruins in these countries; 
so fer at least as two great divisions^ of history are 
concerned — ^the time before Mahomet, and the time 
since. They have only these two ages — Ghiaour and 
Mussulman — and they rarely, if ever, ascribe the 
works of the former to the latter. 

Keeping the hills close on our right, we pro- 
ceeded to the Kifri Soo*, or rather one of the many 
torrents that flow from these hills into the plain 
of Kifri, and are there lost, being used to water the 
cultivation. We arrived at eleven at the river, 
which consisted of an immense bed of pebbles, with 
two or three limpid rills running through it. 

The above-mentioned hills'hereabouts crossed our 
road ; and we observed many very large beds of tor- 
rents coming down from them, now chiefly dry, 
some of them being several hundred yards broad. 

We continued our way through the hills, noticing 
on our right Ohn iki Imaum, where there are naphtha 
springs, about one hour and half from this place, 
(Kifri,) where we arrived soon after noon, much ex- 
hausted by the heat; and I had scarcely refreshed my- 
* N. 30 W. 

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self a little, before I sat down to tell you my story. 
The two last marches have been dreadful from the 
heat, though we arrived here by half-past twelve. All 
the people are quite exhausted ; yet, God be praised, 
I am very well ; but I am very prudent, proportion- 
ing my exertions to my strength. 

We are lodged here in the same place as when on 
the road to Constantinople ; and I almost cried when 
I saw the tree by the side of the little canal, in the 
court where we dined together on that memorable 
expedition*. Kifri is much dilapidated and di- 
minished in population since we were here last. 
The people were astonished at my recognizing a 
little mount I had not seen for seven years, and then 
had viewed from a different road. A small spring 
of naphtha has lately been discovered, about a mile 
from the town. 

Are you almost ready to set off on our expedition 
to Koordistan ? We have no time to lose, for I am 
roasted with the sun -already ; and travelling by 
night I will not hear of. The thermometer to-day 
in my tent, between two and three in the afternoon, 
was 90°. 

A man is going off to-night or to-morrow^ morn- 
ing — Mahmood Bey, the master of the house yclept 
the palace ; and I hope he will give you this. He is 

* This refers to a journey of 1500 miles, from Bagdad to Con- 
stantinople, made by Mr. and Mrs. Rich, on horseback, in the 
years 1814, 1815,— Ed, 

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AT klFRI. 279 

in some difficulty or other: see what it is, and 
whether any one can help him. He is a poor, good 
kind of fellow. Thermometer in my tent 9(f. 

Kifri*, March 28th. 
I am just made the happiest man in the world by 
your letter of the 23rd, just after your gay pai-ty. 
Our passage through the country was so meteoric, 
that your Arab went hawking after me I know not 
where, till at last Selim Aga picked him up some- 
where, and sent him on to me with a guard and a very 
polite note^ and has thus added a very considerable 
weight to the obligations with which he has already 
cumbled me. I can't think of the right word in 
English, and therefore gallicise or anglicise one.. 
My spirits move faster than my pen can follow. I 
think, from the context of your note, that you must 
have wx'itten me another of an earlier date, in answer 
to mine from Bakooba. If so, Ismael Cossid has it, 
and will have carried it direct to Willock, or else 
some Arab may still be looking about for me jn the 
desert, or have been taken prisoner by Amanullah 
Khan and his Koords, Indeed, we have glanced so 
like wildfire o'er hill and o'er glen, that it would 
have been difficult to have caught me after I left 

* Kifri is situated just at the pass into Koordistan, and is 
defended by a mud wall. 

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Khanakeen. I may say I dived at Khanakeen and 
came up again at Kifri, 

Minas accompanied your note with a large box of 
biscuits. Koord Oglou's grim countenance gave a 
horrible contortion, meant for a smile of contempt, 
when he saw the contents of the box he knocked 
open, and which had been sent express from Bagdad. 

The very night you had your storm, we had also a 
h-emendous one, from the south-east, at Khanakeen. 
We had a fine north-west wind the moment we left 
the Pashalik of Bagdad at Khanakeen, and the in- 
stant we re-entered it at Zengabad the south-easter 
came on again, and has been intolerably hot ever 
since. Thermometer to-day is 89°. 

To-day I walked out to the favourite promenade 
of the Kifri folk. It is a few hundred paces be- 
hind the town, where the principal streams of the 
Kifri Soo form the defile which leads into Koordistan, 
by cutting a passage through the gypsous ridge 
of the Kifri hills. On the north side of the pass 
the stream has cut the hill down into an almost per- 
pendicular cliff of nearly two hundred feet high. 
Another stream, said to be of better water, purls 
along the same bed of pebbles, though from a dif- 
ferent source, about an hour oif, and joins it at the 
foot of the cliflP. These streams are now incon- 
siderable rills, but from the immense bed of pebbles 
which occupies the whole breadth of the defile, it 
is evident that the sudden floods must be great and 

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violent. Large blocks of gypsum, some I suppose a 
ton weight, are brought down by these floods. On 
the Kifri side the ridge of rock is steep, and termi- 
nates at once in the plain, but it is more gentle on 
the Koordistan side. 

The Kifri water is much praised, and said greatly 
to facilitate digestion. May not this proceed from 
its passing over nitrous and gypsous ground, which 
gives it a slight purgative quality ? The water is 
extremely light and agreeable, without being hard 
like rock water, and it has no taste. 

Some buffoons of the DeUi Doman caste insisted 
on performing before us to-night. These people 
are, I believe, of the gipsy race. They are called in 
some parts of Persia " 2 of," and resemble the Bazi- 
gars in India. Their buffoonery is mere coarse 
obscenity, which mightily delights the Turks; but 
there are also good musicians among them. 

Your Arab wants my letter, that he may begin 
bis journey back soon after nightfall ; he certainly 
has used uncommon expedition. My present plan is 
to observe the eclipse to-morrow here ; the next day 
to set out on our return home, and pass the night at 
Karatepeh, and so on, gradually making short 
stages to avoid the heat of the day. 

March 29th. 
I sallied out this morning to inspect the gypsous 
ridge, and I clambered up to the top of it, whence,. 

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notwithstanding the horizon was thick, I got several 
bearings with the large surveying compass. 

The hills which we crossed on our way here run 
out to the south of Kifri, and the Bagdad road 
crosses them there, soon after which they sink gra- 
dually into the desert, at the spot where we crossed 
them, and beyond Ohn iki Imaum. The Kifri ridge 
is abrupt and steep on the Bagdad side, and through- 
out there are subordinate hills on the opposite side, 
all the way to Toozkhoormattee *. Hereabouts the 
hills are gypsous, with a very scanty soil and vege- 
tation in some places on them. On the opposite, or 
south-east side of the defile, the summit is composed 
of soil and pebbles, large masses of which have 
tumbled down into the defile. The pebbles are of 
many different sorts, and so cemented by the soil as 
to form almost a conglomeration. This coating of 
soil and pebbles is supported by gypsum. A great 
number of wild flowers grow around, some of which 
have a pleasing odour. There were many wild 
poppies of a beautiful crimson, all of which con- 
tained fire or jungle flies. 

The best grounds in the district of Kifri for the 
purposes of agriculture are at Eski Kifri, those here- 
abouts being too stony to admit of much cultivation. 
In spring, till the harvest is got in, most of the inha- 

* Toozkhoormattee is watered by the Aksoo, a little river 
which rises in Koordistan, and passes by Ibrahim Khanjee. 

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bitants^ of Kifri encamp under black tents, with their 
wives and families, at Eski Kifri. 

Last night there was a fresh breeze from the 
south-east, and to-day it blows a perfect gale from 
that quarter, with clouds of dust, which makes me 
fear for to-night's observation. Thermometer in my 
tent 91°, at the hottest time of the day. 

March ^Oih. 

We left Kifri at a quarter before seven this morn- 
ing, and crossed over two hills in S. 22 W, Soon 
after eight we passed two little mounts called Te- 
lishan, and then crossed the Kifri Soo, now 
quite dry, over an immense bed of pebbles. The 
plain hereabouts was as white with . nitre in many 
parts as if it had snowed. A little before ten we 
came to Tchemen Kiuprissi, a good new bridge over 
the Tchemen, a sluggish, ugly puddle of a stream, 
so full of reeds, near fifteen feet high, that the water 
was scarcely discernible. It is full of leeches, so 
that Wordsworth's philosopher might have found 
full and easy employment here. The interior part 
of the green reeds, near the bottom, are eaten by 
the natives. We passed some Arab encampments 
with their flocks. 

We halted for half an hour at the Tchemen Kiu- 
prissi, and then continued our journey in S. 15 W- 
to Karatepeh, passing two ranges of hills, with a 

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valley or basin between them' At the foot of the 
last declivity Karatepeh is situated, where we ar- 
rived about a quarter before twelve. The stage is 
called seven hours. We saw a large flock of ante- 
lopes to-day. On our left hand, as we entered 
the town, noticed the burying ground, which for 
the number of little domes in it looked like a 

Karatepeh is this year rented of government for 
forty thousand piastres. It is watered by a cut 
from the Diala, above Zengabad. The principal 
produce is cotton and daree, or Indian corn ; a small 
quantity of rice is grown likewise. 

The people of Karatepeh call themselves Turco- 
mans, and Turkish is the only language used. There 
are some of the people called Ali Ulahees, Ismae- 
lians, or Tcheragh Sonderans, residing here. A 
fine cool day, with a refreshing north-west wind. 
Thermometer, 82''. 

March ^\st. 
We mounted this morning at a quarter before 
seven. All appearance of cultivation soon termi- 
nated, and was succeeded by a bare plain, with here 
and there some scanty grass, but most generally 
covered with nitre as thick as if there had been 
^ fall of snow. We journeyed due south to the 
bridgQ of the Nareen, where we arrived about eight. 

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It is a good bridge of six arches, built by Suliman, 
Pasha of Bagdad. We then proceeded S. 15 W. 
towards the Hamreen hills, keeping between them 
on our right, and the Nareen on our left. We con- 
tinued going in a south-west direction to the foot of 
the hills, at which we arrived about half past ten, 
The first part of them was composed of soil and 
pebbles, and was of very gentle ascent. We reached 
the summit at twenty minutes before eleven, which 
being the highest ground hereabouts, I got several 
sights with the compass. The appearance from the 
top of the hills of the surrounding countiy was very 
singular. The whole chain of hills, which look like 
the ruins of a mountain, appeared broken into little 
hillocks, or large waves, and looked like the $ea 
suddenly fixed. Not far from the pass, the Diala 
was visible, meandering and receiving the Nareen. 
As we proceeded, sandstone began to make its 
appearance, always in strata inclined towards the 
north side of the hill, and in many places the ex- 
ternal parts and fragments were rounded and waving 
as if they had been washed by the sea. In some 
places I observed a coating of talc, specimens of 
\vhich I brought away. The sandstone at last pre- 
dominates, and the hill terminates in a great number 
of parallel successive ridges, or ledges, some just 
appearing, others rising from the gi-ound to the 
height of ten or twelve feet ; the south side, always 
an abrupt face, and inclining down into tlie earth on 

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the north side. Through one of these ridges a 
Turkish Pasha cut a narrow road a long time 
back. His name, as far as I could make it out from 
an inscription on the rock, now almost entirely de- 
faced, was Hassan. Nitre was to be seen in some 

At noon we left this imsightly mountain, our road 
through which had been about south, and keeping 
its southern face on our left, we proceeded in S- 40 E. 
to Adana Keuy, where we arrived at twenty minutes 
past one. The stage is called eight hours* 

Adana Keuy, which is near the cut of the Khalid 
canal and close on the Diala, is a large village, 
which has been much more flourishing than it 
appears to be at present. It has a mosque^ vcdth 
a minaret. It is farmed this year for 20,000 

Our quarter-master had taken a house for us, 
where a great number of silk-worms were at work ; 
but the smell so affected my head, I was obliged soon 
to leave it for a garden, where we pitched a tent, 
and wete very comfortable. 

The people of this place are of the Turcoman race, 
and are composed of Sunnis, Shiahs, and Tcheragh 
Sonderans, Here the Turkish language terminates, 
all beyond towards Bagdad being Arab Fellahs or 
peasants. We met on our march to-day some of the 
Arab tribe called Mehdewy*; and in the plldn of 
♦ All the butchers of Bagdad are of this tribe. 

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Karatepeh saw an encampihetit of Khirewez Arabs^ 
the chief of which, with half-a-dozen men well 
mounted and accoutred, came out to escort me 
as a guard of honour, but I dismissed him with 
thanks. — ^Thermometer, 82^. 

April 1st 
Left Adana Keuy at half past six. I observed 
a very curious effect of refraction which inverted 
distant objects* There were swarms of locusts 
on the ground of a bright yellow colour. Just 
after leaving the village, we observed in the Diala, 
along the banks of which we w:ere travelling, 
detached beds of brushwood, which formed dams to 
stop the water and turn it into the various canals 
with which this district; is intersected in every di- 
rection. We kept westerly with the Khalis, which 
is the largest canal I have ever seen, on our left, and 
the Diala just behind it, and we passed Seyd Muba* 
rek, a Ziyaret^ or place of pilgrimage. 

Soon after eight we reached Delli Abbas, where 
there is a bad bridge over the Khalis, and the vil- 
lages of the district of this name soon began to rise 
in succession from the horizon. The villages of the 
district of Khorassan on the other side of the Diala 
were likewise in sight. Our road was first S. 56 W., 
then 8. 20 W. At half past ten we came to 

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Tchubook, a wretched Arab village, with a bridge 
over a little stream, which is formed by the overplus 
of the Khalis and comes from Serajik. It dis- 
charges itself into tlie Diala opposite Bayuk Abu 
Seyda, which is close by. the Diala, being only some 
yards from Tchubook. This stream is a kind of 
vent for the Khalis on sudden and great rises of the 
Diala. It is then opened to let out the force of 
waters, which would otherwise damage the Khalis 
canal and overflow the country, to the destruction of 
the cultivation. The superfluous waters of the Aze-^ 
mia also discharge themselves into this stream at 

We were obliged to keep a sharp look-out all 
night against thieves, this place being. infamous for 
them. With the morn a fine breeze from the 
north-west sprung up, which completely changed 
the air, and we started at half past five with re- 
newed vigour and elasticity, directing our course 
towards Musabbah Khan, which lay to the south- 
west of us, and keeping the Diala, which winds 
much, close on our left. . . 

At a quarter before eight we arrived at Musabbah 
Khan, where we. alighted to take coflfee and make 
some observations with the compass. About half 

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past eight we left the Khan, and soon after ten 
we percdved the magnificent Naharwan, running 
straight N. 10 W. and S. 10 E. Kharnabat was 
due E., distant one mile. In another hour we 
came to some dry canals, parallel with the Nahar- 
wan, then to Seyd Muhhsen, a place of pilgrimage, 
on a small stream from the Khalis, and at noon 
we arrived at Toprak Kalaa, a square mount of 
no great dimensions, and called likewise Muje- 
libeh. On the north of it at a small distance we 
observed ruins, from which we found men extract- 
ing bricks to be sent to Bagdad for Yusuf Bey's* 

A few of the bricks had something like the 
impression of jive fingers on them, and others 
had a rude circle, apparently drawn with the 
finger while the brick was yet wet. They were 
coarse and not of Babylonian dimensions, but there 
seemed to be an immense quantity of them. I 
take these ruins to be Sassanian. I remarked in 
them some very singular coincidences with Kalan 
Tepeh at Zengabad, and other artificial mounts 

We an-ived at the village of Howeish at twenty 
minutes before two. The road we have come by is 
very unfrequented, and is mostly a very dreary 
bare desert, along which we saw little or nothing 

* The Pasha of Bagdad's eldest son. 
Vol. II. U 

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to remark^ but an immense wild mw, with six pigs 
after her. We had a delightfully eool day« 
Thermcttneter— 7T* 

April Sd. 

We left Howeish at half past six^ and at noon 
reached the residency at Bagdad* 

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Observations ai Arhil. 
(Referred to at p. 15, Vol. ii.) 

1. At our camp. Base corrected, 100 yardd. A, at my 
tent^ where all the astronomical observations i^ere taken. 
B, about N. 25 E. from it. Minaret bore from A, S. 2 E. 
Castle signal, S. 55^ E» 

The castle was difficult to set^ on account of its being a 
large circular mound, with houses all round its edge. At 
last I discovered a small staff, with something on the end of 
it sticking up above a house in the S.W. face of the circle 
of houses which crowned its summit, near the W. end. 
This I found was distinguishable from every station^ and I 
accordingly selected it for the signal at the castlcr Th^ 
ends A and B of my base were marked by spears, 

Troughton's sextant; angles corrected for instruodent 
error. — 

Station. 1, at A* 

1. Angle (mean of 3). minaret, and B, 112° 16'25\ 
J)rote. — Rather a difficult angle, as the wind made the 

spear at B vibrate a little. 

2. Minaret and castle, 52° 54' 1§". 

Angle taken several times with n6 variation. 
The point of the minaret chosen M^as the N.W. or nearest 
edge of the octagonal base. This was the best defined line. 

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Height of the minaret above the horizon, 2® 37^ 15^'. 
3. B, and the castle (mean of 5), 59° 31' 54", 

Station B. 

1- Minaret and A, 63** (W 30''. 

Angle taken several times ; no difierence. 

2. Minaret and castle, 52« 52' 30", 

Angle twice taken ; no difference. 

3. A, and custle ; castle oq tb^ left of A (mean of 6), 
115° 53' 55". • 

Difficult angle, A vibrated a little* 
Height of minaret, 2^ 3V 46". 

Station at the Mikaekt. 

N.B. The minaret measurement, 119 feet 10 inches 
to the remains of the gallery, and 1 foot 6 inches of broken 
wall on the top ; 121 feet 4 inches in alf. Gircumference 
of the shaft, 51 feet iB inches. It stands on an octagonal 
base, each face of which is 9 feet 11 inches. Height 90 ol" 
40 feet. I took my station at the angle of the base, which 
I had set from the other stations. 

L To determine the position of Mount Maldmibe, seeil 
in the distance on the Mousul road. 

Afternoon altitudes of the sun for tiie time: — ^DOt cor* 
rected for instruments'' errors. 


© N. Limb. 

Double alt. 

' Time. 

40^ 85' 36" 

P41' 3" 






-.44' 14" 

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Azimuth angle, between Mount Makloube and the sun's 
nearest or N, \mh, , . . 

N.B. The mountain being a considerable body^ I had 
grBfit difficulty tn determining what part of it to set, I at 
last made choice of the highest, or western part of it} but I 
fear tbi? will pause some little uncertainty in the result. 

Angle mountain^ and O N. Itmb^ corrected for instru-' 
ments' error. 

-^ BV 80" 
-^ 24' 45" 
- 20' 15" 

Bearings from the minaret with the surveying-compass. 

Hijgbwt part of Makloube, N, 46 W. 

Casfle signal, N, 62° SC E. 

Rewandiz, N. 24 E. 

No other otijeetB were suffidiently m»fkfld to be set ; only 
general d(F^ctioqs were pointed out, 

In the morning on looking over nay ground* I found I 
had taken the following angles with my pocket sextant. 
These are not now likely to be of use. 

At the minaret. 

Castle signal, my tent, 63° 37' SCT'. 

6i«enient, fi4^a2^00''. 

I found it was impossible to see the signals of my base 
from the minaret, as they were thin spears of a brown colour, 
wliich projected theniselves on th^ ground* The third angle 
must therefore be concluded. 

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296 BOUTBS, ETC* [^APP. I. 

The Koardish Pashalik of Keuy Sanjiak. 

' Routes procured at Arbil, both from the Koords and 
Arbil people. 

The direction of Keny Sanjiak pointed out due E. from 
our camp at ArbiU 

Arbil to Keut Sanjiak. 

Arbil to Hajee Yusuf Agatcheh*, 7 caravan hours. 
KeuySanjiak ♦ * 8 

15 hours. 

Hills ; no considerable mountains ; all these hills are a 
continuation of the tract of Shuan* 


DerbentGomespan 8 hours; a pass through the hills. 
: Keuy Sanjiak • 8 

16 hours* 



New Hareer, 5 hours, horseman's ; among the broken hills so 
JBshkafSaka 8 [often mentioned* 

Ke\iy Sanjiak 8 

21 hours. The road between the hills and the 
^^ Azmir. 

The Banner of Hareer consists of six districts^ namely^ 

* This is a tree in the district of Bestora^ in the hills ; the road 
is through the pass called the Baghtchi Bogaz, 

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APR n*] BOUTES, ETC. 297 

Hareer, Koreh, Deireh, or new Hareer, anciently called 
Diween*, Zirari, Baherka, and Gerdeh, 

The capital, or NeW Hareer, now called Deireh^ is N. 
10 E. from our camp at Arbil, in the broken hilly country, 
a continuation of Shuan. Old Hareer, the capital of the 
Soran family, but now in ruins, is N. 15 E, of our camp, 
over the first range of mountains, and the continuation of 
Azmir. Behind it again is a very high mountain, I believe 
Zagros, Then comes the district of Koshnav^ separated 
from Hareer by the high mountain. 

Great care must be taken in collecting information from 
these people, to distinguish between Old and New Hareer. 

When they say Hareer^ they generally mean the modern 
capital of that name. 

Shaklawa is a Chaldean village over the broken hills. 
Between them and the Azmir range, about N.E. from our 

Harmoota is another ChaMean village^ half an hour from 
Keuy Sanjiak. ^ 

Wifti respect to the relative positions of the principal 
places to the East, the best of my information is as follows : — 

Old Hareer is about three hours and a half from the Zerb 
or Zab. 

From Keuy Sanjiak^ fourteen hours for a horseman^ 
throi^ difficult mountains. 

From Arbil, twelve horseman's hours. 

The Zab separates Hareer from the territory of Akra, in 

• In Childean, spelt Adebin, In Armenia Major there was 
likewise a city of this name. — See Assemanni, vol. iii. De Syria 
Nestorianis, p 2« 

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[APP- I. 

On the banks of the Zab, opposite the terriioiFy of Haroer, 
is the castle of Akra. 

The castle of Rewandiz is on the Zab, above Hareer* 

The territory of Khoshnav adjoins both Hareer, Rewan- 
diz^ Keuy Sanjiak, and Bitwein. 

The district of Bitwein is inhabited by the Bulbassis, and 
is on the Altoon Kiupri river^ or the Lesser Zab, beyond 
Keuy Sanjiak. 

Omar Aga drew the following sketch with his finger on 
the ground. 


Between Rewandiz and Khoshnav is a mountain. 

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APP. II.] 200 


Notes on the Battle ofArbela, 
(Referred to in p. 15, VdI. iiO 

[The following fragment of a proposed complete cona* 
parison between the ancient descriptions of the battle of 
Arbela, and the face of the country where it was foughti 
which was undertaken by Mr. Rich on the spot, with Ar- 
rian and Ciirtius in his hand> but which he left unfinished, 
is given in its present very imperfect state, as it may be 
interesting, and even useful, to some future traveller.] 

Arrian says^ that Alexander crossed the Tigris without 
opposition from Darius, biit with difficulty, from the rapidity 
of the current, and that there he rested his army awhile,' 
and sacrificed on account of the eclipse of the moon. 
Marching from the Tigris (f . e, the Ford) through Assyria^ 
be bad the Sogdian (Curtius says Gordysean, i e. Koordish) 
mountains on the left, and the Tigris oq the right. 

On die fourth day after the passage, the scouts discovered 
the enemy's advanced guard of cavalry. (Lib. ill c. 7, 
p, 194.) 

Do these four days include the time of halt at the Ford J- 
and how long was that halt ? 

- Quintus Curtius indeed says, that the affair of the ad^ 
vaneed guard occurred immediately after the Ford ; that* 
Alexander encamped two days in that place, and continued 
his march on the third. He also says, that the eclipse of 
the moon took place in the first watch of the third night $ 
that Alexander marched at the second watch, and that at* 

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day-break the scoats thought they perceived the army of 
Darius, but it turned out to be only the advanced guard of 
Mazeeus's corps. 

Quintus Curtius has evidiently made two affairs of one ; 
and the one he has described as the last is clearly the same 
as the one mentioned by Arrian, ifvho attributes to it the 
incidents related by Curtius of the £rst encounter ; which 
therefore must have taken place a few hours' march from 
the ford of the Tigris. Alexander, we are told, galloped on 
with the Paeon advanced guard, and some other of the 
light horse, to disperse this party, ordering the army to 
come on leisurely. The enemy fled, and Alexander pur- 
sued them. Some*5of them falling into his hands, informed 
him that Darius, with the grand army, was not far ofl; 
being encamped at Gaugamela, on the Bumadus, about six 
hundred stadia from the town of Arbela, in a very open and 
level plain ; the Persians having levelled those parts which 
vrere too rough for the manoeuvring of chariots. 

Alexander, upon hearing this, entrenched his army four 
days in the very place where he received this intelligence. 
In this fortified camp he left his baggage and incumbrances^ 
and then marched, at the second watch of the night, to 
attack the enemy, with whom he expected to come up at 

The camps were sixty stadia distant from each other, but 
were not visible to one another^ on account of intervening 
hills. Curtius makes the interval to be one hundred and 
fifty stadia, and agrees that Alexander remained in his for- 
tified camp four days. He also agrees as to the time or 
distance, given by Arrian, from the ford of the Tigris to the 
entrenched camp; that is to say, first, from the second 
watch till day-break ; and secondly, from thence slowly, to 
the place of halt, to which Alexander had pursued the ad«' 

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vanced guard of the enemy with his light cavalry ; but the 
two authors differ about the distance of this spot from 
Darius's camp : and from the time of the halt of four days* 
the movements are difierently reported. Arrian here, how* 
ever^ seems the best authority. 

Curtius (lib. iv., p. 454) says^ that after having encamped 
fear days, letters were intercepted from Darius, offering 
a reward for the assassination of Alexander, and that the 
very same day Alexander marched. '^ During the march!^ 
Curtius adds, " a eunuch came to inform him of the sickness 
of his prisoner, the Queen of Persia, and immediately after, 
another came to announce her death ; whereupon he in* 
stantly went to the tent, where the mother of Darius was 
sitting by the body of her daughter-in-law.'* There seems 
to be a contradiction here. . We are told that he was actually 
mar<:hing at the moment when he beard of the Queens 
illness* Immediately after, he heard of her death, and then 
he went to her tent^ though nothing is said of the encamping 
in the meanwhile. 

However, Curtius, by making another march, will bring 
the distance nearer to that assigned by Arrian, for the in- 
terval of the two camps ; after which another movement is 
mentioned by Curtius before the ^nal position preceding 
the battle. The only difference then between them will be 
ill time, which here happens to be of no consequence. But 
on the whole, I must again repeat, I rely most on Arrian. 

We have now to establish the position of Darius's camp, 
concerning which our data are rather more positive than 
those we possess as to Alexander's, since the situation of 
the ford of the Tigris, from which Alexander's subsequent 
movements are to be calculated, can only be conjectured 
(partly from those movements) ; whereas it is positively as* 
serted that Darius was encamped on the Bumadus. 

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308 .NOTS8 oil THB [ AFP.. He 

Curttug (lilx iv.j p. 445) says, Dariu8» aniviBg at 
Arbela^ from Babylon^ left his heavy baggage at that town^ 
and threw a bridge over the Lycas^ by which hit army wis 
five days defiling. From the passage of the bridge he 
marched on» eighty stadia, to another river, oallad the 
Bumadusr where he encamped* 

. Arrian, besides what has been noiioed above, says (lib. 
vi., c. 2, p. 430) that the greatest distance assigned to the 
field of battle from the town of Arbela was six hun* 
dred^ and the leasts five hundred stadia* He says both 
Ptolemy and Aristobulus agree that the battle was fought at 
Gaugamela, which was a large village, on the Bumadus or 

. Gurtitts does not mention the distance from Arbela to 
the bridge of the Lycus ; but eighty stadia is correct enough 
fior the distance between the rivers. The six hundred or 
even five hundred stadia of Arrian are quite unintelligible} 
and had it not been for the Bam» distance being again given 
more circumstantially in another part of the work, I shonld*. 
without hesitation, set this down as an error of the popyists. 
This distance will bring the battle up» at least, as high as 

(Arrian, lib. iii.^ c. 9, pp'. 197-8.) We have now brought 
the two armies to the stations they occupied before the 
battle, and from which the subsequent movements are to be 
calculated, i. e. Darius, on the Bumadusi near Gaugamela, 
and Alexander sixty stadia from it in his intrenched camp, 
where he remained four days. There be left all his bag- 
gage and incumbrances, and prepared to attack Darius 
with his efficient men, having nothing but their arms with 
them. He marched at the second watch of the night 
Darius, when he heard of this, also got under arms. The 
camps, as before said, were sixty stadia from each oilier^. 

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AFP. Il»] 'BATTtiE OF ARBSLA. 303 

biit wfere not visible on account of the intervening hillg. 
Alexander^ having tnarehed thirty stadia^ reached those 
hills or tnoiitits which had impeded the view of the Peiiian 
BSttAjf whence he reconnoitred the endmy's position, and 
held a council whether it was better to commence the attack 
directly from that pointy or bring the troops to the halt 
while he caused a more particular survey to be made of the 
whole ground. 

Parmenio was for the latter plan^ and his advice was 
takeoi The army was accordingly halted there (thirty 
stadia from Darius's position^ p. 199), while Alexander^ with 
a party of cavalry, went over the whole of the ground where 
the battle was to be fought. After which he returned to 
the army^ whom he ordered to refresh and resti They 
remained that night in this position, for Parmenio is said to 
hav« proposed to fall upon the enemy by nighty and Darius 
expected an attack and remained under arms fdl night 
(p^ 202). The attack^ however^ did not take place till the 
next mornings 

When the armies approached (by which it should se^m 
that Darius also made a forward movement^-^indeed Cur^ 
tiua says positively (c. 13, p. 207, that Darius advanced 
ten stadia), Alexander inclined to. the right — ^the Persians 
Hbade H contrary movement to the left. 

Alexander still inclined to the right till he was nearly op- 
posite the Persians^ when Darius^ fearing lest he should get 
into bad ground where his chariots could be of no avail> or- 
dered his further progress in that direction to be opposed. 

From this it seems that the bad ground was on the left 
of Daiius's line» The distance which Alexander marched 
before he came into action is not stated, but I think that 
if Darius did advance it was for an inconsiderable distance^ 
Curtittii (lib. vi. p. 482) says the sun had long been up when 
AlexjEmder marched to the attack. 

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We now come to the establishment of positions by the 
termination of the affair. Curtias (lib. iv. p. 51) says 
Mazseus's corps of cavalry retreated not by the straight 
road, u e. to Arbela*, but by a longer, and therefore safer, 
circuitous one (non recto itinere, sed msyore, et ob id tutiore 
circuitu, Tigrin superat), by which he passed the Tigris, 
and retreated to Babylon. It would seem therefore that 
the battle was not fought near the Tigris. 

Darius passed the Zab, and traversing a very consider- 
able tract of country, " ingens spatium fugsl emensus'* 
(p. 513), reached Arbela at midnight. 

Alexander moderated the pursuit, and arriving at the 
bridge of the Zab, found it covered with the flying enemi^* 
It has been observed that the crossing of the Bumadns is 
not mentioned after the battle, and the inference drawn is 
that the battle was fought between the Bumadus and the 
Lycus or Zab. But to one who has been on the ground, 
the reason of its not being mentioned is clear. It afforded 
no dijBBculty in passing, not being above the horses' knees» 
and being fordable anywhere there, on foot or horseback, 
without the slightest inconvenience ; and therefore it would 
not be worth mentioning but as a station, where it marked 
the position of Darius. Darius encamped on the Bumadus,. 
The action must clearly have taken place beyond that 
stream, unless he made a considerable retrograde move- 
ment as soon as he saw Alexander advancing, in order to 
allow of space for the battle, — a supposition which cannot 
fpr a moment be entertained. Besides the same objection 
concerning the non-mention of the Bumadus holds . good 
respecting the advance as well as the retreat, for it is. 
nowhere said that Alexander crossed the Bumadus in 
marching to Darius. 

But to return from this digression : Alexander returned 

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A?P. il.] BATTLE OP ARBELA. 305 

from the bridge of the Zab to his camp on the field of 
battle, where he arrived after an unexpected skirmish at 
night-fall (p. 517). Thus for Curtius. Arrian says Alex- 
ander pursued Darius till night-fall, passed the Lycus, and 
then encamped to. rest his troops. When some of his 
cavalry were refreshed, he set out at midnight for Arbela^ 
where he hoped to take Darius and his treasures. He 
arrived at Arbela the next day^ having pursued the fugitives 
for the space of about six hundred stadia^ but Darius had 
already left Arbela, and abandoned his treasures. Here 
again the distance of six^ hundred stadia from the field of 
battle to Arbela is positively mentioned. 

To resume* By Arrian^s account Alexander made one 
inarch from the passage of the Tigris to the place where he 
intrenched his camp, distant sixty stadia from Darius's camp, 
on the Bumadus, which was five or six hundred stadia from 
Arbela; and there were hills or interruptions in the interval, 
which prevented the one camp being seen from the other. 
Notwithstanding the great distance stated between Arbela 
and Gaugamela, Arrian says that Alexander after the battle 
crossed the Zab, and then encamped. This clearly throws 
all the distance between Arbela and the Zab. Now with 
their respective and relative positions we are well ac- 
quainted, and this shows the error of Arrian. According 
to Curtius, one march from the Tigris ta the intrenched 
camp, which was a hundred and fifty stadia from Darius; 
one other march (when the queen died), probably a shott 
one ; Darius now advanced (ten stadia) ; one other march ; 
in all three marches, two of which short ones. . ' . . 

Vol. II. X 

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306 [AF^.in;^ 



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other works, by Jacob of Edissa, written a.d, 1033. 
One hundred and tbirty^two leaves, in. quarto, 

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610 an OF sntiAc mm, Japp, iil 

40. A Comnifentfiry on the Qospebi by Dionysius '. Bar 
Salibi, written «ik.t>. 1516: Three hundred and 
twenty-eight leaves, in iblio, cotton paper* 

4'L A Commentary on the Apocalypse, the. Acts of the 
ApbstleS) and the £pistles of the New Testament, 
by Dionysiua Bar Salibi^ written probably in the 
fourteenth century. Two hundred and thirty-seven 
leaves,. in small quarto, cotton paper. 

42. The Horreum Mysteriorum^ a .Commentary on the 
t Sacred Scriptures, by Gregorius Bar«>Hebte,us» 

written probably in the fourteenth century. Two 
hundred . and twenty leaves, in quarto^ cotton 

43. Some Orations of Gregory of Nazianz, written pro- 
* bably in . the tenth century. . One huudi'ed and 

eighty leaves, in quarto, vellum i 

44. Fragments of a very ancient collection of> 
i-' / written probably in or before the ninth century. 

Forty-six leaves, in quarto^ vellum ^ 
^^ Theological Discourses,. ascribed to Hierotbeusi nfitten 

probably in the fifteenth century* . One hundred 
' ' and sixty-seven leaves/in folio, cotton pbpen 
>46i' A- collection of theological tracts by various authors^ 

written probably in the thirteenth century. : Three 

1 < * ittmdred and seventy-five leaves, in qgarto, vellum.^ 

'47. Fragments of the. controversial tracts Of Peter the 

* • Yotlnger, Patriarch of Antioch, again&t Damianns, 

* . • - Written probably in the; tenth century.. One hundrei| 

and-seventy*-three leaves, in quarto, vellum, 
<48s B'ragments and* short treatises^ chiefly theological, 
' written pMahtibly about the tenth century« Seventy- 
<' ,' sevea leaves, ia quarto^ vellum* . 
49. The " Book of Treasures '* of Jacob Bartelentfisi written 

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probably in the fourteenth century. One hundred 
and forty-seven leaves, in quarto, paper. 

50. The Ethics of Gregorius Bar-Hebrseus, written pro- 

bably in the fifteenth century. Two hundred and 
. sixty-six leaves, in quarto, paper. . 

51. The Ethics of Gregorius Bar-Uebrseus, written in the 

fifteenth or sixteenth century. One hundred and 
fifty*five leaves^ in quarto, paper, imperfect. 

52. The Ethics of Gregorius Bar-Hebraeus, written a.d. 

1705. Two hundred and fifty-seven leaves, in quarto, 

53. The Annals of Etias» Metropolitan of Nisbis; sub- 

joined are various chronological tables by the same 
author. One hundred and three leavesj in folio, 

54. The second and third part of the Chronicle of Gre- 

gorius Bar-HebrsBus, written probably ia the six- 
teenth century. Two hundred and twenty-six leaver 
in duodecimo, cotton paper. 

55. Various theological treatises, written probably in the six- 

. teenth century. Seventy-four leaves, in quarto, paper, 

56. Lives, of Saints and Martyrs, written about the thirr 

teenth century. One hundred and fourteen leaves, 
in larg^ quarto, cotton paper. 

57. The Syriac Grammar, of Gregorius BajrHebneus^ written 

.probably in the seventeenth century. Two hundred 
and fifty-four leaves, iu quarto, paper. 

58. Another Grammar of the Syriac language, in verse^^by 

Gregorius BarrHebrsus, written a^d. i5.6Q. Eighty- 
eight leaves, in quarto, cotton paper. . 

59. A Syriac Dictionary, explained in Arabicr probably the 

work of Josua JBar Ali,, written^ a.d. X679. Two 
hundred and fifteen leaves,.in quarto, paper. . . 

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312 [app. m 


Journal of Bearings and Distances, ^c. from Bagdad to 
Sulimania ; to the frontiers of Persia ;from Sulimania to 
Nineveh and Mousul; from Mousul down the Tigris fa 
Bagdad; and from Bagdad down the Tigris toBussorOf 

Bearings of the Compass^ Distances^ 4*^., between Bagdad and 

April 17. — ^Left Hajee Bey's garden at 7^ 15™ a.m., and 
iarrived at our camp near Dokhala, at 12** 45°. Yenijeh 
hence bore S. 20 W. ; Howeish, S. 60 W. ; Dokhala, 
N, 70 W., half a mile distant. 

April \Q. — Mounted at 6^ 15", a.m.; road to Toprak 
Kalaa. At 8^ 45° alighted at Seyid Mukhsen Pauk, a little 
imaum on a canal from the Khalis, At 9^ 45° mounted 
again ; and at IP 45° alighted at an old dry canal. From 
Toprak Kalaa, the general direction of our road N. 10 E. ; 
but we often turned out of it to avoid the deep mire. 

Bearings with the small surveying-compass from the 

Imaum Mujedid, S. 72 W., half a mile. 

Musabbah Khan^ N. 86 E., distant less than a mtle. 

Abdullah Ben Ali, S. 43 E., in the district of Khbrassan. 

Hediet, S. 43 W. in the district of Khalis. 

Nahr ul Aswad, S. 51 W., in the district of Khalis. 

Hopehop, S. 63 W. 

Doltova. N. 86 W. 

Bash Tchaier, or Kior Yenijeh, N. 53 W. 

© N. Limb., N. 70 W. ' 

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•AmP.-iy.] BAGDAD TO 8ULIMANIA, 313 

'April 19, 20.— Hat 

April 21.— Marched at &" 30", a.m. ; and at XO^ en* 
camped at Tchabook. 

April 22,— A halt. 

April 23.— Mounted at G^ IS'', a.m. We were obliged 
to turn out of our road, and to keep towards the Diala, 
on account of the water left by yesterday's rain. The line 
of Zagros, extending to the Tauk, formed the extreme 
boundary of our view^ as soon as we left the village of 
Tchubook, At 9* arrived at Delli Abbas. 

The following sights with the surveying-compass from the 
centre of the bridge of Delli Abbas : — 

Sheraban, S. 27 E., just in sight. 

Humbisy S. 34 £., in the district of Khorassan. 

Adana Keuy, S. 83 E., district of Khalis. 

Seyid Mubarek, S. 77 E., district of Khalis, two miles off. 

Seraijik, S. 66 W., district of Khalis. 

Nebbi Shayed, S. 60^ W., district of Khalis. 

Ajamia, S. 56 W. 

Aawashik^ S. 34 W., on the Diala. 

Beggawa^ S. 6 W., on the Diala. 

Direction of Tchubook pointed out, S. 35 W. 

April 24. — Mounted at 5^ 30"*, a.m. We could not go 
the direct passage from Delli Abbas over the Hamreen hills, 
on account of the waters which were out from the late rains. 
At 6*» 30"* arrived at the pass in the Hamreen hills, called 
Sakal Toutan. Here our road N. 10 E. At 7^ 30"^ the 
Toad to Baradan branched off. We meant to have gone to 
Baradan, but the Nareen was reported to be too difficult to 
ford, in consequence of the late rains. Our road N. 'At 
gh 25m Yfe left the mountain, and keefnng it close on our 
left hand, reached the bridge of the Nareen at 10*» 20*. 
Mounted again at ll^ At 12^ 40^y p.m., arrived at Kara- 
tepeh. Excellent going all the way. ^ 

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From the top of the mount at K<uratep^ I got ihef fol- 
Jowifig sights :— . . 

Sidalan, S. 45 E., one hoar and a half off; 
Baradan> S. 18 E., five hours. . 

Table Hill, over Shehriban in the Hamreen» S. 7 E. 
April 25.— Marched at 5^ 30°" a.m., N. 10 £., over the 
gravelly hills^ on the western declivity of which Karatepeh is 
situated ; slope extremely gentle ; descended then into a 
>mall valley; then over an arm of the hills; from which we 
descended by a long slope to the Tchemen bridge at 7^ 30™^ 
,thence N. to the broad torrent at 8^ 30™ ; over a plain 
and by Telescian. At 9^ 10™ alighted, just after entering 
on another elevation, also by a very gentle slope* At 9^ 40™ 
mounted again ; and at 11^ arrived at Kifri. 
. ^jjnY 26, 27.— Halted at Kifri. 

April 28.— Mounted at 5^ 40^ a.m. ; our road S. 75 W., 

across a range of gravelly hills proceeding from the Kifri 

hills. In like manner subordinate gravelly hills branch out 

from Hamreen above Karatepeh, and from the Zengabad 

range. At 6^ 30"* our course W,, still in the hilb. At 7^ 

left them, and entered the Beiat plain, which slopes down 

very gently.from the Kifri hills to the basin of the Tchemen ; 

^course N- 85 W. At 7^ 30"^ a ravine, with a small stream 

of raiu-water in it; thence N, 80 W. At S\ N. 55 W. 

At 8^ 20^, Kuru Tchai, a broad torrent bed, with a little raiiv 

.; water in it. Halted at Beiat camp. Mounted again at ^y 

^oad N. 45 W. At 9^ 30% Kizzel Kharaba, a.ruin on the 

,road. FromKii2aelKharaba,N.60W. At 10»^ 30" anoth^ 

4epeh> or ruin ; 10^ 45°^, large Beiat village; 11*^ 10", an^ 

other targe village. We have now lost sight of the Hamreefi 

JuUsj which were on om left all day, by their tunning off 

more Wr Toos&kl^oorniiattee now came in sight,. bearing 

^».20 W« Al^ut^ a -quarter^ of an hourbefpre cpmingto 

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mP.Mf} ^?A01>AP TO 8ULIMANIA4 91fi 

;Mo«kh00rii^a4tfte, wis passed the torrent ; it is called th^ 
AbspOi and comes down from Ibrahim {Chanjee. On our 
lisft, and distanft a couple of hours, we saw the village of 
X^iiijeb* which is on the present post-road from Bagdad tp 
Taoolt. At 12^ 30^ f.m., having crossed the torrent, ar- 
fived at Toozkhoormattee. 

April 29.— Halted at Toozkhoormattee. From the prin- 
pipal mound of ruins to the west of the town I had the fol- 
lowing bearings. 

. Yenijeh^ S. 71 W. Distant one hour. Niebuhr took 
an observation here. 

Qur house at Toozkhoormattee N. 67 £.^ one mile in 
a right line« 

A ruined castle in the pass, N. 79 £. 
. Direction of Taook pointed out, N. 15. W« 

Ditto of Imaum Door. S. 87 W. 
: jfyfil 30.--*-Still at Toozkhoormattee. In the evening, 
from the terrace of our house, took the following bearings. 
. , Yenyeh, S. 67^ W. True bearing, S. 60° 4' W. 

Taook, N. 24 W. 

Ruined castle, S. 84 £. 
c. Naphtha Pits, S. 67- B. Q N. Limb. N.66 W. at 
setting. Variation^ 7° 16' W. 

May l.^Iieft Toozkhoormattee at 5^ 80*"^ a.m.« Road, 
}4. 15 W- At &" 45-, N. 30 W. - We had the gypsous hilb 
close 9n our right. On our left, a plain inclined down by 
ji very gentle slope to the Hamreen hills, which were dis; 
tioclly visible at the distance of between three and. four 
bpars. They appear to make a bend here, or advance from 
the ' W.9 the nearest part to us being indented like an eni*; 
j^ttM wall| and bearing N. 85 W. The Adhaym passes 
the mountains half ad hour below this part, and below that 
again is Deniir Kapi. After the indented or notched part. 

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the chain appeare again to beod wesleriy. At 7^^ N. 45 W» 
Here the gypsum range appears^ but I believe does not 
leally terminate, or rather it becomes a low range of gravelly 
hills , inclining towards the W. At 7*» 20» our road N. 20 W, 
At 1^40^ the Minaret of Taook became visible. I went 
to a little hill, part of the gravelly branch, end bad the 
good fortune to see both Taook and Toozkhoormattee at 
once^ at the extreme N. and S. points of the horizon* 
Taook, N. 15 W.; Toozkhoormattee, S« 15 E. Hen<:a also 
I saw that the gypsous range appeared suddenly broken 
down at its north extremity, the' western edge of which 
sends out the gravelly line along which we have been tra- 
velling for an hour. On the east of the north abrupt termi- 
nation, it sweeps off easterlyi The intermediate ^spaoe is 
a basin, filled with pebbles or gravelly hills. At IC* we 
reached Taook Tchai, wliich rises in Koordistan a little on 
the right of our proposed road, and passing by Kara Hassan 
is there turned off into several streams. It forms the 
Adhaym when full of water, but when drawn off for irriga- 
tion it scarcely reaches the Tigris. 

We entered Taook at Kf" 20», 

The Ziyaret of Zein ul Abedeen, on a monnt^ hon 
N. 65 E. from our house. Distant two miles. 
' Maff 2.— Marched at 6^ 15^, a.m.; our road N., leaving 
the Kerkook road on our left to the foot of the hills. The 
Hamreen just in sight on our left. At 7^ 20" arrived at the 
village of Jumeila. We now began to ascend the range of 
hills ; that is to say, the western range of the fork^ sent out 
by the Kifri hills, at the place noted in my journal yester* 
day. They run N. W. to the village of Matara, from which 

they take their name*, a place noted in a former journal } 


* The elevation of the Matara hills is, I think, less than that 
of Hamreen. 

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Jl». rtr.] BAGDAD TO SULIMAKIA* 317 

they then pass by Tazee Khoormaitee, and soon afterwaids 
affe said to lose themselves. We reached at 7^ 4(r a pla^ 
tean, or extent of gvaveliy ruins in heaps or mld*looking 
f«rratvs. Our road N. 50 E. At 8^ came to other ridges 
of inclined strata. Road N. 65 E. At &" 45" reached a 
spot overlooking the plain or basin of Leilan^ whence the 
Mils slope gradually att<l gently to the plain. Here I got 
the following bearings — 

Leilan, N.< one hour and a half distant. 

Tepeli, N. 45 E. 

Piani, N. 60 E. In the hills, half a mile off. 

At 9>» 30" alighted; ait l(fi IS"* mounted again, and 
10b 45^ arrived at Leilan. From the spot where I set 
Letlan N., the road did not go straight to the village, but 
bent a little, for which an allowance must be made* From 
the terrace of the house where we were quartered, 1 per- 
ceived Kerkook, which I carefully set with the surveying* 
compass of telescopic sigbt, several times> in drder to be 
qmte sure. The point 1 set was the castle-faill, part of the 
town below it was visible through the telescope. 

Kerkook— Castle-hill, N. 24 W. +Var. 6^ 38' W. ; trne 
bearing, N. 30-38 W. Distance 10 geographical miles* 
The country between Leilan and Kerkook is a perfect plain. 
Tazee Khfoormattee is three hours off. The high hill Ka- 
t^ban^ I believ^e, or Karatchuk, bore N. 51 W. Just visible 
in the horizon. Q north limb at setting^. N. 64 W. Half 
a mile north of us the village of Yahyawa. 
. May 3.--We left Leilan at £^ 30» a.m., road N. 30 K, 
along the Leilan stream. In half an hour we reached the 
hi&i, which here rise at once from the plain into a plateau. 
On ascending the plateati our course whs N. 70 E. 

At 6** 45™ our direction was N. 25 E., and so continued 
for the remainder of our march^ having the Leilan water 

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on our left all the way. At 7^ 30"^ we descended Into '• 
valley formed by a little stream^.whieh rushes down to joift 
the Lellan. Here we halted for hAlf an hour, and then.rodo 
on, and arrived at Yusuf Aga'd canpp tit 8^ 30». Onr whole 
itage; deducting the halF-hour's halt, was two ht>ur$ and a 

May 4. — We mounted at 6^ 30"* a.m, ; road N. plong the 
valley of the Lellan water. At ©» 15« road N. 40 B. At 
&^ 30», N. 55 E. At 7^ N. 25 B. At T»20», N; 60E. Kt 
7M5»N.80E. At8\N.75E. 

We now left the Leilan, which has its' isource hard by^ 
ind crossed the range of hills goiifg abclut N, W. ; and 
what I call the plateau having ris6n gradiially to near itft 
summit, these hills differing in no respect from the plateaa* 
Here the streams run down to Koordistan. AtS^'dO"" wd 
descended by a direct but not difficult descent, N. 70 H^i 
which in twenty minutes brought us to the first Inndintf^ 
place. Hence we descended by an extremely gentle slope^ 
in N. 45 E., to Tchemtcheraal. At lO^' halted at TchemU 

I had some good sights with the surveying-compass, and 
there was luckily a horizon which enabled me to take eil 
amplitude for correcting the observations. 
The observations were as follows : — 

The pius of Derbent N. 54J E. Var. 7°*21. Tm# 
bearing N. 47^ e'E. 

Summit of Goodroon, N. 60 E. • 

( Keuy Sanjiak, over the Khalkhaliein mountans, N. 2i^ W. 

Distant twelve hours in a straight line. > 

^ Derbent i Basterra^or Basirra, in the Karad^gh mount* 

tains, 8. GI\ E. 

Seghirmeh. 8. 53 E. 

IKUeo mountain, S. 39 £. : ?. 

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An. IV.] BAGDAD 1*0 8UUMANIA. 819 

' fbrathtfti Khatijee, ihovA, 8. 23 £. 

Zengamh, 8. 49 E. 

Gbeshee Khan road to Kerkook. N. 87 W. Kerkook 
distant eight hours. 
. © north limb at setting. N. 62J W. Var. 7<» 21' W. 

We marched at &" 30" a.m., N. 10 E., to join the Ker» 
kbok road. At 3^ 15^ we fell into the Kerkook road, 
and proceeded on an N. 75 E. The ground became roor^ 
cut and furrowed as we advanced. The ravines, which 
are very deep, are made by innumerable little rills which 
flow from every part. I now begin to think that this trahi 
proceeds parallel with the Bazian, and then runs off to the 
Zeriganeh hills. At 9^ we arrived at Derbent 

We left the pass at 9^, and proceeded in N. 75 E. The 
viiUej soon opens, having the Bazian hills on each side. 
Ooodroon mountain was before us^ a little on our left^ 
Our road lay along the foot of the hills on the right of the 
V«lky. At ^ 45*^, E.J at 10»'&75 E. At 1O»^5=»W0 
tamed into a branch of the valley, which is here very wide^ 
in S. 35 E., to the village of Derghezeen, where we arrived 
at 10^ L5®. From the door of our tent the summit of 
Goodroon wai^ N. 55 E.« and an artificial mount, called 
Gopara, was N. 50 E. in the valley, at the distance of threa 
quarters of a mile. 

May 6. — Marched at 5^ 30* a.m. We directed out 
eoume across the valley from the western side^ where Derg-^ 
hezeen is situated, to the eastern hills, along the foot 
of which we afterwards kept. At 6^ 30" we reeHched the 
direct road. From this point Derghezeen bore 3. 43 W. ; 
the village of Bazian, N. 60 W. ; about two miles and il 
half off, under the west hills ; our road S. 30 E. We kept 
the hills which bound the valley on the east, close on our 
left hand. At 7^ 10=», S. 40 E. * At 9^ we turned off in 

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N. 75 B., and immediately ascended the hill, which we liad 
kept on our left all day ; and at 9^ 4Sr arrived in the vale 
of Sulimania. Sulimania was visible under the hills which 
bound the valley on the E., and which are the range of 
which Goodroon is a part« Our road was now S. 50 E., and 
at 10^ we arrived at our place of encampment. 

In the evening, from the door of the teat, I had the fol- 
lowing sights with the surveying-compass. 

Summit of Goodroon, N. 2 E. 

Kerwanan, the ruin on the little bills which appear to 
close the vale of Sulimania on the north, N. 6 W. 

Sulimania, S. 76 E. 

The Avroman mountains (about the centre), S. 50 E. 

Kilespeh, the artificial mount distant half a mile, S. 45 E. 

Map 7. — At 5*» 50" a.m. we mounted, and directed our 
course towards the Goodroon chain, in an oblique direction. 
Our road lay over hills sent forth by the Goodroon range^ 
and interrupted, with valleys. At 8^ we crossed abroad 
but shallow torrent called Tchaktchak, which descends from 
Goodroon. In five minutes more we came to the.Sertchinar^ 
The Sertchinar is only separated from the "Tchaktchak by 
a little eminence. On the east of Sertchinar, separated from 
it by a little hill, in like manner as it is from Tchaktchak 
on the W., is another stream, but less than either of the 
others. This and the . Tchaktchali are only torrents, which 
are I believe dry in the summer. They all unite in the 

May 8. — Marched at 5f' 40"* am., and pursuing our 
way gently along the foot of the hills, with much ascending 
and descending, arrived at our camp before Sulimania at 
6^ 40"». 

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Bearings of the Compass distances^ S;c, between Sulinvania^ 
Sinna^ Bana^ and back to Sulimania, 


July 17. — Left Sulimania at 3^ 40"", km., and took the 
Giozeh road to pass the chain of bare hills which bound 
Sulimania on the east. 

We reached the foot of the hills by a gentle ascent all 
the Mray from Sulimania, at 4^ IS"", and immediately began 
the ascent, first in .the dry bed of a torrent for a few 
minutes, and then on the steep face of the hill. At 4^ 50^, 
by a very steep path, we reached the summit ; hence Suli- 
lAania bore S. 75 W. j before us was the plain — I call it 
so merely to distinguish it from the hills (for, strictly speak- 
ing, there was not a level spot in it) of Suarojik and Sheh- 
ribazar, terminated on the south by a defile, whence either 
OUT mountains, or a branch of them, turned round and 
bounded it on the east*. 

Our descent was N., along the east face of the wall ; 
we arrived at the bottom at 6^ ; thus the ascent occupied 
thirty*five minutes, and the descent 6ne hour and ten 
minutes. The rest of our journey was N. 50 E. 

We halted at Benawillee at 6*» 15°*, and mounted again 
at 6^ 45°». At 7^ 30°*, descended a steep hill, and arrived 
at our Kmak, the village of Gherradeh, in the district of 

July 18.^ — At 4\ A.M. we set off, shaping our course 

* This is the Kurree Kazhav, running towards Kizzeljee. 
Vol. II. ' Y 

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due E. to the hills, or rather mountains. At 4^ 30" 
we went N. 50 E., on a ridge with a small dell on the 
left, and a very deep and large glen on the right which 
glen runs nearly E. and W.» and at its eastern extremity 
is shut up by a col, which divides it from another similar 
glen^ and the south sides of both these glens rise at once 
into a high mountain, part of the range mentioned above. 

Our road gradually ascended. At 5^ we reached the 
hills at an opening in them, corresponding with the col or 
east head of the glen on our right. Hence mount Goodroon 
bore N. 60 W. 

We now descended by a steep road, and kept winding in 
a defile of the mountains. The general direction N. 50 B« 
At ff' 20" we alighted. Mounted at 7^. Our road the rest 
of the way, N. 80 E. At 1^ 80"^, crossed the Tenguzhee 

From the banks of the Tenguzhee we rose immediately 
by a very steep ascent, which occapted thirty minutes at rs 
yood hard pull. On our right was the Tenguzhee, which 
has cut a passage for itself through the mountain. The 
descent, which commenced immediately, for what we crossed 
was a ridge, occupied half an hour, but was more gFaduat 
than the ascent Our level was consequently much higher. 
We now wound among the hills, ascending and descending, 
and at 9^ 40=», having turned out of the road south for a few 
minutes, arrived at the village of Doladreizb. On onr right, 
and not far from us» were the high mountains of Kazhan, 
or Kurree Kazhav. The face of the country was moun- 

July 19. — At 3^ 45°», a.m., mounted, and in a few minutes 
were. out of the little valley of Doladreizh. The general 
direction of our road was a little S. of E., but we wound 
much among woods. We soon began a steep ascent ; I think 

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the highest and steepest I had yet seen ; we attained the 
summit at 6**, the ascent having occupied forty minutes^ 
for half an hour of which it was almost perpendicular. 
Hence the Kurree Kazhav mountain bore due W.^ and 
seemed to run in a S. E. direction. Goodroon reared its 
bare rocky head in N. 65 W., above all the other moun- 
tains. We immediately began to descend into the plain, 
through which meandered the river of Kizzeljee, which 
afterwards ran through a vale on our left, and taking ft 
north course^ goes through the district of Siwel, and dis- 
charges itself into the Kiupri Soo. Its source is at the foot 
of the Persian mountains ; that of the Kiupri Soo is at 
Lajan. InBbout forty minutes we reached the foot of the 
mountain^ which runs nearly N. and S. here, or rather 
N. W. and S. E.; and here the road branches into two, 
that on the left going N. E. to Beestan, the capital of the 
district][of Kizzeljee, two hours oflF; and that t)n the right, 
about south to Ahmed Kulwan, the proposed place of our 

We rode S. along the foot of the hills. At 7^ 30"» we 
arrived at our cantonment under the hills, about one mile 
N. E. of Ahmed Kulwan. 


' August I.— We set off at 5^ 15", a.m., and keeping the 
hills close on our left, at 6^ arrived at the river of Kizzeljee, 
where it forces itself a passage through the moutitains. 
This place is N. from Ahmed Kulwan. We now left the 
mountains, and stretching across the plain, came to a line 
which branches out E. from them. Crossing this, we saw 
a vale, through which a river winds ; a similar line of hills 
bound it on the other side. The river is called Tatan, or the 
Beestan river. Keeping the mountains we had just crossed 


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on our right, we arrived at 7** 30" at Beestan. Beesten lies 
N. 10 E. by the compass from Ahmed Kulwan. Banna 
N. 10 £• of Beestan, five hours distant. 


August 13. — Left Beestan at 5^^ a.m. ; and riding through 
the plain of Tatan^ or Beestan, crossed the hiUs which sur- 
round it^ and descended into that of Ahmed Kulwan, or the 
plain of the Kizzeljee river ; crossed it easterly, and arrived 
at Penjween at 9, a.m., having been delayed a quarter of an 
hour on the way. From hence, our old station at Ahmed 
Kulwan bore N. 55 W., distant one hour's good pace of a 
horseman. The old castle of Kizzeljee N. 45 W. Caravans 
go in eight days from Penjween to Hamadan, to Sinna in 


August 20. — I resolved on setting out for Sinna, in which 
I have for my object the visiting the chain of Zagros, with 
its hitherto unknown pass of Garran^ and fixing the position 
of the capital of Persian Koordistan. 

We set out at 5^ a.m. 

At &" we entered Persia. The Kizzeljee river soon dis- 
appeared to the right^ behind the hills that now separate the 
plain, which turns more S. On ascending a little eminence 
at 7^ 30^°, we saw the lake Zeribar ; in the background 
were the wild rocky mountains of Avroman. 

Hitherto our general direction was about S. 70 E. Hence 
to Kai Khosroo Bey's tents bore S. At 9** 15" we arrived 
at the camp of Kai Khosroo Bey, about two miles S. of 
the lake. Surena bears N. Ardbaba, the peaked summit 
over Banna N. 10 W. The bare precipices of Avroman 
bear due S., and extend westward^ overlooking Shehrizoor^ 

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whose plainiB are separated from us by the hills which come 
down from Ahmed Kulwan to Peajween, and thence to the 
lake, and down to Avroman, which hills we have kept on 
our right all day. 

Between Avrofnan and Zagros is a narrow valley, through 
which runs a direct road to Kermanshah, called the Shamian 
road. Its direction is S. 35 E. Through it runs a little 
river, which comes down from Garran. 

The chain of Zagros is bare and high. It is visible at 
intervals froniijMrdbaba and Surena, which I am now satis- 
fied are part ofZagros, N. 10 W., and N. to S. 30 E. 

Hajee Ahmed, the part of Zagros to which the Jofs retire 
in summer, lies N. 60 B. 

August 21. — Mounted at 5^ 3(h, a.m., and proceeded 
down the valley formed by a prolongation of the hill of Me- 
rivan on the S., and of the hills of Zeribar on the N., 
in the general direction noted yesterday, viz., N. 85 E., 
and 7^ 30™ arrived at Gueiza Kwera. 

Augtist 22. — ^We were oflF by 5^, a.m., and proceeded 
through a hilly, but open country^ till 6^ ii^hen we came 
to the entrance of a narrow valley formed by two stupen- 
dous cliffs. The small river of Asrabad, or Garran, flows 
through the pass. It flows into the Diala. Our direction 
to the bridge, N. 70 W., thence S. 70 E. 

At 7^ 50" we came to the foot of a very steep ascent, 
still in the same direction, the road not winding much ; at 
a slow progress it occupied us forty-five minutes in ascend- 
ing. At 8^ 35°^ we reached the top of the col, and almost 
immediately began to descend. At 9^ 5™ we reached the 
foot of the pass — halted. This pass is called Garran. The 
pass of Ardbaba to Banna is easier. 

At 10^ 35°" we mounted again. Our road S. 70 £. At 

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11\ 90 E. At 11^ 45» we came to a little river, called 
Kakor Zekria* It £alls into the Diala. Heoce N, 70 E. 

At lE^* 15», N. 50 E. At 12^ 55~ we struck out of the 
high road up a very narrow valley, and at P 5" arrived 
at the village of Jenawera. 

August 23.— Mounted at 5^ 30», a.m., S. 50, E. till wo 
reached the road in half aa hour. The general direction 
then S. 80 E. all day. 

At 6^ 50^ an artificial mount in a narrow valley. After 
having ascended almost all the way froia|Jlenawara, we 
descended about a quarter of an hour, am arrived at the 
foot of the descent at 8\ We immediately rose again by 
a very steep ascent, of which we attained the summit at 
8^ 90°^« and had a fine view of the line of Zagros. Tbe 
descent was inconsiderable. 

At 9^ 10" we arrived at the tents belonging to th^ 
villagers of Berruder, in a narrow valley. 

August 24i. — At 5** 30*, a.m* we mounted. Soon after 
leaving the village we crossed a pretty high hill. Our rpad 
all the day wound through very narrow valleys, among the 
hills, through which ran a little stream, whose course was 
easterly. It goes towards Gavro and falls into the Diala. 
The Kakor Zekria runs westerly. It goes to Shamian, and 
thence round in the direction of Gavro^ and falls into the 

At 8^ we alighted on the banks of the little river. At 
8^ 40°^ we mounted again, and at 9^ 40" arrived at the 
village of Doweisa. 

Our stage to day was' three hours and twenty minutes. 
The direction northward of east. 

Sinna bears S. 10 E. of Doweisa, distance three farsakha* 

August 25. — Mounted at 6^ SO"", a.m« The country 

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more open. The level, as'^ne approached Sinna, descended 
to it« Behind the town it again rose, and after several 
breaks and hills, terminated in the high ridge of the Bazir 
Khani hills^ running N. and S. The roads to Hama- 
dan and Teheraun go over this range> which is of no great 

We proceeded slowly. When we came near the town we 
turned off to the right to the garden of Khosrooabad, which 
is less than a quarter of a mile from the town, in S. 60 W. 
We arrived at the gate of the garden at 9^ 50™. 


August 30. — At 5^ 45"% a.m. we quitted Sinna> imme- 
diately after leaving which we rose^ and continued gently 
ascending all the march. At 8^, on our left, saw the villa^ 
of Sarukamish. At 8^ 30°^ began ascending the height of 
Allah u Khodah^ whose summit we reached^ by a gentle 
acclivity, at 9^ 45°^. This mountain joins or forms the 
Bazir Khani range* and winds from Zagros, which we saw 
towering above all the Qther parallel ranges on our left. 
Before us were still hills ; also on our right, or east-south- 
fiast, N. 60 E. of us were the plains of B^n Leilac in the 
distance, with the tops of some high mountains just appear^ 
ing. Above us on all sides were craggy summits. We wound 
along the side of the hills for some time, and at 10^ 20^ 
began to descend by a very gentle descent. Tfiis mountain 
runs N. E. At IX^ 10°* we reached the village of 3aienkho, 
in the province of Hassanabad. Our general direction to- 
day due N. (allowing for variation). Our stage to-day 
called four farsakhs, which I find in this part of Persia is 
more than the hour. 

Atiyust 31.---lV!ounted at 5^ 40?°. N. 45 E. to a deU. 
At 6^ N- 15 W., up the dell At 6\15", N. 15 E.. ov^r 

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a hill. The rest of the f^ay due N. At 9^ 40» arrived at 
the tents of the villagers of Gulaneh. Guianeh^ a frontier 
village^ between the i^rovinces of Hasnabad and Kara 

In the evening got the following sights with the surveying 
compass; as also an amplitude for correcting them. 

A table mountain. On the other side of it is the town of 
Bijar> the capital of the district of Geerroos^ in Aderbijan, 
dependent on Abbas Mirza. Bijar^ distant eight farsakhs. 
Mountain, bearing N. 77 £. This mountain is part of the 
chain of Aivan Serai. Kara Towrow, a long flat mountain, 
where is the capital of the district of the same name, be- 
longing to Sinna, N, 42 £., five farsakhs. On the N., 
bounding the horizon, and coming round to Bijar, is the 
line of the Aivan Serai hills. Aivan Serai is a Koordish 
corruption of Ayub el Ansari, whose tomb they pretend is 
in these hills. Between us is a broken plain, looking like 
a troubled sea, that had*suddenly become solid. 

North limb at settings N. 72 W.— Var. T \V W. 

September 1. — Mounted at 5** 30™, a.m., and directed 
our course N. 70 W., to the hilly tract on our left. We had 
several ascents and descents. At 6^ 50™, a very steep 
descent to the Kizzel Ozan. Its head is about two far- 
sakhs oflF to the left, or W., in the Abbas Bey mountain. 
It runs easterly, and goes hence to Maiendoav. 

Immediately after passing the Kizzel Ozan we ascended 
again. We aire now evidently at a great elevation above 
the sea. All this part seems to be a plateau intersected by 

At 8h 30", N. 15 E., in a valley which gradually nar- 
rowed into a ravine. At 9^ 30"* we ascended the extremity 
of it; then N. 16 W. to the village of Kelekowa, situated 
in a valley, into which we descended, and arrived at the 

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village at 9^ 55*". Passed through the village^ and proceed- 
ing N. 40 W., up the valley, came to its termination, where 
the tepts of the villagers were pitched. Here we halted 
at lO*" ib°^. We are now in the district of Hobetoo, and 
still on the Tabreez road, which we quit to-morrow. 

September 2. — We mounted at 6**, a.m. The valley con- 
tinues in a north direction, and through it runs the road to 
Sakiz and Tabreez. Our road lay over the hills which form 
the valley, in N. 70 W., in which ^direction we continued 
the whole of the day, though with some windings. 

The country rose gradually, but very perceptibly, from 
the moment we left the village. We were on a plateau, and 
surrounded by craggy summits and lines of hills terminating 
in the plateau. One on our left adjoins Hajee Ahmed, 
and covers it from us. Hajee Ahmed is about S. W. of 
us, distant four forsakhs. All the line of hills appear to run 
N. E. and S. W. to Zagros. 

At 8^ we desoended by a steep road, which occupied 
about a quarter of an hour, into a narrow valley winding 
between high hills, in which we continued the rest of the 
march. We alighted at 9^ 30^ at a little spring. Mounted 
again at 10^, and at 11^ arrived at the village of Soormoosi, 
in the district of Khorkhoora. 

September 3. — ^Mounted at 6^ a.m., and continued wind- 
ing in the valley about N. 60 W. At 6** 46* we left the 
valley, which continues on to Doulet Kalaa^ and struck over 
the hills which bound it on the S. Much winding ; first 
N. 80 W. We wound round the mountains. At 7^^ 30» 
we descended into a narrow glen, and immediately rose 
again ; and at 8^ 20" turned W., in which course we con- 
tinued, winding considerably the rest of the way. At ff* 45*, 
we descended to a little stream called the Khorkhoora river. 
Tchialtchemeh, a considerable mountain, where the stream 

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980 8INNA TO BANNA« [apP. IV, 

vbich falls into the Kizzeljee rises^ was on our left. Khosroo 
Khan^ a chain of moontainsy on the side of which^ under the 
summit^ is the village we are going to, before us. Sakiz is 
about N. W. of us, on the other side of the Khosroo Khan. 
The coiirse of all the mountains is from S, W. at Zagros^ 
to N. E., where most of them lose themselves in the plateau 
we have passed. Hence we ascended up the sides of a 
locky glenj and at ten o'clock arrived at Kara Bokhra. 

Sakiz, the capital of the district^ is due N. of us, distant 
six farsakhs, by a very bad road ; or seven^ by a rather better 
0Qe, It is on the other side of the Kliosroo Khan moun* 
tains. From Kara Bokhra to Serkhuari i Shelal, the capital 
of Teratool, four hours. Thence to Beestan^ four hours. 

September 4. — ^We left the village of Kara Bokhra at 
0^ 16F^, a.m. ; and^ quitting the glen, ascended the hill which 
joins the N. side of it to the fort, in N. 25 W., which we 
attained in ten minutes. We then wound along the tops 
of the hills W. for five minutes, and then S» 35 W. At 7^^ 5°' 
we began to descend in S. 20 W., and reached the bottom at 
7** 38". Here we found ourselves in a narrow rocky valley 
among the hilU, in which^ and in its ramifications, we cour 
tinned the rest of the day. The road continually ascended 
and descended. 

From the mountains we saw mount Khelli Khan^ with 
Zagros> or a part of it. From the foot of the mountain^ 
S. 60 W. At S^ we reached a village named Hajee Ma- 
boqunedan ; thence rising a little^ we suddenly descended to 
the village of Soota. Here we stopped at 8^ 30°". At 
9^ 45« we mounted, direction S. 40 W. At 9*^ 50" N. 80 W. 
At W" 30", S. 70 W. Here we descended, and crossed 
the little stream which occupied the bottom of the ravine, 
and at 10^ 55°^ reached the village of Seifatala, where we 
halted. AtlP30"wemQuntedagain. At 1^ 30» halted : 

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^ta^mooiiMi aDdal2>'15",N.40W.; we arrived nt the 

village of Meek at 2^ 45^. Meek is in the difttriot of 

September 5. — ^At 7^ am., we left Meek, and ascended a 
hill by a long path, which occupied ten minutesj to a point 
which bore S. 20 W. from the village. Here we j?ound 
the hill to the place from whence the descent to the village 
of Bayandereh commences. Halted. At 10^ 30°^ mounted. 
At 11^ 45°"^ having ascended considerably, we reached the 
top of the steepest ascent we had yet seen. It occupied 
above half an hour. It is called Kelli Balin. and is just i^ 
col joining two mountains, which are part of Zagros. The 
two mountains here form a valley^ which goes to Banna* 
Our general direction to-day was S, 70 W. 

At 1^ 15°" we arrived at the village of Surene. Surene is 
situated in a valley formed by two branches of Zagros. The 
west one seems to be the hill we crossed laterally, coming 
to the' vale of Bayandereh. From the col to the village it 
is about S. 70 W. ; it then turns off more south, and returns 
fgain to Banna. The three points which we saw from 
Ahmed Kulwan and Zeribar are about S. 50 W. from Su- 
rene, and Banna lies in N. 83 W« 

September 6. — I^ft Surene at 6** 5°, a.m., and proceeded 
through the valley. At 7^ passed on our right hand the vil* 
lage of Bjae. Soon after the valley and mountains wound 
more southerly. At 7^ 35"» a pass opened through the moun- 
taina leading to Kizzeljee. At 9^ 35°* we arrived at our sta- 
tion at Ahmedabad, on the Ardbaba hills, part of the west 
chain of Zagros, just ten minutes' walk of a horse, S. 20 £• 
of Banna* 

Our tents were a little way up the hill of Ardbaba, the 
peaked summit of which is just over us S. 20 W. 

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The following directions were pointed oat to me from our 
Camp: — 

Sakiz N. £• ; distant six farsakhs. 

Saook Bonlak N. 10 E. ; thirteen farsakhs. 

Serdesht N. 25 W. ; six farsakhs. 


September 10.— We left Banna- at 12^ 30~, p.m. ; road 
N. 45 W., through the plain. At 1^ entered a narrow 
valley. At V' 45", N. 80 W., still in the valley. At 1^ 45", 
W. ; ascended a little ridge out of the road ; reached the 
village of Swearwea at 2^ ; S. 68 W. of us is a high cu- 
riously-shaped mountain. 

September 11. — At 7^ 30™, a.m. left Swearwea; and 
returning to our yesterday's road, which we reached in ten 
minutes, we proceeded in N. 75 W. through the valley. - 

At 9**, where a vale opened into it, we struck off our 
road in N. 15 W. to the village of Nweizhgeh, situated on 
the hill that bounds the vale on the W., which we reached 
at 9** 30™ ; our road to-day mostly level 

Bearings at Nweizgheh : — 

Ardbaba, pointed summit^ S. 49^ E. 

Place where our camp was, at Bantia, S. 53 E. 

Another pointed mountain, S. 70 E. 

September 12. — We marched at 7^ 25"^, a.m., and pro- 
ceeded S. 15 W. to the road we had quitted yesterday^ 
which we reached at &". We then went S. 50 W., and 
soon began to ascend . A 1 8** 40"*, halted for twenty minutes.' 
At 9^ 40°^, halted again on the summit. The mountain we 
are crossing is called Bloo, and runs nearly N. and S. ^ 

At 10^ 30°", after a short halt, we mounted again ; and 

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in a few minutes came to the top of the monntainj from 
whence we descend into the Bebbeh territory *. 

Our descent occupied above two hours^ with very little 
interruption : it was very steep. At 12^ 30™ we arrived at 
the bottom^ at the Berrozeh, or Banna water. It separates 
Persia from Turkey. It runs N. a little W.> andialls into 
the Altoon Soo, above the Karatcholan waterf. We did not 
quit the river much, hut kept it on our right. At 1^ 45" 
arrived at the village of Merwa, in the district of Aalan. 
Themountains here run about N. E. and S. W. Beyond 
a cleft called Bree they increase in height ; and under this 
height lies Beytoosh, in N. 35 W. 

September 13. — Set off at T^, a.m., and immediately com- 
menced ascending the hill« towards the sununit called 

At &" 16°» reached the village of Deira. Halted. 
Mounted again at 9^ 10°^. We continued ascending, but 
gently ; and at 9^,45°^ reached the highest part, which forms 
an Alpine summit. The spot is called Hazar Kanian or 
Ijie one thousand springs. Innumerable springs start from 
the ground ; those on one side run down to the N. towards 
the Berozeh water, while a little farther on they escape 
down to the S.^ and join the Siwel water. We are now in 
the district of Siwel> which began on our leaving the village 
of Deira. 

We had attained the highest part of our ascent ; but still 
at a considerable height above us was Gimmo^ and its fellow 
summit. We continued along under them. No road could 
have been better chosen to give me a notion of the chains 
and connexions of mountains. Parallel with us was the 
Soorkeo range, which, as I suspected^ forms the Kizzeljee, 

* That is to say, out of Persian into Turkish Koordistan. 
t The Karatcholan water joins the Altoon Soo near Shinek. 

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334 SHEfitltBAZAR. [aPP< tV« 

or Tariler mountain. It sends forth a branchy ^hieh sweeps 
round from the 8erseer mount| and then joins or forms 
that on which we now are. Our road due S. all day. 
Behind, or S. of this, is the Kurreh Kazhav mountain^ 
running about S. E. towards the Tariler. The country be- 
tween broken hills, ascending to either range respectively; 
At 10*^ 25°^ we halted ; the southernmost of the two summits 
was just over us. Gimmo just before Hazar KatilaiL 
Detained till IP 30*°. At P we began descending, where 
the line of hills diminished before meeting Serseer ; and at 
2^ arrived at the village of Kenaroo, in the district of Siwel. 

Serseer^ due S. of us, distant about a mile. Our road 
to-day was along the back, or ridge> of the Siwel mountain. 

September 14.— At &^ 30», a.m. we mounted ; road due 
S., down a glen to the foot of Serseer. At &^ 45" turned 
out of the glen to cross the continuation of our chain of 
yesterday, where it joins Serseer in S. 30 W. At 7**, 
desceoded to the Siwel river, which runs by the foot of 
Serseer, then turns N. a little W.^ and joins the Karatoholan 
river at Mawrutt; after which they both run to the Altoon 

We continued in the same direction until 8**, when we 
descended S. 10 W., into the plain of Shehribazar. We 
now recognised our old friend Goodroon, and the Giozeh 
hills bare and regular, extending like a rampart, as far as 
the eye could reach. On the N. W., high^ rocky, and bare 
mountains, apparently connected with Goodroon^ and run- 
ning towards Serdesht. 

At 8*^ 40™ we descended into a deep valley formed by the 
Karatcholan river/ where the town of Karatcholan, the old 
capital of Koordistan^ was situated. We alighted at Suli- 
manava^ a garden-bouse just outside the town. 

N.B. The Siwel water is formed by the Kizzeljee and 

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APP* IV. 3 MOUNT A2MIR. 835 

Bee^ian streams. It funs by the north side of Serieer, The 
Karatcholan river is the same as the Tenguzee, which it 
joins in the direction of Doladreizh, and runs through the 
Kurree Kazhav mountains. Just opposite the site of th^ 
old city, it receives the Tchungura^ which comes from 

Bearings from Sulimanava, near Karatcholan : — 

Karatcholan, S. 70 E.» half a mile. 

The top of Azmir road, S. 30 W. 

Serseer (the centre), N. 65 E. 

Goodroon, N. 75 W. 

Koorka, a high round mountain, in the distance N, 43 E« 

Koorkoor, N, 30 E. These are both connected with 
Azmir, and form the line we saw from Merweh. On this 
side is Ghellala and Shinek ; on the other Merga. Azmir 
runs to Khoshnav. Gavian is about N. 80 W. 

The province of Shehrizoor winds round easterly. 

Giozeb, or Azmir, touches Avroman, and then is said to 
run through Zehav to the Tank. 

The Kurree Kazhav begins at Giozeh, and slants south- 
east up to the Tariler. 

September 15.— We mounted at ff* 10", a.m. Our road, 
after leaving the vajley, or hollow bed of the Karatcholan 
Tiver, ascended gently the whole way. At 7** SO"* we reached 
the foot of Azmir, and in ten minutes began to ascend the 
steepest part, by a road which zigzagged up the face of the 
hill. At 8^ we reached the summit; our direction has 
hitherto been S. 35 W. We now went S. for five minutes, 
on a level along the top of the hill ; and at 8^ 3" began to 
descend, still S. At 8** 30» we reached the bottom of the 
principal descent, and proceeded still S., and descending 
gently through a narrow valley formed by the mountain. 
The level descends from the foot of the principal descent to 

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Salimaiiia^ in about the same degree, as it rises from the 
Karatcholan to the foot of the principal ascent 

At 8** 50™, S. 45 W., through an opening in the moun- 
tain, into the plain of Sulimania, in which we arrived at 9^. 
Hence Sulimania bore S. 20 W. At 10^ we reached our 
tents at the Tcharbagh, or Pasha's garden, at Sulimania. 

I have thus finished a journey productive of much advan- 
tage. I have inspected a most curious and interesting part 
of Koordistan, scarcely any point of which is known ; and 
the routes I pursued, which often depended on mere acci- 
dent, always turned out to be the best for giving me a 
general idea of the country, and the very ones I. should have 
chosen to survey it, had I previously known enough to form 
a general plan of proceeding. 

Jtmmal of Bearings and Distances, 8fc. from Sulimania to 
Nineveh and Mousuly through Arbela. * 

October 2i. — Left the Tcharbaugh at Sulimania at ©^45™, 
A.M. Course N. 80 W. At 7^ 30^ N. 60 W. At 7^45°^ 
at the Tanjeroo, about a mile and a half below Sertchinar ; 
it runs S. At 7*^ 50^ N. 80 W. At &" 30^ N. 60 W. 
At S^ 35°^, village of Barun-mirdeh : thence, S. 70 W., to 
the village of Kelespee, watered by a little stream going S., 
a little E., to the Tangeroo or Sertchinar river. Goodroon 
just opposite. The W. range of hills about two miles and 
a half off. They grow higher as they proceed southwards. 
Farther on, behind Goodroon, appears Koorkoor. Halted 
for the day. . 

Bearings, from our station^ with the surveying-com- 
pass: — 

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Lower part of the Giozeh road^ and Salimania^ S. 81 E. 

Summit of Giozeh, S. 62<' 3(y E. 

The garden of the Tcharbagh, S. 80 E. 

East extremity of the Avroman mouDtains. That part 
seen fr(Mn Zeribar ; which bore the same appearance 
hence^ only it was brought in one with Zagros» 

Hallebjee, about S. 46 £.% Not sure— direction pointed 

Khulambar, & 50 E. ] out. 

The plain runs about S. E., winding. , 

Azmir, the summit, about N. 75 £. 

A sharp point of Goodroon, N. 3 E. 

Summit of ditto, N« 4 E. 

Kerwanan, N. 20 W. 

The place where to-morrow's road crosses the moun- 
tains, N* 65 Vl^, 

October 22.— Mounted at &" 20«, a.m. Course N. 70 W.. 
on account of a morass. At 6^ 40°*, N. 80 W, There is a 
road to Keuy Sanjiak which passes by Kerwanan, and 
keeps through Soordash, along Goodroon ; distant fourteen 
hoars. At 7^ 10°^ came to Taslujee Mount, The ascent 
very gentle: the descent something greater; the vale of 
Baziaii, into which we had now come, being lower than 
that of Sulimania. We arrived at the bottom at 8^, but 
continued N. 80 W. till 8»» 10°^. 

At &" 10^ N. 20 W., keeping the hills close on our 
right At 9^, N. 60 W., across the vale to the line of hills 
which divide it. At 9^ 40"* reached the line of hills, and 
kept it on our left. Course N. 40 W. 

At Iff* 25™ turned S. 80 W. to the village of Derghezeen. 
The division hills also turned nearly in the same direction, 
and soon gradually finished. We arrived at Derghezeen at 
10^ 50°^9 and occupied our old ground. 
Vol. II. Z 

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Bearings with the surveying-compasB i— 

The flat or perpendicular crest set from Sulitnania, 
whence it bore 65® 56', and put down as Avdalan. 
N.B. Avdalan is a village, the other of Sulimania 
side of it. N. 32 E., to N. 22 E. 

Goodroon, under the summit, N. 57 E. 

Karadagh, highest summit, S. 39 E. Distance ten hours. 

Seghirmeh, S. 34 E. 

Derbend i Basirra, S 35 E. Distance five hours. 

Keuy Sanjiak was in about N. 35 W. 

Bitvvein, N. 20 W. 

One road to Keuy Sanjiak goes through Derbend i 
Bazian. Distance said to be little more than to Kerkook, 
or about fourteen hours. 

Another road leads up the valley of Sulimania, by Ker- 
wanan, along Goodroon, through Soordash^ and out at 
Derbend, N. of the Derbend i Bazian, and called Der- 
bend i Khalti-ban. 

N.B. Both the Derbend and Taslujee hilh join and ter-* 
mtnate at Khalkhalan. 

October 23— Mounted at 6^ 30^ a.m., N. 20 W., wp 
the valley formed by a small line of hills just behind D^rghe- 
aeen, and another similar one opposite, also coming N. W. 
from Derbend, and running to Bazian* At 6^ 40% 
N. SOW. At6^50», S. 70W. At 7»» 20°» passed through 

From the pass of Derbend we continued S. 70 W. Be- 
fore us rose tiie little furrowed line of hills of Ghesbee Khan^ 
and Kara Hassan, running N. W. and S. E. On our right 
hand the level of the country sunk at once, as if it had 
fallen in, to the depth of more than one hundred feet. 

At 7*^ 35°^ We descended into this bottom, in N. 25 W., 
and kept in it the remainder of the way. At 7** 50", 

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N. 40 W. At &" 20«, the vilkge of Sheikh Weisi. Here 
we found we had come a little out of ouk* way, and we 
tami^ to S. 45 W. At 8^ 45" reached the true road, 
N. 75 W, 

. At ten, N. 45 W. At half-past ten the village of Qhoza- 
Ian. At eleven, S. 45 W. The level begins to rise again. 
Road broken and hilly. At IP 40», S. At 12*^ 10"» thrived 
at the Village of Ghulamkowa^ in the district of Shuan. 
Time of the mdrch five hours and forty minutes. 

The Karadagh runs up to Derbend i Bazian, and thence^ 
after running a little way straight^ like a wall, it turns a 
little W.) and forms the hill of Tchermala, which we left 
behind us. Thence it turns more W. and Forms that of 
Khalkhalan, on our right The road to Keuy Sanjiak is 
over Khalkhalan. The Karadagh diminishes in height all 
the way from the Seghirmeh, which is very high, and towers 
above all the other mountains, in the distance. Tchermala 
and Khalkhalan are inconsiderable. 

Bearings, with the surveying-compass, from the height 
above the village of Ghulumkova : — 

Derbend, centre of the pass, due E. 

Summit of Goodroon^ N. 76^ E. 

Karadagh, the saddle back, S. 50 E. 

Dilleo mountain, 6. 40 E. 

Ibrahim Khanjee, S. 35 E. 

Khalkhalan, the centre, N, 7 W. 

The Kerkook hills appear hence like a fiat plateau, 
descending by a step, broken and furrowed, into the tract of 
country between them and Derbend. 

October 24.— Mounted at 6^ 15"»j a.m. Course N. 70 W. 
Ascended out of the narrow ravine in which Ghulumkova is 
sitiiated. The whole country cut into deep abrupt ravines. 
We passed two very deep and difiicult ones ; the ascents 


Digitized by 



more considerable than the descents ; and, still rising, we 
reached the village of Ghuilkowa^ in the district of Shuan. 
From Ghuilkowa our road S. 70 W., winding along the tops 
of this furrowed and hillocky country, which resembles^ and 
is indeed a continuation of, Kara Hassan. At 7^ 30™ 
a road branched off a little S. of ours to Kerkook. Our 
road still S. 70 W. At 8^ IS*" halted ; Keuy Sanjiak hence 
due N. At 8^40°* mounted again; road N. SOW. At 
9^ 50™ arrived at the village of Kafar, in the territory of 
Kerkook. Here we quitted Koordistan. Time of the march, 
three hours and thirty-five minutes. 

In the afternoon, from a mount behind the village> got 
the following bearings with the surveying-compass : — 

The rock Avdalan — I could not make it out clearly ; it 
was only pointed out to me — N. 85 E, 

Kandeel, a part of Zagros, N. 25 E. Keuy Sanjiak in a 
line with it. 

Goodroon, N. 85 E. 

Derbend, S. 85 E. 

Khalkhalan, centre of, N. 40 E. 

North limb, at setting, S. 83 W. True amplitude^ 
14° 40'. Observations ditto, 7° 16'. Variation, 
r 24' w. 

To the S. of the Kybeer hills was quite a level surface, 
though furrowed and broken towards us. On the W. were 
two long, low lines of hills ; those nearest to us were the 
Kybeer; those next to them, the Kashka Dagh, or Ham- 
reen hills. Kybeer continued in N. W. Behind was Ka- 
ratchuk. Hence to Khalkhalan an open horizon. 

The waters here run to the Kerkook river, or the 

October 25. — Mounted at 6\ a.m.; road N. 30 W., 
descending into a valley watered by a stream. The valley 

Digitized by 



gradually widened out into the plain of Gieuk Dereh. At 
& 30", N. 60 W. ; still in the valley. At 1^ 20»», village 
of Omar Bey Keuy. At ©"entered the fine wide plain; 
road N. 60 W. The Kybeer hills, stretching from our left 
up before us ; the plain extending to the foot. On our 
right a continuation of the broken hilly country we have 
just left, stretching N. W., as does also the Kybeer. The 
latter winds or bends a little. 

At 10^ 30«» N. 35 W. Gieuk Tepeh, a village, and arti- 
ficial mount on our left, due W., less than a mile from the 

At 10»" 40"», N. 55 W. At IV' 15°^ another mount, close 
on our road. At 12** 30"* arrived at Altoon Kiupri. We 
descended to the river over immense beds of pebbles. We 
passed over the high sharp bridge, then through the town, 
over the other bridge, and encamped on the flat open space 
to the N. W. or right quarter. 

Time of march six hours thirty minutes. 

October 26. — ^Marched at 6**, a.m., N, 35 W., through the 
area left between the river and the broken hills, or higher 
country, which begins above Altoon Kiupri. At 6^ 20™ 
the road to Shemamik broke off on our left ; our road N. 
At &^ 30" came to the termination of the area. At first 
detached sand-hills, then the level of the country rising ; on 
our left furrowed, sloping up to Kybeer. On our right, at 
a greater distance, a continuation of the broken hilly country 
we had left, here called Hallejo Bistana, a province of Keuy 
Sanjiak. Behind this again the prolongation of the Azmir 
mountain ; higher mountains peeping behind. The village 
of Makhsuma on our left, and close by us a little river, 
running into the Altoon Soo ; thence N. 15 W. At 1^ 30", 
N. At 9>>, N. 15 W. At 9»» 30% N. At Iff^, N. 10 W. 
At 10*^ 45", the camp of Paris Aga, the chief of the Dizzei 

Digitized by 


342 suLiHANiA TO Lapp. i^. 

Koords. At 11^ dGF, halt At 12>^ 30», mounted ^n, 
road N. At 1^ 40^ came in sight of Arhela^ bearing 
N. 10 E. At 8^ 40°", arrived at Arbeli^ and encamped ^t 
Hajee Cossim Aga's kareez^ or water-course^ S. 60 W. of 
^he town. 

Time of the march, nine hours forty minutes. 
' !Karadagh here appears to divide itself into two hiU^> but 
in the same line. The centre of one bears S. 20 W., the 
other, S. 50 W. 

The Christian village of Ankowa^ due N. two miles. 

Shemamik, an old castle, which gives name to a district 
«mder ArbiL lying along the Tigris, S. 80 W.> distant six 
or seven hours. 

Kushaf) where the Zah falls into the Tigris, is twenty 
hours off. 

The plain« in some places^ gently undulating^ but no ele* 
vations or depressions worth mentioning. 

Mount Makloobe appears alone in the distapce^ bearing 
N. 46 W. 

October 29.— Marched at 5^* 45^ a.m., N. BOW. At 
^ 40"* the village of Reshki on the left hand of the road. 
The country a little more undulating than that to the S. 
of Arbil. The mountains retire and form a bay eastward. 
They then advance again about the Zab to the westward* 
I can now distinguish several chains of mountains. 

From Reshki we marched N. 20 W. At 7^ N, 60 W. 
At r^ 20"^, village of Jalghamata, N. 20 W. At 7* 40«*, 
N,60W. At 7^ 50^, N. 30. W. At8^, N. 65W. 

Weather cloudy, so I cov^ld not set the minaret ^1 Arbil 
as I had hoped. 

At &" 45^, Girdasheer, a little fort, N. 60 W. This is 
called half way to the Zak At 9^ XOr, Little Qirdashe^r 
on the right of the road. Course N. 70 W. At 9* 25ri 

Digitized by 



S. 70 W* At 10^ 30", W, Our level seemed now to 
^acend« Tfae Z»b oa our right. The village of Elbesheer 
on it. At 11^ Sr, the village of Kellek, on the high 
pebbly banks of the Zab. The opposite bank retires, below 
it advances^ and this bank retires, leaving a plain of from 
one to one and a half miles in extent, in which the Zab 
divides itself into two or three streams. We descended into 
this plain in & 40 W., and passing two branches not above 
^ few inches deep> at 11^ 40"^ arrived at the main streao^ 
under the right bank. Crossed on a raft. On the cliff is 
the Yezid village of Eski Kellek, where we halted for the 

The mouth of the Zab is at Kushaf^ five hours off. 

The junction of the Ghazir, or Bumadus, with the 2ab, 
three hours off. 

Bearings with surveying^compass. 

A mount on the high bank of the Zab this side, called 
Zeilan *. The junction of the Bumadus is in this line, be-i 
yond the mount, in S. 33 W. 

Kushaf and the mouth of the Zab, S. 30 W. 

£lbesheer> N. 56 E.lone hour. 

Hinjiroke, N. 60 E.jBoth on this bank. 

The frontier of Amadia is just above Elbesheer. 

New Kellek, N. 63 E. The other bank. 

A poiaked summit of ^ mojuntain, said to be near JuIih 
merk, where the Zab rises, N. 42 E. 

The Bumadus^ or Gbaur, rises about three hours beyond 
Akra, and joins the Zab three caravans, or two horseman's 
hours below Old XeOek. 

October 30.— Marched at &" 25"^, a.m. The country 
rises by two steps to its proper level from the river. We 

* Where there are rmns of a t^wn. « 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


maicfaed N. 60 W. for ten minutes, then having ascended to 
the level of the conntry, N. 35 W. At 7^ due W. The 
country between the rivers undubting, but not broken or 
sbrnpt. At 1^ 50^ we came to the Bumadus or Ghazir 
Soo* Like the Zab it has a high pebbly bank alternately 
letiring, and leaving a plain between it and the ordinary bed 
of the riven We still kept W. through this plain, with 
the river on our right ; the village of Minkoobe was above 
on its banks. At 8^ 10°^ we forded the river. The village 
of Zara Khatoon at a little distance below the ford. The 
W. bank is not so high as the E., and the country gradually 
subsides into an immense plain, perfectly level as far as we 
could see. From the river, N. 50 W. 

At &" 30^ N. 68 W. We have brought Mont Karatchuk 
in mie with Makloobe^ which it covers. 

From the Bumadus we proceeded more rapidly than 
before. We arrived at the Chaldean village of Kermelis at 

The march from the Zab to the Bumadus is called two 
hours and a half. 

From the Bumadus to Kermelis, two hours and a half. 

Behind the village, about half a mile N. 80 W. of our 
tents, is a high mount. I ascended it to take some sights. 
I succeeded but indtSerently, the evening was dusky and 
squally, distant objects were imperfectly visible^ and the 
needle not very steady. I could have tal^n angles with 
the sextant had the atmosphere been clearer, and the sun 
visible* However this is not of much consequence, as the 
bearings cannot be much out for ordinary purposes; and 
for a more particular survey, I propose visiting this spot 
again, as it seems to be a good station. 

From the mount, with the surveying-compass : — 

Terjilla, a village on a height at the end of Karatchuk, 

Digitized by 



or Little Makloobe^ on a rising ground^ vbich is a prokm* 
gvtion of the mountain, one hour from Kermelis» N« 72 £• 

Sheikh Emir, a village just below TeijiUa, N. 76 £* 

Shah KooU, under little Makloobe, N. 68 E. 
. Mar Daniel, a ruined church, on the centre and highest 
part of Litde Makloobe, N. 36 K 

Mar Mattei, half way'up the Greater M^kloobe, N. 15 B. 

Highest part of Greater Makloobe^ set from Arbil| 
N. 9 E. . 

Bartella. N.20W. 

Our road to Mousul, N. 75 W. 

Village of Karakoosh, S. 42 W. 

October 31. — Mounted at 6^ 15^ a.m.> rode over the plain 
till 8^ when the country became again unequal. The plain 
still continuing at a distance on our right. At 8^ 30™, still 
higher ground; we lost the plain in every direction, and 
descended to a ravine, called Shor Dereh. At 9^ 40" came 
to the beginning of the ruins of Nineveh. Shortly after 
came to a well ; halted for ten minutes ; then rode on« 
passing through the area of Nineveh, under the village of 
Nebbi Yunus, on our left hand. At 10^ 25" we arrived on 
the banks of the Tigris ; ferried over to Naaman Pasha's 
garden, S. of the town of Mousul. 

Stage called four hours } we did it in four hours and fif- 
tete minutes. 

Digitized by 


946 SyUMAKIA TO [aPP. IVt 

Rouieftvm 8%dimania to AHoon Kiupri calculated. 



CouM. : 





h. m. 



N, 86 W. 


• • 



Q n 

N. 66 W. 






N. 86W. 


• • 




N. 66 W. 






S. 16 W. 





2 40 


Diflf. l«t, + 2 


?i. atW., Dep. 1. 






• • 






• • 












N. 26 W. 


• • 

+ 1'3 


0. 40. 



• • 

-1-0 -8 



N. 46 W. 


• • 

+ 1-4 



S. 74 W. 


• • 



4 25 



+ 3*0 
N. WW. 2*1 Dep. 9'1 9 miles. 

Digitized by 







Course. Dist^ncei 


Dlff. Lat 


h. m. 



N. 26 W. 


Up the valley to Derbent •^0*4 



N. 86 W, 


1 • 




S. 64 W, 





ft 15 

S. 64W. 


To the sunken country 



» 15 

N.31 W. 


To the bottom 



ft 30 



Sheikh Woisi 

+ 1-0 


ft 25 

S. 39 W. 


• • 

— I'a 


I 15 

N, 81 W. 


• • 




N. 51 W. 



+ 1-3 


e 30 

• • 


• • 




S. 39 W. 


Level begins to rise 

— 1*2 



S. 6E. 


• • 




• • 

— 1-5 


5 40 



Diff. lat. 



Dergbezeen to Derbent, ^ 

[. 85W. 0-2 2-0 2 miles. 

Derbent to Gulumkowa, S. 84 E. T 8 16-9 17 miles. 




N. 76 W. 






S. 64 W. ,, 


A road to Kerkook 






• • 




N. 86 W. 


• • 



3 10 


N. 85 W. 




Derbent, N. 88 E. S. 86 E. 8 miles. 

Digitized by 




Time. Course. Distance. Place. Diff. Lat. 0ep. 

h* m. Miles. 

30 N. 37 W. 1 To the valley +0^4 0*3 

50 N.67W. 2.5{I-tg;SrBef}+l-0 3-2 

40 — 2*5 The plain +1*0 2*3 

2 30 — 7 GieukTepeh +2'1 6-4 

10 N.42W. 0-5 .. +0-3 0*3 

35 N.62W. 1*5 ATepeh +0'7 1*3 

15 N.62W. 3*0 .. +1*4 2*6 

6 30 18 +7*5 15-5 
N.64W. n miles. 

Latitude of CaflFar by observation 35® 39^ 00" 

+ . 7'30'' 

Latitude of Altoon Kiupri 35** 46' 30" 

By obwrvation . , 35° 46' 1" 

Error . 29" 

Digitized by 


APP. IT.] 


JFVofii Mousul to Bagdad, by the Tigris. 

Saiurday, March 3.-.Binl»rked oa b. keUek or raft, at tbe PtoWi gardea, 
at 10 A.M. 

Left Bank. Course. Right Bank. 

Left at 10. 
Yaremjee. 10»»40« 

Minaret, N. 27 W. 

Yaremjee, N.45 K.,half 
a mile. 

ShemaeddinTepeli, like 
a gmaller Yaremjee. 

500 yards below it the 
village of Shemseddin, 
and close to it Kiz Fak- 

The Shot Dereh of Lek- 
ler joins the liver just N. 

Kis Fakera, N. 

10 45 

10 53 At the hills; an 

elbow of the river, 
which now runs 
S. 20 W. 

11 10 Minaret, N. 20 


11 35 Minaret, N.20W. 

12 Minavet,N,20W. 

S. 70 E. 

Kam Koyunli, a Turko- 
man village. The coun- 
try hilly l^hind, or rather 

12 15 

12 30 

War. War of Ka- 
ra Koyunli, large 
stones, now under 
water; it crosses 
the river diago- 
nally, then re- 
turns to the hills 

Mar EUa, N. 45 W. 

Abddurrahman Bey's 
kiosk on the difik. 

A village of the Alba- 
juaree Arabs on the samii 

Umiikseer, another vil- 
lage of the Joarees. Soon 
after these cliffi seem to 
terminate, and another 
range beg^s; a valley be- 
tween them; the village 
not near us. 

Albu Juaree, N. 70 W. 

12 45 S. 15E. 

Kibritli. Sulphur springs 
on the bank in the second 
range, after which that 
range slopes down and 
gradually terminates, and 
another begins. 

Digitized by 




[app. it. 

Left Bank. 

little lulls. 

A vilUgie behind the 
tittle hills, called hj the 
Arabs HaT Asian, and by 
the Turkomans Tagtchee 
Kbaiaba, behind a hind 
of natural moont called 
Yagtchee Tepeh. Turko- 
mans, close bj a ravine of 
sulphureous water. 

Nimrod's mount before 
us; a mount of a pyra^ 
midal appearance. 

Hameira, a 



Selamia, or Selami, just 
on the declivity of the 
hills, which then quit the 
river and run S^easterly 
towards Karakosh, keep- 
ing on the W. of it. There 
was a large city here 
once. After Seliuni ihe 
country rather more open 
and level. 

I 25 a 70 E. 

1 45 S. 43 S. 

Islands and shal- 

2 10 S. 45 W. 

« 25 ». 20W. 
2 30 S. 20 t. 

2 35 Doe &. 

2 45 

S. 45 E. 

A new teal>h of 

the river. 

3 10 New Reach. 

3 15 

This reach of the 
river, which is 
S. 60 E., has been 
recently produced, 
or rather aug- 
mented, by the ri- 
ver, directing its 
principal current 
this way. It has 
cut down the hills 
on its £. bank. 
We now heard the 
roaring of the Aa- 

3 35 S. 70 W. 

Right Bank. 

Tel Aartig, on the right 
bank, but fiu off, a monnt 
and village under the 

Hills teiminating to la- 
ther receding. 

Tel Zebid, < 
AIL Country rather open. 
Nimrod's Tepeh, having a 
pyramidal appearance, S. 
20. £. 


Another line of hills, 
coming from the N. W. 
and joiuing the river just 
below theZikr ulAawazeh. 

Digitized by 


A*. tvO 

BV ttLH f lORIS. 


Jehaina, a large village. 

Left BafA. Course. 

Jireff; a small village. Btouffht to at 4*^, 200 
yardi aDove the Eikr ul 
Aawazeh Reach, 8. 70 W. 

Both sides of the river highly cultivated all the way from Mousul wherever it 
was possible, and villages cousUiatly in sight. I only note the principal ones. 

March 4, 

Sent the kelleks round the next reach, and set bff on foot the first thing 
this morning to inspect the ruins of Ninurod, which I take to be Larissa. 
We had a walk of 4y, in N. 45 E., to the pyramidal tnound. Traces of ruins, 
like those of a city, to be seen to the N. a little way, and to a g^at distance E« 
I ascended the mount, from whence I had the folioiring sights with the sur« 
veying compass : — 

Mar Daniel, N. 27 E. 

Tel Sebid, N; 32 W. 

The high mount of Keshaf, IS. 1 1 W.> three horse 
man's hours. 

N.B. A catch of tlie Eab visible ttnd^r Keshaf. 
Seekh, a mount, two olr three miles o#, S. 56 £. 
Tel ']\diimm8,orTnifle mount, S. 25 B., five miles. 
Tel Gundis, 9. 30 E., three or four miles. 
The bearing of the course of the Tigrih, S. 
Easternmost promontory of Karatchuk, S. 34 E. 
Summit of Makloobe, N. 18 £. 
Mar Mattel, N. 20 E. 

The Dakhma, or Hallab, seen by tis from the 
Pasha*s garden at Mousul, N. 37 W. 
Kurdek, Sk 77 E., 3^ horseman's hours. 
Karakoosh, N. 44 E.. 3 hours, just oi'**- and hidden 
by the Selami hills, which run off S. E. 

Kidder Elias, or Mar Jirjees, a famous monas- 
tery of the Jacobites, due E., 2J hours. 
Tel Agoob, the smoke visible, N. 65 A., 2^ hours. 
Omerakan, N. 30 E., 2^ hours. 
Selami, N. 11 W.,lhour. 
We returned to where the kelleks awaited us, in S. 55 W», thirty-five more 
minutes moderate walking* We found them in a long reach, N. and S., about 
half in it. 
At ]2»» 15" got under way. 

Left Bank. 


liight Bank. ' 



1 85 

River leaves the 
hills, and runs 
S. 80 W. 

Hills. Another railgt 
seems shortly ta saee«e^ti 

Digitized by 



Left Bank. 




PSrst month of the Zab. 
There are two, separated 
bv a pebbly island. The 
clear blue waters of the 
Zab boa up aud repulse 
«be muddy stream of the 
^^*r. ^^^^^f H mile 
up the S..baiikof theZab. 


1»» 30« Sikr, or Zikr Is- 
nuwL Another dyke or ar- 
tificial impediment We 
crossed it near its W.end, 
some dancing of the kel- 
lek* The water boiled 
considerably. It is either 
not so high, or has been 
more mined than the Awa- 

[APP, IV. 
Right Bank. 

2hTied up at the village 
of Shemoota, on the left 
bank, on account of the 
rtrong southerly squalls. 

! Keshaf m sight, looking 
as considerable as the 

mount of Arbela. A little 

m from Shemoota, a mount 

called Tel Sitteihh. 

4" 12« Left Shemoota, 

4 20 W. to Jibel Jaif. 
4 30 


4 40 S. 45 W., broad 


Tel Sitteihh, N. 15 E., 
several other mounts in 

4 45 

and with islands. 

Then S. _ 
cliflfs of JibelJaif 
close on the river, 
which is here nar- 
rower. Nimrod, N. 
Island in theTigris. 

5 9 S. 30 £. 

5 13 Both branches join. 

5 25 Tied up just below 
the second mouth 
of the Zab, on the 
pebbly bank. 

Keshaf, U mile 


Sulphur springs in the 
cliffs, which are of layers 
of sandstone, and ruinous. 

Digitized by 


APP. IV.] 



March 5, 

At KM* 30*" AM. 1 got an observation for the time, and at noon wm fortunafe 
enough to get a great many circum-meridian altitude! . Just at that time some 
■moke ascended from Kyara, which enabled me to set it in S. 15 W.| said to b« 
five hours by the river. Eski Keshaf^ S. 30 W. 

At 12^ 15"* P.M. we got under way* 

Left Bank. 

^ High ; a bed of concre- 
tion, near 15 feet thick, 
resting on a basis of sand- 
stone, in some places just 
visible above the water. 
The ground above une- 

Sski Keshaf, a ruined 

A mount* 

Tel Sheir, close on the 
left bank. 

Sultan Abdullah, on a 

Remains of the village 
of Deraweish. 

Unequal ground. 

Hekook, a mount, with 
some mounds about it, like 
Nimrod, but of less di- 

Vol. II. 



Island. Our pas- 
sage by the left 

12 35 

12 30 £. 
12 55 S. 45 W. 

1 5 

1 10 

1 15 
1 30 

Karatchuk in all 
its length, from 

S. 20 W. 

S. 10 W., end of 
the island. 

S. 45 £. 

Sultan Abdullah, 
S.25 E. 

1 43 S. 45 W. 

2 E^ 

2 15 S. low. 
2 20 S. 40 W. 

River broad. 

2 52 N. 80 W. 

3 10 S. 

3 23 S. 40 W. 

River here seems once 
to have run more easterly. 
Hi^h and dry banks now 
taking that curection. 

Right Bank 

Hills terminate gradu« 
ally at their point Mur- 
shek, the burial place of 
the ancestor of the Albu 
Selman Arabs, marked by 
a rude monument. 


Tullool Nasir, low 
mounds, as of ruins. Jeh- 
beish Arabs. 

Line of hills, cut down 
by the w- afterwards 
more open. 


Digitized by 




[APPi IV. 

Left Bank. 
OpeD,verdaQt| aud level 


The Minshar rapidj 
or breakers* 

Right Bank. 
Open> verdaot, and l«vel. 

3h30m 8. 

3 4§ Stop for the night 
on the right bank, 
near Kyara. 

Bearings from the Station, 

SuUaQ Abdullah, N. 57 £. 

Mekook, N. 80 R. 


Karatchuk, S. 84 £. to N. 65 E. 

Kyara ; naphtha springs in the desert, fl. 43 W.) dis- 
tant 3 miles. 

The reach of the river, N. 35 E., S. 35 W. 

Umursek, opposite the mouth of the Zab, N. 56 W. 

On the right bank, a 0ne open verdant country. In the horixon hills, pro* 
liably the Hamreen, some broken lines of hills nearer. One very straight fine, 
-beginniug N. 22 W. of us, distant about 3 miles, and running up in N. 35 £., 
farther than I could see. A little building on hills, coming frum the N. W. to 
S. E., bearing S. 62 W., five or six miles distant. 

Left bank, something like the eounti'v above Mousul, not quite so much fiir- 
rowed, except towards the water. The nigh country, or now dry bank, sweeping 
more £. than the present channel of the river from the top of the reach, and 
returning to it at the end about half a mile lower down than our station. Sur- 
face of the country pretty level and open. 

Qot under way at 5h 25^, a.m. 

3farck §. 

I did not begin ^o observe until 8** 22«'. 

Right Bank. 

Left Bank. 




Tel Jeloos, a mount just 
behind us. 


Broad ; many chan- 
nels. Open country 
all around ; the left 
bank the flattest. 
Some brushwood ; 
all around beauti- 
fully verdant. 

Tai Arabs; 

8 30 

S. 45 E. 

Large encampment 


8 45 



8 55 

9 15 

9 25 

Kyara, N. 10 E. 
8. 40 W. 
8. 20 W. 

LiuQ of the Ham- 
reeo hilla in front 
of us. 


^itized by 


APP. IV.] 

Left Bank. 

Tulool Agger. Three 

Arab encampments. 

A little jungle. 

Tai Arabs. 

Level and open, and as 
green as an emerald. 

A line of low hills, run- 
ning a little S. of £. 




9 46 S. 

9 55 £., Great confu- 
sion of islands and 



10 10 
10 16 

Stop on the 


11 10 Got under way, 

S. 20 W. 
11 25 S. 
11 36 S.40E. 
11 45 & 
11 55 S.20E. 

12 5 S.20W. 

A boiling current 
and whirlpools, cal- 
led Kharbata, for- 
med bylarge stones 

12 15 S. 20 E. 

Vei^ rapid ; ruins 
begin with the 
mount, called To- 
prak Kalaa. 

12 35 End of ruins. 

Bfany channels in 
the river. 


12 45 S. 55 W. down to 
the Hainxeen hills. 

i 4 Turn sharp, S. 45 
E. along the Ham- 

2 Leave the Ham- 
reen ; course E. 

2 30 Rounded into S. 
40 E. 

2 33 Nemla. 

2 37 Ff^rraj, a rapid. 

Rigkt Bank. 
Some broken hills. 

Toprak Kalaa, a mount 
of earth, surrounded at 
the foot by a ruined wall. 
Here the territory of Mou- 
sul ends on the W. side. 

Hamreen hills; an eddy 
formed here, called Kha- 
nu^a, much dreaded when 
the river is high, and the 
current rapid. 


Digitized by 




[APP, IV. 

Left Bank. 

A long and low mounts 
on it the tomb of an Al- 
bodish Sheikh. 


Flat; green, open coun- 

2h 4501 The Hamreen hills 
again, but not very 
close to their feet. 


Course S. 
S. 30 £. 

3 9 S.40W. 
3 20 

Rounded up into E. 

3 35 Treisha, a rapid, 
a 70 E. 

Right Bank* 

3 54 
Small hills. 4 26 S. 

4 43 Tied up for the 
night on the right 
bank, just oppo- 
site the mouth of 
the little Zab« 

Sights with the Surveying Compass, 

Mouth of the Zab, S. 42 E.. the breadth of the 
Tigris between us ; the W. bank of the Zab formed 
by hills. These are the hills which have formed the 
left bank of the Tigris for the last twenty minutes. 
On the E. bank of the Zab the country is quite flat 
and open. 

Muk'hol, N. 62 W. 

£1 Fath'ha, S. 22 E. 

S. 75 W* of us, the Khauuza hills seem to ter^ 

March 7. 

Muk'hol Kahia. Ham- 
reen visible through an 
opening in the hills, on 
which it stands, which are 
called the Muk'hol, or 
Khanuza hills ; they run 
in front of the Hamreen, 
and are like them in every 
respect, except that they 
serpentine more,the Ham- 
reen being pretty straight 
in their course. 

A curious bank, cut 
down by the river. 

Open country io the 
Khanuza hills. 

Left Bank. 


5h 45m X, M., got under 
Way, turned into 
S. 45 W. 

6 Kfelab, arapidand 
whirlpool, dreaded 
by the Kelleks. ' 

Right Bank. 

Digitized by 


APP. IV.] 



Left Bank, 

Tel Hamlis, a small 
mounts just opposite Jeb- 

Left bank grows un- 

Strange unsightly sand- 
stone hills and mounts. 
Tel Dhahab just below 

The same curious heaps 



7 Musahhaj. 

S. 15 £. 
7 40 

8 25 Under the Ham- 
reen. Stop on the 
right bank near 
one hour, below 
Jabbar, at which 
it was impossible 
to bring tlie kel- 
lek to. 

10 20 Got under way 

S. 45 £. 
10 30 S. 

10 52 E. 

11 N.60E. 

11 15 Obliged to bring 
to, on account of 
the violence of the 
wind. 1 av£uled 
myself of the stop- 
page to get an ob- 

Fat'hha, S. 15 S., 
about two miles in 
a straight line. 

1 25 OBf again. 

Right Bank^, 

Terminafion of the 
Khanusa hills on th« Ti- 
gris ; interval between 
them and the Hamreen 
hills, filled with a confu- 
sion of mounts and debris, 
tossed up in the most fan* 
ciful and unsightly man- 
ner. These continue to 
the front of the Hamreen 
on the river. 

Hamreen ; Musahhaj 
before it. 

Keep the Hamreen on 

the right. 

Jebbar Kalaasi, or Ka- 
laat ul Jebbar, the Ty- 
rant's castle. A ruin, a 
little way up the Ham- 

Very high earthy cliffs, 
evidently debris from the 
Hamreen, which are 
about one mile from the 

Digitized by 



teft Bank. Course. Right Bank. 

Tel Dhahab. 

An Arab tomb 

In the pass on the left, 
among debris of the 
Hamreen hUls, naphtha 
and nitre springs. 

Some low hills. Ham- 
reen running down on our 

Leg- leg. Concretion 
hills, and strong currents 

it'se^s. low. 

2 2 Fat'hha,S. 25E.; 
but the river 
makes one or two 
short turns before 
the passage. 

2 15 Breij; a rock and 
bad rapid, at a 
turn in the river, 
close to the left 

2 31 El| Fat'hha, the 

pass through the 
Hamreen ; the 
river runs through 
in S. 30 E., and is 
about 150 yards 

3 A place where the 

river forms many 

S.10W. . 

3 32 S. 50 W. ; river 

broad. Many is- 

4 11 S. 
4 30 S.30E. 

We have had 
good going from 
the pass ; all day 
before extremely 
bad, on account of 
the high and con- 
trary wind, which 
has now abated. 

5 15 S. . 

5 55 Brought to for the 
night, at an is- 
land. Hamreen 
visible to a great 

El Fafhha bear- 
ing N. 5 K. 

Country pretty open, 
but not very low or allu- 

Albu Mahommed Arabs. 

Khan Ehemina, S. 60 
W.J two very consider- 
able tepehs or mounts, 
and close under them 
large ruins : a very curious 

Just south begins a low 
range of hills, or rather 
elevated strip of countiy^ 
with a flat surface, called 
Jebel Khemiua. It runs 
to Tekreet 

Digitized by 


AFP. IV.] 

BY THE TiOlliS.. 


Left BatUi 

Some water-wheels and 
cultivation on the islands 
and left bank, belonging 
to the Jowari Arabs. 

Water-wheels belong- 
ing to the Albvi Mahom- 
med Arabs. 

7 45 


March 8. 

Got under way at 

•>45»highS. E. wind. 

7 30 when I began to 
observe, Fat'hha 
bore N. 10 W. 

Gourw S.; very 
slow going. 

& 40 E. Fat'hha 


Hamreen on both 
sides, extending 
from N. 25 W. to 


S. 60 £. 
S. 35 W» 
£1 Fat'hha, N. 


S. 30 E. Our 
going extremely 
slow and difiicult. 

S. 65 E. 

8 5 
8 20 
8 40 

8 55 


Right Bank. 

9 5 E. 

9 55 Stopped, or rather 
driven by the wind 
against the left 
bank, where we 
stopped till 4^' 

Tekrit, S. 5 W. 

Abu Khalkbalan, 
S. 85 W., 1 mile.. 
The reach, S. 45 
E., ^ mile« 

4 15 

Got under way* 
S. 45 E. 

At the Kheruina hills. 

4 20 S. 70 W. 

On the Khernina hills, 
the tomb of Kereim Abu 
Khalkhal, a son of Imam 

The Khernina hills 
from this make a turn 
more southerly, and then 
sweep round again. 

Digitized by 




[APP. IV ♦ 

Left Bank. 


Open country. 

Right Bank, 

Khemina cliffii again, if 
pebbly soil ; about 0119 
hundred feet higlu 

Hamreen in sight 

4 55 S. 

5 S. 45 E. ; river at 
least 1 mile broad. 
Open country. 

5 7 S.20E. 

ElFat'hha,N. 10 

Tekreet about S. 
10 £. 

5 15 S. 

5 30 AtSelwa,thecave 
of the Syien, in 
the Khernina 

El Fafhha, N. 10 W, 

A cape in the Kliemina hills, which, from the Selwa, 
make another bend in, and return again near Te- 
kreet ; that iS| in feet, only the country cut down by 
the water, the river having evidently at one time 
passed by them. From Selwa our course S. 

6»«40»S. low, 
5* 50" A violent squall from the W., which drove 
us on the E. bank. The squall lasted so long that 
it was not worth while to get under way again after 
it was over. The ruins of Tekreet begin a little be- 
low us, on a high perpendicular cliff. 

March 9, 

b^ 30« Got under way. 

6 Tied up, on the 
bed of pebbles be- 
fore Tekreet. 

Alhadr is two long days off, in N. 30 W. ; said to 
be W.from Kyara. 

Saw the p3rramid, pr rather, cone of Door, S. 8 E* 
4 hours. 

The Hamreen visible from N. 20 W. to N. 70 E. 

El Fat'hha, N. 10 W. 

A caravan just leaving Tekreet for Kerkook. It 
sleeps at the Hamreen^ and tbe next day arrives at 

Digitized by 


APP. IV.] 






The Tekieet reach 
of the river, 8.60 

12 20 8. SOW. 

12 50 8., at the clifis 

RiglU Bank, 

Open and level* 

1 11 8.30E. 


1 21 S. 70 E. 

Auja, a little itnam 
comingdown through the 
clifft. The cli A continue 

their own Ibe, and leave 

a flat countiy between 

them and the river. 

1 50 & 

Hamreen per- 

fectly clear and 


iBlands cultivated ; be- 

1 55 S.15W. 

hind them undulating 


2 15 8. 

2 31 8. 60 E. 

Islands; behind them 
ihe cliffs. 



Hamreen visible 
beyond Tekreet. 

Undulating pebbly 

2 40 S. Island. 

The Khemina cliffs # 


good way in. 

• Imam Door. 

2 55 River broad. Is- 


3 5 S.30W, 

3 10 Hheimra, a Zikr, 
or obstruction, not 
extending far from 
the left bank. 

3 15 S, 

3 20 S. 30 E. 

3 24 Ruweiahh, a Zikr 
just like Hheimia. 

Pebbly high banks. 

3 30 S. 

3 35 S. 30 W. 

3 40 

Tel el Mehaji; consi- 
derable tumulii some way 

Digitized by 




[API*. IV. 

Left Bank. 

A Nahar ; said to be a 
canal dug by King Solo- 
mon, and to go as far as 

Eski Bagdad, on the 
high pebbly cliffii. 

the pebbly hills sud- 
denly turn in, and make 
a sweep easterly. 

Esld Bagdad still on 
the clifis; heaps of rub- 

High clifi& again. 

Still ruins. 

Still mills. 

Square enclosiire, called 
Thinars ; seems to be the 
end of the ruins. 

Pebbly hills run in- 





3 50 S. 20 E. 

4 5 S. 45 £. 
4 25 

4 25 S. 30 W. 

4 35 S. . 

4 40 S. 70 E. 

4 55 

5 5 

S. 10 £. 

Mosque of Samara 
bears S. 10 £. 
Course S. 

S. 55 E. 

5 50 S. 20 B« 

5 55 Si 4d W. 


6 10 

6 20 S< 

Samara^ 6. 35 E. 

7 20 Samara. 

March 10. 

12 35 Gotunderiray. 

12 50 S.30W. 

I S.30E. 

1 20 Samara, N. 

Right Bank. 





Kabr u Seid; 6 lump 
of concretio% formiaK a 
rapid on the right bank. 

Some more lumps, said 
to be the remains of the 
bridge of Ashek. 


Digitized by 



Left Bank* 

Nahar el Erflas, the 
head of the Nahrawan 
canal. On it a square 
briek buildings ieemintfly 
of the age of the Caliphs, 

A place called El Sa- 
nam the Idol, or Nabga. 

Sassaniaa nuns, at Qa- 
desia, or Kadesia. Sa- 
mara boie N. 20 W.; the 
building at the mouth of 
*the Nahrawan, N. 40 W. 
The Nahrawan runs at 
the back of Kadesia, at 
about one mile distance. 



a 8. 

2 12 S. 50 E. 

Misrakjee Khan, which 
we have long past, bear- 
ing north. 

2 38 Stop. 

4 15 



Right Bank. 

Mouth of the Dajjeil, a 
little below that of the 

Istablat; mounds of 

5 35 

Got under 

S. 30 E. 


Brought to on the 
left bank. BuUd- 
ing at the mouth 
of the Nahrawan, 
N. 36 W. 

March U. 

Off. Began to ob. 
serve at 

Course S. 30 E. 

N. 70 E. 

8 15 
8 25 
8 40 

8 45 




S. 80 E. 


S. 30 E. 

S. 20 W. 


Beled, the principal 
village of Dujjeil. Mina- 
ret and date-trees a little 
way in from the bank 

Khan i Seid. Tomb, of 
Seid Mahommed a little 
below it. 

Digitized by 




[aPP. IVf 




The river all the 

way this morning 

has wound great- 

ly, and formed a 

great many is- 
lands and chan- 


9 50 

N. wind high. 

10 10 


Khan iSeid, bear- 
ing N. 20 W. 

11 30 

OS again, N. 

Miiraga, high alluyial 

11 45 


12 20 


12 40 

S. 30 E. 

12 51 


The junction of the Ad- 


E. Stop, 

havmand the Tigris 
AahAjm is the 


stream that receives the 

Kerkook, Taook, 


Too^hoormattee waters. 

Now ahoiit one hundred 

yards wide. 

1 30 

Got under way 



N. 70 E. 

2 20 

S. 10 E. 

Very slow going. 
Scarcely any cur- 

3 25 

S. 50 £. 


3 40 


3 54 

S. 70 £. 

4 15 


Date-trees on th^ 
Khalis in sight* 

4 20 

S. 20 W. 

4 32 


Before us Tel 


4 40. 

N, 70 E. 


Right Bank. 

Steep banks of pura 
mould. We are now in 
the alluvial country ; not 
a pebble to be seen. 

4 50 E. 

Digitized by 


APP. IV.] 



Left Bank. 




5 20 


Tel Khmneiua a litUe 
behind itf. River makes 
a great bend east. 

6 25 

S. 30 W. 

5 30 

S. 80 W. 


Brought to for the 
night at Sindia, 
the first village of 

Here we found 
our yacht. We got 
ou board at night 

March 12. 

5 30 

The yacht got un- 
der way. 

7 30 

When I came on 
deck, we were 
going S., and just 
below the village 
of Mansooria. Di- 
rection of Sindia 
pointed out to me 
in N. 10 E. 

7 45 

The following vil- 
lages inland :— 

Jedidat ul Agba- 
wat, E. 


Doltova and Alia- 
but in one, N. 55 

Jezzani, S. 70 E. 


Course S. 45 E. 

8 25 

S. 45 W. 

8 40 


9 e 


9 20 

Offagain.S. lOE. 
A long reach. 



10 20 

S. 20 W. 

10 55 

S. 60 W. 

U 10 

N. 60 W. ; long 


Digitized by 



Left Bank. 


Right Bank. 

n>»30mS.40W. Yenj?- 

hijeb, N. 80 E. 

11 35 

Aground again. 

11 50 

Off again. S. 40 

12 10 


12 35 

Slow going. 

I 5 


1 15 

S, 35 E. 

I 40 

S. 30 W. 

1 50 

W. 5 TCry slow 

2 20 


2 45 

S.; good going 

First of the Bagdad 


S, 20 E. 


3 10 

S. 35 W. 

Open country on both 

3 25 

S. 10 W* 


3 35 

Kazemeen village 
S. lOE. The old 
canal^ extending 
farther than I 
could see, N. 

3 40 

S. 45 £. 


Driven against 
the high bank. 

4 15 

Off again. S. 20 


At the Nuwaub's 
garden, then E. 

5 45 

S. 15 W.; the 
reach of Imam 
Aadhem or Aa- 


B.; the Pasha's 
garden-re a<;h. 

6 5 

Opposite the 

6 20 

S. 20 W. 


6 30 

B. 45 E.; the 
reach into Bag> 

Digitized by 


AHP. JV.] 


From Bagdad to Bwtora, by the Tigris. 
Left Bagdad for Butsora, Mif II, 1821, Wind 8. E. 

Left Bank. 


Right Bank. 


^ got undar way. 

S. 45 £, 

River nearly at 
its highest. 



round into S.25E. 
from the Bastion. 



8. 20 W. 


S. 45 W. 






S. 45 W. 


Islands still. 


^at the right bank, 
then S, 



Shat el Aateek, an old 
branch of the river, now 
only full at high water, 
or when the river is full, 
and then even shallow. 



Kaaemeen, N.25 


9 20 N. 70 E. 



N. 45 B. 



Dhunnana, from 
"whence at 



roxmd into 
S. 70 E. 




N. 45 E. 




round into S. 

Outrey's garden. 

;Bajee Abdulla Aga's 



S, 10 R 
a 30 E. 




Digitized by 




[aPP; iV^ 

Left Bank. 

Tauk Kesra. 

The Bostan, or end of 
the ruins of Tauk Kesra, 


RiglU Bank. 

1 AttheDiala. 

5 30 Anchored at our 
old station. 

Station near Hod- 
heifa, at Tauk 

Maif 12* 

5' Got under way. 

6 S.45W. 

Tauk, N. 35 E. 

6 15 At the mouth of 
the ranal called 
Abul Hiti, I be- 
lieve to be a cut 
from the Nahar 
Malca. . 

Abul Hiti. 

From Abul Hiti 
rounded g^adually 
by S. inte S. E., 
and then £. 

6 45 N. lOE. 

6 55 N.45E. 

Hharrea, scattered 
mounds of ruins to a great 

7 20 N.20E. 

7 30 N. low. 

7 35 Rounded into E., 
and then S. 40 £. 

8 to S\ 45'» Could not 
disengage our- 
selves Irom the 
left bank. 

8 50 S. 20 E. 

Tauk Kesra, N. 
50 W. 

9 30 Turn gradually 
into S. 45 W» 

10 S. 

10 15 S.45E. 

Al Hammam> nuns 
scattered about. 

Tauk Kesra, N. 
25 W. 

Digitized by 



Law and manhy. 

Ruins ; many mounds 
with a firagment of wall, 
call^ Taj. 


Vol. II. 



This leaeh called 
SI Lei. 


11 15 E. 

11 20 N. 60 S. 

3 S. 

3 30 N.45S. 

4 Brought to for 

the night. 


4 30 Got under way. 

6 15 We had turned 
fipom S. W. into 

6 45 Ruebia« 

7 30 N.70E. 

8 10 S.45E. 
8 45 S.25K 

9 S.20W. 
9 20 S.30W; 
9 45 We had rounded 
into S. 45 S. 

10 S. 80 E.» a long 

10 50 N.45E. 

11 30 Rounded into 

S. 20 W. from 


Detention of 20 
minutes, then 

12 45 

Thence round 
S. S. £. and £. 
into N. 45 E, 

2 30 S.W. 

3 W. 


Right Bank 

Long lines of ruins, or 
the remains of a canal 
called Da?ar. Query: is 
this the Nahar Malca P 


Haddara; ruins. 

Zor Abdalla great 


Digitized by 




BAGDAD to HCrslORA, {aPP. tV« 

Ltft Bahk. 


Zoweiya, an immense 
collection of ruins, extend- 
ing as far as the eye 
could reach in the desert, 
and down the bank of the 

i 25 S. 45 K 

I 30 N. 45 E. 

L 35 Humeinya ruins, seem- 

ingly a continuation of 
the Zoweiya. 

River now N., sweeps round, makidg a peninsula. 
Boats in sight N. W., where we have come from, 
and S. £. where we are going to. The reach we 
are in, N., and pretty long ; detained 10™. In 
rounding into the next reach again, detained a few 
minutes. A fine breeze N, W« At 5h 20™ we 
rounded ; and at 

5 45 Came to. 

8 30 Got under way. 

May 14. 

Fine nighi; made good way; at daybreak the 
Hamreen visible. 

Ishan ; mounds of ruins. 

6 15 

S. 15 W. 


N. 65 £. 


Rounded into S. 


8 30 


9 30 


Dawar Arabs. 



In ih« reach 
wheM Jumbul 
the bridge is, 
S. 45 £. 

5 30 


5 45 




6 20 

S. 45 E. 

6 45 

N. 45 E. 


E. then round 
into the reach 
where Koot-al 
Amara 18,8. 45 E. 

Koot al Amara. 


Brought to at 
Koot, on the left 

Buzheila, a mud fort. 

Digitized by 


APP. IV,] 
Left Bank. 



Ga^it^ Ri§hi Btmk. 

3h 30m Got under wa; 

rounded into ) 

45 W. 
4 Koot,S.45W. 

4 20 Course N. 

5 20 N.45E. 

6 40 £. 

5 45 S. 50 E. 

6 10 The nver rounds Ruins, 
up into N. 45 W. 

Here it blew so hard, obliged to bring to. There 
are twelve of these crooked teaches^ turning into 
N. 45 W., after Koot» 

9 20 Off again. 

11 Brought to. 

4 Off again. 

7 45 Brought to. 

Ma^ 16. 

Beni Lam camp. 2 15 

3 30 The Naharwan canal. 

In the morning could j^erfectly distinguish three 
ranges of the Loristim mountains. 

8 45 E. 

9 10 S. 45 E. 
9 20 


9 25 S. 
9 30 E. 
9 35 S. 

Detained Id mi- 
nutes rounding a 
10 5 Rounded it^ then 

10 20 S.45E. 
10 35 

10 45 S.20W. 
12 30 

Um ut Beia, a canal 
now full. 

Imaum Gherbi; a place 
of pilgrimage. 

2 B 2 

Digitized by 




[APP. TV. 

Left Bank. 


Right Bank. 

Ruins of Fleifli* 

Detained from 2^ 


4h 0» 

Ruins of Seoroot. 

ft 45 


5 50 


6 10 



6 15 



6 45 

right Dank. 

bearing S. 10 E. 
on the left bank. 


Got nnder way; 
but at 

10 30 

driven aground^ 
where we remain- 
ed all night. 

May 17. 

4 30 

Got under way. 


N. 50 W.J course, 
S. 45 E. 

6 10 

S. 70 E. 

6 20 


6 40 


6 45 


6 55 


7 10 


7 20 


7 30 

Tied up. 




During the inter- 
val, some deten* 


1 20 


1 30 


1 40 


Mahommed abul Has* 
san> a place of pilgrimage. 
A grove of trees. 


2 10 


Digitized by 


AFP. IV,] 



Left Bank. 


2>»30«The Hhud, a 
blanch of the Ti- 
gris, going off £. 
Howeisa rivers. 
Hence S. 

3 30 

' RighiBank. 

4 4 Detained by the 
sepoy^ boat get- 
ting aground. 

Afterwards for one 
hour good sailing, 
altenrards slow. 
3 30 S. 45 E. 

Vm ul Jemmal, a canal 
which goes to the Eu- 

6 40 N. 45 E. 

6 50 S. 20 £• 

S. 20 E. is now 
the prevailing di- 
rection of the 

6 55 Brought to. 

9 30 Got under way 

May 18. 

Quite cahn^ glid- 
ing down the 
stream. . 

Camp of Albu Mahom- 
med ^abs. 


of pilgrimage. 

5 40 


; 6 25 W. 


7 15 S. 20 W. 


7 50 E. 

8 10 S. 20 W. 

8 22 S. 70 E. 

8 35 S. K 

8 50 N. 45 E. 

9 K 

9 20 S,45E. 

9 40 S. 20 W. 

Digitized by 




[APP. IV. 



Oseir, or Esra'^ 
tomb, & 30 W. 

'Right Bcmk. 


\0 15 

S. 70 E. 

10 40 


10 50 

S. 20 W. 

11 30 

N.W. . 

11 55 

S. 45 W. 

a's tomb. 

12 10 

Stop at Ozeir. 

1 10 

Off again. 
8. 45 W. 

2 35 



S. 45 E. 

Abu Khalkhal, a pUce 
of pilgrimage. 

3 15 


3 30 

S. 20 W. 


N. 46 W. 

4 10 

S. 45 E. 

4 15 
4 35 


Abu Mugroon, a place 
of pilgrimage, surrounded 
the village of Zekia. 

4 40 

S. 46 W. 

4 50 

S. 70 W. 

4 55 

S. 20 E. 



A 15 

8. 20 E. 

5 30 

S, 70 E. 

5 50 

N. 70 E. 

6 10 

S. 70 E. 

6 30 

S. 70 W. 

6 35 

S. 45 W. 

The date-trees of Kooma just visible through the 
lass, in S. 10 W. 

6 40 

n;45 w. 

6 55 

S. 20 W. 

11 30 

Entered the Shkt 

Went on all night, 
some ded^ction {q 
be made for the 

May 19. 


Arrived at JSus- 




A». v.] 875 


J0itrnai ef Bearings and Duktmces^ during a >oufiMy te ike 
FnmHers o/SbulA Kemlislan^ which vhui mad$ in the MenAi 
of March and Aprils 1820, by fir. ^icJi, 

Mmh 18.**^We left Bagdad at 7^ 40>^ A.iff. At ff" 60^ 
the highest mtnarat of Bagdad bore S. 29 W.« village of 
I^aatmeeii> ob the Tigris^ S. 54 W., village of Imam Aiem, 
8. 48 W. ; road, N. 27 E. At 10^ B^ we passed Bir el 
Abd, or Moghussil, a well, with a little building over it ; 
just past it a large canal. 

At lO*" 40°" road to Tchubook and Sulimania on the left. 

At 1 1^ 50* we arrived at the Khan Beni Seid^ called in 
Turkish Orta Khan, where we halted. It is an unfinished 
khan, with a miserable village of Beni Saeed Arabs. Road 
to Bagdad S. 32 W. ; Bakooba, N. 35 B. 

At 12^ 45°^, P.M., we mounted again. 

At S^ 3Qf^ we can^e to the Naharawan canal, which runs 
8. 10 fl., and N. 10 W. It is at leasi as wide as the Diala. 
Khanl Seid N. 27 E. 

Road to Bagdad, S. 23 W. 
Shufteh, £. 
Bahris, S. 40 E. 
BakoQb9, N. 40 E., deduet ten minutes. 

We arrived at Khan i Seid at 4^ 10"*. It is situated on 
the"* Diula, which here forms a bow, Bakeobi^ b^ng on the 
light and Howeida on the left,, facing eiioh other, the Khan 
being the chord of the arc. 

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876 JOURNAL or [app. Vi, 

River up, N. 84 W. 

River down, S. 3 W. 

A ruin between Bakooba and Baris, S. 24 E. 

The river serpentines backwards and forwards much. 

© N. limb at setting, N. 83° 30' W. 

March 19. — Left the Khan soon after sun-rise ; crossed 
the Diala at the ferry of Howeida, after which directed our. 
course to Bakooba; obliged to take refuge from a storm in 
a Khan at Bakooba for 30°". 

Left Bakooba at 8^ 50™ a.m., road E., afterwards obliged 
to make a great round, on account of canals and swamps. 

At 10^, road N. 7 E., saw some meadow land, and 
many canals from the grand trunk stream, besides a large 
f^anal at a dbtance, and the village of Kharnabat and some 
other villages on our left. 

At 11^ 30" road N. 50 E. 


At 2^ we came to the bridge of one arch over the Meh- 
rout canal, which runs N. to the Diala, and we halted till 
3^ at Imam Seid Mokdad al Kundi. 

Shehraban was due E. 

We arrived at Shehraban at 3^ 15"*. 

March 20. — I set out in the morning to visit the Zendan, 
a ruin^ said to be 1^ 30°^ S. of Shehraban. After passing 
various canals and pasture lands, our guide^ the master 
mason of the place, asked us if we would not look at an old 
castle on our right. We agreed, and parsing over a canal 
we came at once on the ruins of a Sassanian town, just 45^ 
from Shehraban, though its N; extremity goes much nearer 
|hat place. 

From a high mount, called Bint el Khalifa, I got thi$ 
following interesting bearifigs, with the small surveying 

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Imam Mukdad 
Shehraban • • 

Zenirat • • • 
Abu Seita the greater 
Abu Seita the lesser 
Wugeihia • • 
Seneikia • • 
Barkania • • 

Aumua • 


Beledrooz • 

On the Diala. 

N. 30*^ ac W. 


N. 84J° C W. 
N. 89i*» (y W., 
S. 48° C W. 
S. 43°3(yW. 
S. 204° 0' W. 

S 14i° (ywi '^'* behind the west 
'l point of the Zendan. 

S. 1^ CW. 

S 304^ £ I ^^'^ visihle in the 
' t horizon. 

S. point of the vail of the town S. 26 W. Near it is a 
gate. These ruins are called Eskt Bagdad, but are evi- 
dently before the time of Islam. 

Half way to the Zendan» opposite Seid Sultan Ali» are 
two parallel Sassanian walls, N. £. and S. W. 

The Zendan is about 45°^ from these ruins of Eski 

March 21.— Left Shehraban about 6^ 50» a.m., N.25E., 
for a few minutes, then N. 70 E. to the first rising in the 
ground we had seen since leaving Bagdad, which rising 
ground we reached at T" 25°". Road N. 45 E., village of 
Haroomia, N. 80 E. 

At 8^ Haroopaia bore S. 30 E., one mile or one mile and 
a half off on the right hand. 

We passed the Beladrooz canal, and at 8^ 90" reached 
the Hamreen hills. We came to the end of the hills at 10*^. 

Baradan • • N. 5 W. On the other side of the Diala. 

Kizsebebat • N. IDE. 

.Zowra • • N. Oa this side of the Diala. 

We arrived at Kizzelrebat soon after leaving the hills. 

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878 JOURNAL OF [aPP. T. 

The Diala visible ffom Kizzelrebat, distant about two 

March 22. — Left Kizzelrebat at 6^ 40™ a.m., road 
N. 65 13. At 7" came to the canal of Kizzelrebat. 

Kizzelrebat bore N. 80 W. At 7^ 45» we reached the 

At 9^ we came to Yenitcheri Tepeh» which is reckoqed 
half way between Kizzelrebat and Khanakeen. Road 
winding through hills, generally in the direction of N. 45 E. 

At W Khanalieen bore N. 45 E. Aliavo, N. 80 E., 
distant 30°^ from the latter. Kolai, in the district of Kiz- 
zelrebat, N. 60 W. Hence the country slopes gently dawn 
towards Khanakeen. 

We halted in the plain of Khanakeen S0°*. About a 
mile from Khanakeen a road turns ofif to Mendeli, which is 
distant twelve hours from hence. Crossing a small emi- 
nenee we descended upon Khanakeen^ where we arrived at 
12'* 15°*, and crossing the bridge over the Elwan^ we took 
up our quarters at Hajee Kara. 

March 23. — I have just got a route, which I shall in all 

probability follow. 

From Hagee Kara to 

Kasr i Shireen • , • . • 5 

Haoush Kerek • . • • • 3 
Bin Kudreh • , • . . 3 

Kiusk i Zenghi • • . • . 4 

Kifri 4 

Karatepeh 9 

March 24.— Mounted at 6** 20°* a.m. Road N. 70 E., 

then B. for half an hour, then over the hills in N. 55 B. At 

8**, from a hill, the Bagdad road bore due W. 

At 9** we reached Kalai Selzi, a guard house. The 

direction of Kasr i Shireon from hence was N. && B. 

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N. 15 E. 


S. 60 E. 

S. 35 E. 


S. 17 S. 


4fP. v.] BEARINOS AND DinANCES. 879 

A% IV 30» w« Krrivod itt the Khu of Kair i SbiNtQ. 
I inmiedifitely went to inspeqt the raia^* from whieh I oame 
Imk in three bouri. 

From a mount among the rains I got the following 


Tauk . 


Mendeli • • » 

The latitude of Kasr i Shireen^ by rough computation, is 
N, 34^ SO' 39^. 

. We encamped en the declivity of a hill behind the Khan, 
on an eminence over the river Elwan, with the W. bank of 
whicb river we came up about two miles from the Khan. 

March 25— .1 rose by peep of day, and while the tenU 
were striking, I went to look at a ruin we had forgotten 
yesterday. We mounted at 7^ a.m. Our road at first lay 
filong the foot of the hills^ and then among hills. 

At 9** 30™ we arrived at the ruins of Haousb Kerek. 
The road wound much aniong the hills, but the general 
direction was N. 80 W. from Kasr i Shireen. 

At 11^ we mounted again, and continued our way over 
hills till about 1^, when we descended into the plain, 
through which we saw the Diala winding far on our right. 

At 1^ 50^ we arrived at Bin Kudreh. From hence direct 
to the Diala is about half an hour; to the town of Zehav 
nine hours ; to Khanakeen, direct oyer the hills, three hours. 
It is about S. 80 W. from Haoush Kerek, but our road 
wound much and our going was indifferent. I do not 
intend to pass the Diala here aa I at first intended, but I 
propose going down to Dekkeh, opposite Zengabad. 

March 26. — We mounted at T^ a,m., accompanied by 
Hassan Aga, who will not leave us till he sees us safe over the 

Digitized by 


380 JOURNAL OP [aPP. V» 

Diala, which is not above half a mile in a straight line from 
Binkodreh. We were near an hour in doing it^ the inter- 
mediate space being a morass formed by the overflowing 
of the river. 

At 7^ 50™ we reached the banks of the Diala, after 
crossing over which we mounted again at 1^ 30°*, and pro- 
ceeded first over hills and then through an undulating coun- 
try to Zengabad in S. 30 W. About three miles from it we 
saw on the left bank of the river, just under the ridge of 
hills, Dekkeh, which is one hour from Zengabad. 

We arrived at Zengabad at 4^ I0°*. A couple of miles 
from this place is Manateva^ another similar village. Zen- 
gabad is about one mile in a direct line from the Diala» 
which we had winding on our left at a small distance, ever 
since we crossed it in the neighbourhood of Binkudreh. 
About Zengabad> it flows oiF easterly for some time. 

Bearings from the roof of the mosque at Zengabad : — 

Kiushk i Zengbi in the hills, in a line with the W. end of 
Kalan Tepeh, N. 19 W., 2 hours. 

Dekkeh, on the other side of the Dials, under the hill *, N. 67 £.» 
1 hour. 

Kolai, S. 62 E., li hour. 

Bin Kudreh, N. 45 E. 

Khanakeen, N. 72 E. 

The Zengabad hills^ which are N. of Karatepeh, and S. 
of Zengabad, run down to above Kizzelrebat^ and form the 
Kizzelrebat hills. The plain of the Diala, where it divided 
these hills, bore S. 10 E. 

* This hill is part of a chain, which on the W. side of the 
Diala is called Kiushk Daghi, because Kiushk i Zenghi is built 
on it. These hills sink very gradually before they come to the 
Diala, and rise again gradually on the other side. 

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. Marth 27.— We left Zengabad at 6^ 45^ a.m., and for 
half an hour went dae N. over the road we had gone yes- 
terday, in order to avoid canak. At 7^ our road N. 60 W. 
At 9^ we arrived at Kiushk i Zenghi. Kalan Tepeh bore 
jost S. 45 E. 

Keeping the hills close on our left^ we proceeded N. SOW. 
to the Kifri water^ or rather one of the many torrents that 
flow from these hills into the plain of Kifri. We arrived at 
the torrent at 1 1\ 

The above-mentioned hills now crossed our road, from 
whence descended many torrents. We continued our way 
through the hills^ first N., then N. 10 W. to Kifri, noticing 
on our right On Iki Imam, on the Kiushk hilk, l'^ 30^ 
below, or S. E. of Kifri. We reached Kifri at 12^ 30». 

Routes procured at Kifri: — 


Kifri to Shilshal • • 

Albu Teraz, on the other side of the Adhaym* 

The place of the Al Uzzi Sheikh 

Samara • • 

Kifri to Toozkhoormattee 


A place in the desert 

Imaum Dour 


March 29. — I got the following bearings from the top of 
the ridge of hills above Kifri : — 

On Iki Imam, 3 miles off, S. 34 £. 
The Bagdad road, S. 22 W. 
. EBkiKifn,S.41 W. 
Toozkhoormattee, N. 60 W. 

* The Taouk and Toozkhoormattee rivers pour themselves into 
the Adhaym. r 

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383 JOURNAL 01^ [aPP. V. 

The hiUi v^e crossed on our way hem run out to the S. of 
Kifri, md there the Bagdad road crosses them* Soon aftef 
which they sifik gradually into the desert. The Kifri ridge 
is (Vom the spot where we quitted them beyond, on Iki 
Imam, abrupt and steep on the Bagdad side. 

March do.— Left Kifri at &" 45^^ and crossed over 
two hiOs in Sv 32 W. Soon after 8^ we passed Telishan, 
two little mounts \ and at 8^ 30^ crossed the KiFri water. 

At 9*^ 40" we came to Tchemen Kiuprissi, a new bridge 
over the Tchemen. Here we halted half an hour, then 
proceeded in S« 15 W., passing two ranges of hHls to Kara-' 
tepeh, where we arrived at 11^ 40°". 

March 31 . — Mounted at 6** 45~ a.m. We journeyed doe 
S. to the bridge of the Nareen, where we arrived at 8^ 5^* 
We then proceeded S, 15 W., towards the Hamreen hills, 
keeping between them on our right, and the Nareen on our 
left. We continued going S. W. to the foot of the hills, at 
which we arrived at 10^ 20". The ascent was gentle. At 
the top I got the following sights : — 

Karatepeh, N. 1 £. 

Zowia, close on the banks of the Diala, Sk '72 £. 

Kizzelrebat, E. 

Baradan, at some distance from the Diala^ N. 65 £. 

A fiat hill, part of the Hamreen, S. 20 £. 

We reached the summit* of the Hamreen at Iff* 40*, and 
after halting for 10°" we began to descend. At 12^ we kft 
these hills, our road through which had been about S. ; and 
keeping the S. face on our left, we proceeded in 8. 40 £. to 
Adana Keuy, where we arrived at 1^ 20°^. Adana Keny is 
near a cut from the Khalis canal, and close on the Diala. 

April 1.— Left Adana Keuy at 6^ 30» a.m. After 
travelling l^ we came to the banks of the Diala, and aftor- 
wards to the canals with which this district is intersected f 

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the largest of which it th« Khalis. We kept W., With the 
Khalis on our left, and the Diala ako jost behind it. 

At 8^ 10°" we reached Delli Abbas, on the Khalis; the 
villages of the district of the Khalis soon began to appear 
in the horizon ; those of the district of Khorassan^ on the 
other side of the Diala> were likewise in sight 

Our road was first S. 55 W.. then S. 20 W. At 10^ 30» 
we came to Tchubook, a village, with a bridge over a little 
stream, which is formed by the overplus of the Khalis^ and 
comes from Serajik. It discharges itself into the Diala, 
opposite Buyuk Abu Seid, or Abu Seid the greater. This 
viHage is close by, the Diala being only some yards from 

At sunset I got the following sights from the bridge with 
the surveying-compass : — 

thirst, on the Khalis. 

Hameira, N. 72| W. 

Ajemia, ,N. 31 W., about half an hour off. 


Serajik, N. I6i W. 

Nebbi Shaed, N. SOj IS. Jebbel Hamreen just In sight. 

Second^ on the other bank of the Diala. 

Aawashek, N. 81 E. 
Zeherat, S. 55 £. 
Abu Seid the greater, S. 
Abu Seid the lesser, S. 24^ W. 

N. Limb. N. 76i W. 
April 2. — We started at 6^ 30"*, and journeyed about 
S. W. to Musabbah Khan, keeping the Diala close on our 
left. At 7^ 45^ arrived at Mussabbah Khan. 

I got the following sights from a hillock behind the Khan^ 
which is close to the Diala, in the chord of an arc formed 
by a reach of the river, the S. elbow of which is S. 65 W. 

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Howeidah • 

. S.25W. 

. s. low- 

^On the E. bank of the 

Bakooba • 

. S. 5W/ 

Geria, or Saada, or Dura 

. S. 5E. 

Zobeira • 

. S. 10 £. 

On the KhoraBsan 

AbdullalbnAU . 

. S. 20E. 


Jezzari • 

• S. 85 £• 

Hameira • 

. N.20W.- 

Bash Tchaiera, or 
Kior Yenijeh 


>On the Rhalis canal. 

Buyuk Doltova • 

. S.lbW. 

Hopehop • 

. S.65W.- 

Direction of Howeish pointed out to me, S. 45 W. 

At &" 35" left Musabbah, road S. 7 W. At l(fi 10» the 
Naharawan running straight N. 10 W., S. 10 E.> road, 
S. 7 W. Kharnabat due E., distant 1 mile. In another hour 
we came to other canals parallel with the Naharawan^ then 
to Seid Mukhsen, a place of pilgrimage^ on a small stream 
from the Khalis; then S. 60 W. ; and at noon we arrived 
at Toprak Kalaa, called also Kalan Tepeh> and Mujelibeh. 

From hence Howeish bore S. 80 W., where we arrived at 

April 3.— We left Howeish at ©» 30" a.m., and arrived 
at Bagdad at 12^. 

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Expedition from Bagdad to Bussora down the Tigris^ in the 
year 1811. 

(Referred to at p. 158, Vol. ii.) 

March 19. — Left Bagdad for Bussora about P p.m.^ in 
the Residency yacht, accompanied by six other boats, con- 
taining the rest of our party. We dined that evening at 
Abdulla Aga's garden, and after dinner got under way. We 
liad passed Tauk Kesra before day-break the next morning ; 
as the sun rose we saw it astern. In the evening we dined 
in a reach of the river called Taj> which is about eight hours 
from Tauk Kesra, on the same side of the river with it; but 
there is no village. The place is famous for lions. After 
dinner we again got under way, but were soon forced to 
bring to under the right bank of the river, on account of 
the wind continuing strong from the southward. . The next 
morning the wind continuing to blow hard, and the motioa 
of the boat being very disagreeable, we pitched a tent on shore 
under the lee of a large bush, for I cannot call it a tree. A 
little to the southward of our position we observed several large 
moundsy like the ruins of Babylon, Seleucia, and Ctesiphpn, 
which the next day in the evening I went to examine. I found 
them to extend considerably in breadth into the desert, and to 
be about twenty or twenty-five feet perpendicular height above 
the level of the plain. The top of the mounds was covered 
with pieces of brick, pebbles, and tiles, some of which were 
varnished; and in places where the rain had made little 
channels, I found several small brass coins, so entirely cor* 
roded by the weather, that it was absolutely impossible to 
to make out any figure or legend. In several parts of these 
mounds there were appearances of regular rows of brick. 
Vol. II. 2C 

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like the tops of walls that had been buried. The manner 
in which these mounds were' formed is evident. The sand 
accumalating on the ruins and filling up all the vacapt 
spaces, aided by the gradual decomposition of the surface 
of the bricks, w^s consolidated into one mass by the action 
of the rain. We had a specimen to-day how such an ope- 
latioQ might have taken place. The dust and sand was 
drifted in clouds by the wind ; and bad any solid substanceV 
our jolly*boat for instance, been placed on the ground in an 
exposed situation, it would^ in a very short time, have been 
buried under a hillock of sand, which a day's rain would 
have converted into a solid mass. The bricks were well 
baked, and resembled those found at Babylon. I intend* 
on my return, to make more accurate observations, and to 
perforate the mound in various directions, m hopes of dis- 
covering some remains that may lead to a probable conjec- 
ture on the nature and antiquity of these ruins. 

I had an opportunity to*day of observing the picturesque 
and sublime effects of obscurity on some scenes. The sky 
was dark and louring, and a mist was diffused over tbe^ 
whole horizon, which softened and threw back the distance, 
^nd gave a dignity to objects mean and unpicturesque in 
themselves. The brushwood on the opposite bank of the 
yiver was converted into a distant forest scene. The flatnesr 
and continuity of the boundary line was softened and broken^ 
and the reach of the river in which we were, assumed the 
appearance of an immense lake, bounded by varied and 
Woody shores. Under a clear unclouded sky, it would have* 
borne its real character, that of a common river, confined' 
between two regular flat, brown stripes. 

In some parts of the river, where the banks rise abruptly- 
to the height of about ten or twelve feet, they are not devoid^ 
of beauty, though merely composed of indurated earth.- 

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Tliese banks, by the action of thfe water, are |)erpetually? 
shivered into large flakes, which, breaking ofl^ fall to* tKer 
bottom, and leave most picturesque breaks and variations. 
I should imagine these appearances must be more beautifuV 
when the river is rising, as when on its fall the hard earth 
must have been converted into mud, by the fulness of the 
river, and consequently present only a lumpish, disagreeable 
object. Had these banks the accompaniments of wood 
instead of mere brambles, the river would be really beaa-< 

We saw immense flights of herons here, called by tbf^ 
inhabitants koorkies. « 

On the 23d, the wind having considerably abated, we; 
weighed; and passed on the right bank some Zobeide Arabs* 
This tribe once beat Ali, the Pasha of Bagdad, He was. 
at Hillah, and intended falling by surprise on this tribe, 
who had incurred his displeasure, with a chosen hwi of 
Georgians ; but the Sheikh was aware of his intentions, and 
resolving to be beforehand with him, actually surprised the 
Pasha, and forced him to retreat ; and on the fljght, the 
Pasha got a severe fall from his horse. The affair was 
afterwards made up by the intercession of Suliman Kiahya, 
and the Sheikh was pardoned. I saw the Sheikh some 
time afterwards. He paid me a visit at the residency, and 
consulted Mr. Hine on his case, a nervous and hypochon- 
driacal affection. 

On the 24th, about three o'clock p,m., we arrived abreast 
of a large woody island called Moolbinni, which appears to 
be about ten miles in length. We passed through the pas^ 
sage between it and the left bank of the river, at a place 
called Jumla, a low islet, in which are some vestiges of 
ruins. It was under water when we passed it ; but a friend 
of mine. Captain Frederick, who came up when the river was. 


Digitized by 



low, saw the ruins, and our pilot pointed out to us the 
whirlpool caused by them. 

At sunset we arrived at Coot al Amara^ where we found 
that the passage of the Hye * was impracticable^ on account 
of the shallowness of the water, and heaviness of the boats 
that composed our fleet. We therefore determined on saiK 
ing down the Tigris, a circumstance I by no means regretted, 
as I had passed through the Hye thrice, but had never yet 
seen the Tigris below Coot. We got underway after dinner, 
and the next morning saw the Persian mountains, some of 
which were covered with snow, and appeared to be about 
eight leagues off. The intermediate country is inhabited 
by the Beni Lam Arabs, some of whom are subject to 
Persia. They are a bad race, and continually fighting 
among themselves. 

Their present Sheikh gained the government by assassi- 
nation. He once visited me when I was encamped at 
Gherara, on the banks of the Tigris. He had been in 
Bagdad on business, and was returning to his tribe. After 
leaving me, when he was about a hundred yards from our 
camp, he sent one of his men back to tell me that he had 
great occasion for a hundred piastres, as in his way to Bag- 
dad he had fallen in love with a 'young girl, whom he 
intended marrying, and he believed he should be able to 
bring about the affair by the help of the sum in question, of 
which he was not at that moment in possession ; but that 
if I would lend it him, he would faithfully repay it the first 
opportunity. I gave him the money of course, letting him 
know that I did not expect payment. 

* A small river of communication between the Tigris and Eu- 
phrates, on which was situated the town of Wassit, built by Hegi- 
age, the governor of Irak,' in the reign of Abdul Malek, the fifth 
of the Ommiade Caliphs, in the 83rd year of the Hegira. 


6y Google 


In the evening we arrived at a reach in the river, one 
bank of which was adorned by trees that had attained a 
very considerable size* This object was in itself beautiful, and 
was rendered doubly so in our eyes by the powers of novelty 
and contrast. It is impossible accurately to describe the 
effects produced by the sight of hills, verdure, and wood 
on us, whose eyes have been for three years tortured by 
dwelling on a flat» brown desert, and the intolerable same^ 
ness of the date tree. The Hye river^ whose banks also 
are wooded, is agreeable by contrast rather than really 
beautiful, for the practice of cutting down its wood indis- 
criminately for sale at Bagdad, where fuel is exceedingly 
dear, always keeps it in the diminutive and shorn state 
of a coppice, and prevents it from ever assuming a pic* 
turesque appearance. 

On the 25th, at noon, we passed by a village of reed 
huts, on the Mesopotamia side of the river, where some 
of our party landing, saw people conveying on a bier the 
mangled remains of a child about twelve years old, who 
had been killed by a lion. 

The same evening. Dr. Colquhoun, accompanied by the 
boats containing the hussars and imrahor, or chief groom, 
went forward to prepare the way for us at Bussora. 

The 27th, in the evening, we came to a place of pilgrim- 
age of the Jews. It is a building like a mosque, on a pro- 
montory formed by a circular sweep of the river, which 
winds much in this part. A few Arabs have collected 
about it, and formed a small village of reed huts. It is on 
the right bank of the river. We landed to take a nearer 
view of it. It is surrounded by a wall, with battlements, 
the dome or cupola is covered with green, glazed tiles, and 
surmounted by an ornament of brass^ representing an open 
hand encircled with rays of glory. On entering the gate. 

Digitized by 


890 ToMti OP t:zRA% [a?p. vU 

we pAssed through a small csourt-yferd, fatid then entered a 
targes glOdray hall, arched and supported by square masses 
of brick-work, totally destitute of any ornament. From this 
we entered by a low door Into the chamber which contains 
the object of the Jews' religious veneration. The roorti is 
vaulted, with small grated windows placed at a great height, 
arid paved with tiles of white and green alternately disposed. 
In a small niche there was a lamp burning. In the centre 
of the room stood the tomb, which was oblong, with a 
rianting roof, made of wood, and covered with green velvet. 
The dimensions were about eight feet by four, and six high 
to the ridge of the roof, with a passage of about three feet 
between it and the walls of the room. Its corners and tops 
i^ere Ornamented with large balk of copper gilt. The per- 
son, an Arab, who showed us the tomb, told us it was that 
of Ezra, whom the Mahometans call Ozeir*, and make him 

* According to Mahometan tradition, Ezra was of the race of 
Jacob, of the tribe of Levi, and the fourteenth in descent from 
Aaron; and the. Holy Scriptures, and all the scribes and doctors 
who could read and interpret them, were involved in the destnic^ 
lion of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, excepting a few who were 
taken captives to Babylon. Ezra, who was then very youngf, was 
among this number, and continued to read and teach the law of 
Grod to his countrymen during their captivity. At the end of 
the captivity Ezra returned to Jerusalem, and swne »ay there, 
iKHOoe^ near Babylon, while he was occupied . in weeping over 
>he ruined city and temple of God, he said often to hiaiself^ 
" How can fallen Jerusalem ever rise again !'* No sooner had he 
coiiceived this thought when God struck him dead, and he re- 
gained so for one hundred years, when he was raised aga'in, and 
lOBployed the rest of his days on earth in explaining the wonrd of 
Gjod to the Jews. 

The Christians of the East say that Ezra drank three times of 
a well in which the holy fire had been hid, and that thus he 
received the gift of the Holy Ghost, which rendered him capable 
of reestablishing the Holy Scriptures among his countrymen. 

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out the nephew of Moses. He further informed us that a 
Jew, by name Khoph Yakoob^ erected the present building 
over it about thirty years ago. 

The 25th, about three o'clock in the morning, arrived at 
Koorna. I went ashore there after breakfast to inspect 
some ruins^ supposing they might be the remains of Apa- 
mea, according to Ptolemy, or Digba, according to Pliny, 
which was situated hereabouts ; but I found them .to be 
only the remains of a Turkish fortification. 

The Turkish guard-vessel here saluted me. I returned 
the salute with an equal number of guns : and^ to my no 
small surprise, the Turk, unwilling to be outdone in polite- 
ness, returned it with three guns. 

We left Koorna about ten o'clock, and arrived at 
Maghil House about midnight. We found the Dragoman 
and Tchaoush of the Bussora factory, and the Tchaoush 
Kiahyassi, a principal officer of the Turkish government, 
waiting for us. The latter brought me a letter from the 
Musselleem, who wished me to have a public entry into 
Bussora. This, however, as his conduct towards my 
assistant here had not pleased me, I thought it my duty to 
refuse. The Tchaoush Kiahyassi put on board some boxes 
of sweetmeats as a present from his master. 

About bne o'clock we got under way, and anchored at 
the mouth of the Bussora creek to wait the tide. Suti- 
rise, the 29th, we entered the creek, the Honourable Com- 
pany's Pattimar, the Barbara, and the Turkish men-of-war 
saluting as we passed. Two boats, manned with creWs 
from His Majesty's ship Lion, towed the yacht up the 
creek, arid the Musselleem's two state-barges, covered with 
scarlet cloth, followed. At the factory I was received by my 
own'guafd and a party of Turkish troops. 

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392 [ 


The day before I left Bussora, on my return to Bagdad, 
the Musselleem gave me an entertainment^ consisting of 
a public exhibition of dancings feats of dexterity^ &c. 

It commenced with four men dressed up to represent 
two camels, one man composing the croupe, and one the 
fore part of each. These mock camels fought, lay down, 
ate grass, &c., as real ones. 

Next two parties of Negroes were introduced to entertain 
. us with their national music and dancing. One party was 
composed of Bombazans. Their principal musical instru- 
ments were a long wooden drum, one end of which was 
shaped like a three-legged stool, and rested on the ground, 
and a horn, which w&s blown at the side^ like a German 

The dancers separated into two parties ; on one side the 
women, on the other the men, who advanced and retreated, 
then joined and separated, and went through several evolu- 
tions, singing and keeping very good time. The Nubian 
party attracted my attention. One of them played on an 
instrument exactly resembling the ancient lyre. Their 
dance was military, and represented attacking and skirmisl^- 
ing. One man particularly distinguished himself. He wore 
a kind of helmet of skulls and beads stuck with feathers, 
and brandished a javelin with considerable dexterity* 

After their exhibition was finished^ the Musselleem 
ordered his Turks to entertain us. Immediately about one 
hundred and fifty Turkish soldiers stood up, and, joining 
bands, began a slow kind of dance, which at first consisted 
merely in keeping time with the feet, and making gentle in- 
clinations of the body^ moving round the circle. They were 
accompanied by thg Musselleem's double-drums and oboes. 

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and headed by a party of dancing boys, in their dresses. 
In the centre of the ring> two men entirely naked, but 
covered with flakes of cotton, and having immense white 
cotton beards^ exhibited some ridiculous tricks, riding upon 
long canes, and charging each other with red spears. The 
music gradually quickened, and changed its measure, and 
the dancers got yet more animated, till at last they went 
round the circle with great rapidity, making the ground ring 
under their feet. Ibrahim Aga, the Musselleem, told me 
an anecdote of this dance, which in Turkish is called 
Tchopee. Hassan Pasha, a former Pasha of Bagdad, hav- 
ing been offended by the rebellious conduct of the Ehezail 
Arabs, vowed to dance a Tchopee in the centre of their 
capital. He accordingly entered their country with fire and 
sword ; and having taken their principal town, and put to 
death almost every inhabitant he could find^ himself, at the 
head of his troops, performed his vow, and danced the 

After the Turkish dance, two sword-players advanced to 
treat us with an exhibition of sword and shield. They 
began by some slow movements, accompanied by the band, 
and saluted first us, and then the company, and each other, 
with their shields. Swords were afterwards given them, and 
they cut and parried with their shields with some dexterity, 
but no science or regular system. Single-stick was after- 
wards introduced, which was played exactly in the same 
manner with the shield. 

. At last the Musselleem, by way of closing the whole, said 
he would bring us two men who should astonish us. He 
accordingly called up two Turks, and giving them two 
shields, ordered them, to behave bravely. They accordingly 
set to with a good will, and hammered each other for some 
time most desperately, till they were parted by order of the 
Musselleem. Thi^ finished the entertainment. 

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894 [app.\i. 

notes on return to bagdad. 

Left Bussora 5th May. About Ozeir^ and a little way 
above, the banks of the river, especially the right, are in- 
habited by the Albu Mahommed Arabs, who are fatnotis 
thieves. Higher up, on the right bank, are the Saad Arabs, 
dependant on the Montefiks. 

The jungle on the banks of the Tigris is composed of 
arbor vitae and liquorice plant, which latter is very luxuriant, 
being in some places about the height of a man. The 
Turks are ignorant of its qualities. 

The ground in many places was impregnated with nitre. 

The encampments of the petty Arabs on the banks of the 
Tigris present a very curious and not unpicturesque appear- 
ance. They are formed of coarse mats, spread like an 
awning, often in a semicircular form, supported by a few 
sticks, under which you discover the women engaged in 
their domestic employments, and a multitude of children 
entirely naked, who flock down to the water's edge on the 
appearance of a boat, to beg dates, which the passengers 
occasionally throw them. The men are seen, in various 
situations, idling about the camp, or driving cattle, with 
here and there a savage, half-clothed figure leaning on his 
spear, and staring at the passengers. Generally also a 
spear or two is stuck in the ground, and a half-starved-look- 
ing mare £(een grazing on the briars ; and a small boat is 
frequently tied up in the fore-ground. These camps are 
guarded by large and fierce dogs. 

The Beni Lam encampments are of black horse-cloth 
\ViB saw their grand camp on the left bank of the river. 
Saw great quantities of the caper-bush, which was in flower. 
Remarked a curious circumstance on the river: when there 
ii a jungle on one side there is none on the other. As soon 

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ins the juogteon one fiide ceases^ that on the other eoBi* 
inences. This riile holds good only below Coot« 

We arrived at Coot al Amara the morning of the 12th. 
Every reach of the river hat a particular name. We paMed 
-the night before a dangerous shallow, or mud bank, called 
in Arabic ikellat two reaches below Coot. 

The Arabs sound with a reed called katra, by the knots 
on which they ascertain the depth of the water. 
• Entered Bagdad the 18th May, 1811. 


Voyage down the Tigris front Bagdad to Bussoray in the year 


(Referred to at p. 158, Vol. ii.) 

January 22. — Left Bagdad for Bussora in the yacht. 
The wind was southerly^ but We arrived at Tauk Kesra 
about nine at night. 

23rd. — Landed to look at Tauk Kesra. Between 
•it and the river • arfe vestiges of large walls of unburnt 
bricks, with layers of reeds. The wall at the back of the 
Tauk looks as if it had not formed part of the original plan, 
though there is a range of niches at the top. The Turk& 
say the wall was part of the house of an old woman, who 
refused to sell it to Anushirvan, who being too just to de- 
prive her of it by force, suflTered it to stand, though it inter- 
fered with his hall of audience, through which the old 
woman used to drive her jackass during the time of divart, 
or when he was holding his court. The story is ridiculous, 
but it seems to prove that the extraordinary appearance of 
the wall has not escaped even the observation of the Turks. 

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Just under the key-stone of the arch is a large patch of mad 
plaster^ and inserted in a beam of wood, in the very centre 
of it, is an iron ring. The large beams of wood, every- 
where visible in the facade of the building, are very curious. 
The roof is perforated, and tubes of earthenware are intro- 
duced into the holes* wbich are very numerous ; but for 
what purpose they were intended it is impossible to say. 
The bricks are neither so large, well shaped, nor well burnt 
as those from Babylon. The lower part of the building is 
much more decayed than the upper, to about seven feet 
high all round, which, I am informed, is the case with all 
ruins. In the hall a part of the facing, which is of fine 
brick, is separating in mass from the building. The wall of 
the front is thicker at the bottom than the top, decreasing 
from about twenty to eight bricks in thickness. The arch 
from the back of the building, on the river side^ assumes 
more the appearance of a curve ; in the front it is more 
semicircular. All around the top of the arch are semi* 
circular niches, or scallop work, very well built. 

On the 26th, at about 4^ we came to Jumbul, a dan- 
gerous sand island. The river being much lower than when 
we last passed it, we saw part of the ruin. Across the river, 
in a diagonal direction, were whirlpools, under which^ our 
pilot assured us, were buildings. At the end of this chain 
of eddies was a piece of brickwork raised about two feet and 
a half above the surface of the water. The current here 
set very violently off it, running about seven knots, and 
making a most dangerous passage. We were near being 
driven upon it, and were obliged to let go our anchor, and 
get a track-rope on shore to steady us past it. In the mean- 
time I went out in the jolly-boat to sound. I found the 
building to consist of fine burnt brick closely cemented. It 
looked much like the pier of a bridge^ and ck>se to it the lead 

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scraped againfit more brick-work. At the bottom, between 
this and the left bank of the river; the passage is five and 
six fathoms. The right bank is called Moolbinni. 

We arrived at Coot al Amara at 9^ p.m. ; our passage 
from Bagdad had been delayed so long, from our having 
several times got on shore. We left Coot at 8^ a.m. on the 
27th. Below Coot are twelve intricate and difficult reaches. 

On the morning of the 28th, about 2^^ a schooner 
from Bussora met us ; and she proved to be one of the 
Mussellem's bai^es> with an English gentleman of the name 
of Bailey on board, who was on his way to join us at 
Bagdad, but who consented to return with us to Bussora. 

The day of the 28th was louring, and about 2^ we were 
obliged to come to an anchor. It soon after came on to 
blow very hard from the S. £., and we let go our large 
anchor, and hove up the small one. In the night it blew a 
perfect hurricane^ and continued blowing, with very little 
intermission, the whole of the next day, with some rain. In 
the night we had some squalls from the E., and more rain. 

On the morning of the 30th the wind came round to the 
W., and we got under way about 10** 30^. On the forenoon 
ofthe31st we arrived at a clump of trees, three reaches 
to the S. of which is a place called £1 Hhad, on the 
southern boundary of the Beni Lam country, where that of 
the Albu Mohammed Arabs begins. The wind was N. W., 
but we had some rain, which I attribute to the wind not 
being sufficiently strong to carry back the clouds driven up 
by the late furious gale. On the led bank of the river^ 
above El Hhad, was a long encampment of Beni Lam 

At P the wind was again S. E. At 2** 30°* p.m., the Beni 
Lams attacked a defenceless boat which was a litfle ahead 
of us. When we came up with them we gave them several 

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9iB CTRiKa Tims. [or. wu^. 

lonndt df miuketry, which pat them to fli^t The wind 
afterwaitls chftoged to N.N.B« Aboat faaaet we came to 
El Hbad, or rather the begioniog of it Passed along a 
grove of trees, aod the tomb of Mahommed Abal Hassan. 
About one hour after midnight we came to an anchor, there 
being a contrary reach of the river* and a canal running 
from it, neariy as wide as the river itself, in which many 
boats have been lost. About day-break« in the morning of 
the 1st Febmary, we again got under way. The river here 
was narrow, and the banks low. Part of the surrounding 
country is lower than the surface of the river, and has a 
green, morassy appearance. Here and there are vestiges of 
former encampments. I believe, as the country is rarely 
overflowed, the water is kept at its level by innumerable 
canals, with which the country is intersected. 

An English sailor, of the name of Moore, in my service,, 
told me that, with a southerly wind, the effects of the springy 
tides are sometimes felt as high as this ; that is to say, the 
current does not flow so rapidly. 

At two o'clock, the wind being S. E., the trackers of the 
kitchen-boat, which was some way astern, was stopped by a 
party of Arabs. Accompanied by one of the gentlemen of 
our party, Woronow, my hussar-orderly, and three sepoys, 
I immediately jumped into the jolly-boat, and pushed 
ashore ; but the Arabs had fled, and there were only a few 
peasants standing about, who were, however, rather insolent 
The hussar not understanding what was going on, but think- 
ing something an Arab was saying must of course be inso« 
lent, before I could interfere, gave him a smart blow with 
the butt-end of his carbine. We came on board again, 
however, without having done any mischief. 

We arrived at Bussora on the second of February, having 
left Koorna in the morning at about eleven o'clock. . 

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On the Bth, the friends, on vhose account we had under- ^ 
taken the journey from Bagdad to Busiora^* .went on board 
the Honourable Company's cruizer, the Temate, which* 
sailed immediately for Bombay ; and as soon as the neces- 
sary arrangements could be made^ we proposed returning' 
to Bagdad, without visiting Bussora at all. However, on 
the 7th, my assistant at that place, Dr. Colquhoun^ and our 
ilew friend Mr. Bailey, dinifig on board, the weather after 
dinner grew very cloudy, and had a threatening appearance. 
At the time the gentlemen were going away, it came on 
squally ; the jolly-boat and the kitchen-boat both broke 
adrift 5 the latter was very near being lost ; and the yacht 
began to roll very much. The captain and boatswain were 
ashore on duty. I went up on deck to see what was doing, 
where I had not been many seconds before I saw Mrs. 
Rich commg up the hatchway in the greatest alarm. As I 
knew very well what her inclinations were, the night looking 
very threatening, and the factory-boat being ready along^ 
side, I determined on going ashore; and accordingly we. 
arrived safe at the- factory about half-past ten o'clock, and 
were, as usual, most hospitably entertained by our worthy 
friend Dr. Colquhoun. 

On the 8th, the weather continued unsettled ; and as it 
was necessary to make some repairs to the kitchen-boat, we 
Were detained until the 11th; when at 3** p.m. we em* 
barked again, and with the turning of the tide at 10^ we 
attempted to get under way, but found our anchor had 
taken such good hold, that it broke nine capstan bars, and 
several' tackles and ring-bolts, and so much time was lost, 
that it was needless to think of moving that night. 

On the 12th, at IP a.m we got under way with a light 
southerly breeze. At 4^ p.m. passed a ruined mosque, with 
rather a high minaret. It was on. the Arabian side,, and ia.. 

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called Makan Mehhdi Zaman, that is, a plac^ where Mehhdi 
rested or dwelt. • The Arabs say it was not built by haman 
hands. I made a sketch of it. 

All the evening we observed great clouds gathering in the 
horizon, which, as it became darker, proved to be smoke 
from the fires kindled in the Albu Mahommed and Mon- 
tefik countries, to burn the reeds in the marshes, which are 
by these means converted into excellent pastures. The 
appearance of these fires, which must have been above 30 
miles distant, and yet illuminated the whole of the horizon 
with a red glare, was peculiarly grand and terrific: I can 
compare it to nothing but an irruption of lava from Etna. 
We were obliged to anchor to allow the other boats to join 
us for dinner; and afterwards the breeze was so light, that 
we did not arrive at Koorna till about midnight. 

The 13th blew so hard from the S. E., that we could not 
stir from the place we were anchored in, at the mouth of 
the Tigris, oflF Koorna. The weather, however, was fine 
and clear. About 6^ p.m» the wind moderating, we got 
under way, and tracked all night, assisted by a light S. 

On the I4th, at 10 o'clock a.m., we passed the supposed 
tomb of Ezra. The river is here narrow, and winds very 
much. The country was perfectly flat, as far as the eye 
could reach. At 4^ 30™ p.m. we saw on the Persian side 
the tomb of Abdulla Ibn Ali, and some reed huts of the 
Albu Mahommed Arabs ; the country was still flat, morassy, 
and covered with reeds. Towards the morning of the 15th, 
the S. E. breeze freshened greatly; and at 9^ a.m. we ar- 
rived at El Hhad, or the river which runs from Shuster and 
Howeiza, and discharges itself into the Tigris. At 10^ a.m. 
we passed Mahommed Abul Hassan, where, besides the 
tomb of the saint, there is a burying-ground. Close to the 

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river is the range of trees mentioned on our voyage down ; 
among which was a small Arab encampment. The banks 
of the river were now ratlier higher^ and were covered with 
brushwood. At 5** p.m. we were obliged to anchor for 
dinner, the kitchen-boat being far astern. At 7^ 30™ we 
set oiF again. The wind continued from the same quarter, 
but was much more moderate, and at midnight it changed 
and came round to the N. W. We passed Ali Sherki and 
AH Gharbi. 

The morning of the 16th it blew strong from the N, W., 
and we were delayed two or three hours in consequence. 
At ff* 1&" P.M. we brought to, on account of the high wind ; 
but were off again in half an hour. 

On the morning of the 17th we had a light south wind. 
The wind settled at N. W. At midnight we heard on the 
E. bank a great roaring of the waters, exactly like the surf 
on the sea-shore after a gale of wind. I believe it to be the 
place where the Neft Soo, or river, which runs from the Per* 
sian mountains by Mendali and Jessan^ discharges itself into 
the Tigris. A little after we came to a place where the 
reaches of the river form exactly a right angle. 

The 18th, there was a gentle breeze from the N, W., but 
the wind rising, we brought to at half-past one p.m., 
and did not get off again till ten p.m. The track rope 
broke several times in the night. We came to anchor 
on the 19th at nine a.m., the wind being very strong from 
theN. W. At six in the evening we got under way again* 
At midnight we came to a place which was very difficult to 
p^ss, on account of the violence of the eddy and the shal-* 
lows in the river. At eleven o'clock a.m., on the 20th, we 
cast anchor at Koot al Amara, The Hye was full, and the 
current was running from the Tigris to the Euphrates. At 
midnight it came on to blow hard from the S. E., and on 

Vol. II. 2 D 

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402 JASSEM BEY. [aPP. VIl. 

the 2l8t there was quite a hard gale from the same quar- 
ter, with occasional variations to the E. We were obliged 
to strike our yards and topmasts. The gale lasted, with 
undiminished violence, till about 5^ in die morning of the 
22nd, when it became squally and rainy. 

At lis A.M., the wind shifted to the N.W., whence it 
blew hard till about 6^ p.m., when it moderated, and we got 
under way. At ©* 30™ there was a violent squall from the 
N.W., which, however, soon passed away, but at Itf^, the 
weather bearing a very varis^le appearance, we brought 
to for the night, and got under way again at 6^ a.m. of 
the 23d. 

At l^ P.M. we passed Jumbnl, which is now so com** 
pletely covered with water, as well as the island near it, 
that a vessel of twice our size, according to the pilot, could 
sail over it 

I hea,rd here that Jassem Bey and the Arifa Arabs have 
taken possession ^f the banks of the river, and are prepared 
to resist any troops the Pasha may send against them. We 
passed a few tents of the Greish Arabs on the western, and 
Shumars on the eastern banks of the river. About 3^ in the 
afternoon it began to blow very hard again from the N.W., 
and we were compelled to cross over the river to get the 
weather shore on board. On the 25th the wind abated. 
About 4^ P.M. we saw at some distance in the rear, on the 
W. bank, something like a minaret, which is said to be 
ancient. I found we had passed it in the night. Soon 
after we came to an island, now almost coTered with water, 
on which not long ago « large lion was seen. At 8^ we 
entered a reach of the river cdled Dokhala, and about 4^ 
in the naoming we weie detained a little by a sand island^ 
which obliged us to brii^ to till we had sounded die 
passage. . 

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We arrived at Taj at 9^. From thence to Tauk Kesra 
they reckon six reaches. At 4^ p.m. saw over the land we 
had left the tomb which gives name to Taj, but I could not 
learn who is buried there. Before sun-set Tauk Kesra was 
visible from the mast-head. About 2^ in the morning we 
got aground, and did not get off again before 6^. At 3^ 30"^ 
we were favoured with a light south-easterly breeze, and we 
arrived at the south extremity of the wall of Ctesiphon^ 
called the Bostan> and anchored at 9^ 30^ abreast or rather 
a little in the rear of the Tauk^ to the N. of the mosque 
called Hodheifa. 

On the 28th I landed to sketch Tauk Kesra^ and again 
made some measurements. The thickness of the face at 
the bottom is twenty bricks, just above the first swell eleven, 
at the top seven. On the other wing, just above the swell, 
there is fifteen bricks. I found in the town walls a layer 
of reeds between each layer of bricks. 

We crossed over and wandered about the ruins of Selen- 
cia, almost the only vestige of which that remains is a part 
of the N. face of the city wall. The wall must have been 
of great height and thickpess, and built of unbumt bricks, 
with a layer of reeds between every layer of brick, as at 
Ctesiphon and Babylon. 

At 7^ 30~ we again got under way. At 2** of the morning 
of the 29th, we passed the mouth of the Diala, and about 
5^ anchored at Gherara, whence rode up to Bagdad. 


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Excursion from Bagdad to the Ruins of Tauk Kesra^ at 
Ctesiphon and Seleucia^ December ^ 1812. 

(Referred to at p. 159, Vol. ii.) 

.HAYiNti made a party to spend a few days at Taak Kesxa, 
we went. on board the yacht at 9^ 30™ a.m., the troop gotiig 
by land ; but the wind being southerly^ with frequent calms, 
we did not reach the place of our destination till 8^30°^ p.m. 
We remained on board the yacht. Mr. Hine and the rest 
of the party took up their quarters at Selman Pak« and the 
troop^ with the horses^ at a little building to the S. of the 
Tauk» where is the tomb of a female saint; near this our 
yacht wa& anchored, and on the banks we pitched two tents 
for the kitchen^ &a. 

' December 6. — We took a ride to the east of the Tauk ; 
almost the only remains of Ctesiphon are the walls> which 
are of unhurnt brick. 

, December 7. — ^Went on shore to measure the Tauk, and 
I ascertained the following dimensions by correct measure^ 
ment with a line and rule : — 

Length of the front of the building . . . 284 

Width of the arch at the bottom or on the ground . 82 

Height of the arch 101 

Thickness of the wall at the ground • • .19 

Depth or length of the hall . . . .153 

In the evening rode along the W. part of the city wall, 
the remains of which are more extensive than I had any 
idea of, reaching, I conjecture^ about a mile to the N., 
where they are suddenly broken. Between the N. part and 
the riv^r is a plain> which appears to be a comparatively 

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recent accession of soil, by the river's having bent more 
towards Seieucia* ; but no part of the wall appears to have 
been exactly on the bank. The reach of the river is nearly 
N. and S. 

December 8. — Rode out again in the evening, the morn- 
ing having been rather lowering. The eastern part of the 
wall ofCtesipbon has a curious appearance ; as it seemis to 
have formed an enclosure by itself, and separated as it were 
from the rest of the city. This is the opinion of the inha- 
bitantSy who call the enclosure the Bostan or garden. It is 
to the east of the Tank, in the other reach of the river. 

December 9.— Crossed to the western bank of the river to 
inspect the -ruins of Seleucia, which are opposite, and not, 
as Gibbon says, three miles above those of Ctesiphon. 
There is an enclosure somewhat corresponding' with that of 
the Bostan^ at the latter place, one si<le being formed by 
the river, the other walled round. A great part of the 
western wall is destroyed, but the northern^ which is about 
three miles above, and the southern, which is nearly oppo« 
site the Tank, remain. In the area are some heaps of ruins, 
but the greatest quantity are outside the limits of the enclo* 
sure to the westward, where they extend to a very great 
distance. To the S. of the enclosure is a little ruin of the 
tomb of a Sheikh^ which appears to have been erected above 
a hundred years ago ; the threshold is formed by a fragment 
pf the shaft of a column of fine variegated marble, evidently 
not the work of those who erected the tomb. Still farther 
to the S. is what I take to be the Naher Malca ; it runs N. 
50 W.9 and is joined by a number of smaller channels* 
Tauk Kesra bore from it N. 10 E. It bounds the horizon 
to the west,. and appears as if it surrounded and bounded 
the ruins. On o^e of the heap$ 1 saw a brick which had 

* A Greek city on the opposite bank of the Tigris to Ctesiphon. 

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Ibe oblong Babylonuui stamp, and though no letters were 
vitibley I have no doubt but that it was Babylonian. We 
saw several herds of antelopes, some wolves, and jackals. 

December 10. — Having heard of a statue to be seen in the 
desert, we took an Arab peasant for our guide, and again 
Grossed the river^ directed our course about W. 10 S., and 
in that direction^ upwards of four miles from the bank of the 
river, at the foot of one of the heaps of rubbishy found the 
curiosity we were in search of. It is a small statue of black 
stone about three feet high, representing a female in a sitting 
posture^ but all above the waist is broken off and lost. The 
workmanship is evidently Babylonian^ and bears a perfect 
resemblance to some of the sculptures on the cylinders in 
my possession. The strong similarity of taste and desiga 
between this and other Babylonian antiques, and the 
Egyptian statues^ cannot fail of striking any one who has 
ever seen an Isis. 

The ruins of Seleucia extend very far to the W.^ but 
there are none to the N« or beyond the northern part of the 
enclosure mentioned in my Journal of yesterday. 

DecenAer ll.-^In the afternoon went on shore on the 
eastern sidOf took two views of the Tauk ; looked for the 
ring in the keystone of the arch, but could not find it ; the 
plaster too about it was broken away. On inquiring found 
that the Arabs had taken it away, by slinging a basket with 
a man in it by ropes on eadi side under the arch. It is said 
die Arabs found it to be of gohl* 

December IS^-^Left Tauk Kesra on hotseback at 10^ a.m. 
and arrived at the passage of the Diala, where there is 
ttsoally a bridge, which has been lately broken and carried 
away by the vblenoe of the swell and current. At 1^ we 
balled here to refresh ourselves^ and then getting into the 
barouche« we arrived at the Residency tft » little aftef' three. 

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, Bmtian of the Confluence of the Zab and Tigris. 

(Referred to at p. 134, Vol. li.) 

The following remarks are the result of Observations made 
by Mr. Rich daring two previous voyages down the Tigris. 

Abulfeda, and the Turkish geographer who follows him^ 
place Haditha and the confluence of the Zab and Tigris at 
the distance of fourteen farsakhs, road distance/ below 
MousuK Major Rennel makes it forty-two geographical 
miles, direct distance^ which is evidently too much. Olivier^s 
map/ wfaicb is, I believe^ drawn up from Beauchamp's au- 
thorityj makes it ten leagues^ or thirty geographical miles^ 
and Nimrod six leagues. I was exactly eight hours and 
twenty minutes dropping down the river on a raft (in the 
month of April) from Mousul to (he mouth of the Zab^ 
clear of all deductions and delays ; the river was then pretty 
high, and the current strong. 

For further particulars, I was four hours precisely from 
a place one hour below Mousul to Hamam Ali. Hamam 
All I know to be at the distance of five hours by land from 
Mousul. Kara Koyunlee I also know to be three hours 
from MousuL I was two hours and twenty minutes by 
water from the above place ; and just before I arrived at 
Kara Koyunlee^ I set the high old minaret of Mousul^ which 
bore N. 35 W., the supposed variation being eighty W. 

From Hamam AU, Nimrod bore S. 35 E. Nimrod, 
which Beanchamp or Olivier's map makes six leagues 
from Mousnly iSj according to my information, just seven 
hours' journey by land. I therefore make it on the map 

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18*2 geographical miles. In one hour and forty minutes 
I passed the Zikr el Aawaze, or dam across the river^ which 
is a little below Nimrod ; and in two hours and forty minutes 
more arrived at the castle of Keshaff^ on the south bank of 
the Zab, where it falls into the Tigris. The mouth of the 
Zab is nine hours from Mousul by land * ; and several 
other villages which are on the northern, or left bank of the 
Zab^ from its. junction with the Tigris up tp the passage at 
Kellek, are all said by the natives to be nine hours from 

The passage of the Zab at Kellek I qonclude from my 
travelling in my journey up to Mousul, to be in latitude 
36° 16' 12'', and distance W. of the meridian of Bagdad 
38° 3', (From this the]^ Zab runs towards th^ Tigris iu 
S. 40 W.) The distance of the passage at Kellek from Mou- 
sul is, according to my travelling, twenty-four geogrfiphical 
miles. If my rate of floating do\yn the river from Hamam 
All to the mouth of the Zab be the same as from Mousul to 
Hamain Ali, and with the i^ame circumstances of river, &c.^ 
it would give 24*18 miles for the distance from Mousul, 
which is, I am persuaded, near the truth. 

Niebuhr's tracing of the Tigris between Bagdad and 
Mousul cannot be depended on ; indeed, he drew merely 
from information. Khanuza (which he incorrectly calls el 

* N.B. I have taken at different times the most precise infor- 
mation respecting the distance of the mouth of the Zab from 
Mousul. Horsemen tolerably well mounted go in ^ight hours to 
KeshafF, which is on the south side of the Zab, at its confluence. 

Additional information since acquired : — 
Mousul to Ham am Ali , . 4 hours. 

To a place on the west bank, exactly opposite Keshaff 4 „ 
Mousul to Keshaff, all the way by the east bank of the 

Tigris, including the passage of the Zab . 10 „ 

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Keuka), he places opposite the mouth of the lesser Zab, 
and Toprak Kailaa below the lesser Zab. Beauchamp's map 
servilely copies Niebuhr. Neither of them mark the chain 
Hamreen, which Major Kennel makes come from Ana* 
Now I have myself followed it from Toprak Kalaa, and 
even at that place it appears to come from the north and 

In my tracing of the river, I follow exclusively my own 
observations. 1 have twice floated down the river from 
Mousul to Bagdad in a kellek ; but sorry am I to say^ with 
no better instruments thjin a compass*. From KeshafT to 
Bagdad I follow the same calculation as from Mousul to 
Keshaffy and luckily I have some distances between places 
on the bank, which act as a ch^ck oq my computation. 
Tekreet, for instance^ is distinct from Imaunr Mohammed 
Door two hours, peasants' travelling (at 2*6 miles per 
hour) ; the direct distance would be 5*2 miles* 

Now, in floating down the river, I calculated the distance 
as 5*4, which is certainly a remarkable coincidence for a 
merely approximate method, and never, then, could be the 
effect of chance f . I have also cross routes, which satisfy 
me 3 and on (lie whole, though my tracing of the river is of 
course not so good as it ought to be, and as it would have 
been had 1 observeci astronomically, yet it may be reckoned 
much more correct tban any that has yet been made. 

* During Mr. Rich's third expedition down the Tigris, the ac- 
count of which is contained in the former part of the present 
volumes, he was better provided with mathematical instruments, 
which enabled him decidedly to fix the situations of places. The 
results of the three voyages, it has been thought, might interest 
the scientific reader. 

t It must be remarked, that I had calculated the riyer distance 
before I received the information of the land distance from Tekreet 
to Door. 

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[APP. IX. 

I observe that the direct distance by water is nearly the 
same as that by land, at least, at the season when I came 
down from Mousul, which was in Aprils when the river was 
nearly at its height ; that is to say, that the rapidity of the 
current in general compensates for the windings of the river, 
in reducing the distance floated or travelled to geographical 
construction. Adopting the same proportion as that used 
from Mousul to Keshaf, I have the following distances from 
the principal points : — 

Keshaf to Geographical i 

Dailes. Direct distance. 

Sultan Abdallah 


Toprall Kalaa and Hamreen 


Mouth of the lesser Zab 




Tekreet .... 


Imaum Mahommed Door 


Samara • « • • 


Sindia • • . • 


Howeish • • • • 
Additional distance from Mou- 


Called by land seven 
hours, going first to 
Hope and thence 
to Sindia. 

tul to Keshaf 

. 24'1 

23*4 (supposed) 



Ascertained distance from How- 

eish to Bagdad by the river 


Distance from Mouaul to Bag- — - 
dad by the river • • • 188*5 

Distance from Mousul to Bag- 
dad, calculated correctly by the 
land journey « • • 189*3 


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